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H StuoE of tbe Settlement of Englano ano tbe 
Uribal Origin 7 of tbe lo JEnglfsb people 













THIS book, which is the outcome of many years of 
close research and careful study, was practically 
complete at the time of the author's death, and 
he had intended its early publication. Some portions of 
the manuscript had been revised for printing, some of the 
chapters had received numerous additions and alterations 
in arrangement even until within a few days of his death, 
and others still needed their final revision. From time 
to time portions of the subject-matter of this work had 
formed the text for papers read before various archaeo- 
logical societies, notably the series of three papers on 
Anglo-Saxon London and its neighbourhood, published 
by the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society. 
The editors' task has been that of revising and editing 
the manuscript, and seeing the work through the press. 
The order of the chapters and the general scope and plan 
of the book are as the author left them. In discharging 
their task, the editors have made as few alterations as 
possible, and only such as they felt sure the author would 
have himself carried out ; but the work necessarily suffers 



from the lack of that final revision which the author alone 
could have given it. Every endeavour has been made to 
see that the information is as exact as possible, and most 
of the references have been verified. The index of place- 
names and the general index have been made by Blanche 
Shore, the author's daughter. 

T. W. SHORE, M.D., 
Kingswood Road, 

Upper Norwood. 

APRIL, 1906. 

L. E. SHORE, M.D., 

St. Johris College, 














xiv. WESSEX (continued), WILTS, AND DORSET - 226 






XX. SETTLERS IN NORTHUMBRIA (continued} - 322 










IF we had no contemporary information of the settle- 
ment, for instance, of the State of Massachusetts, 
and nothing but traditions, more or less probable, 
concerning it until the middle of the nineteenth century, 
when an account of that settlement was first written, 
we should scarcely be warranted in regarding such a 
narrative as veritable history. Its traditionary value 
would be considerable, and there its value would end. 

This supposed case is parallel with that of the early 
account of the Anglo-Saxons and the settlement of Eng- 
land as it went on from the middle of the fifth to the middle 
of the seventh century. That which Bede wrote con- 
cerning his own time must be accepted as contemporary 
history, and for this historical information we venerate 
his memory ; but the early settlements in England were 
made six or eight generations before his day, and he had 
nothing but tradition to assist him in his narrative con- 
cerning them. We may feel quite sure that he wrote 
his best. Many of the old chroniclers who copied from 

2 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

him, and some of the historians who followed them, have, 
however, assigned a greater value to Bede's early narrative 
than he himself would probably have given to it. In this 
work it will be our aim to gather what supplementary 
information we can from all available sources, and among 
the more important subjects that will be dealt with are 
the evidence of ancient customs and the influence of 
family organization as shown by the survival of many 
ancient place-names. 

Anyone who departs from the beaten track, and 
attempts to obtain some new information from archaeo- 
logical and other research bearing on the circumstances 
of the Anglo-Saxon settlement, will find many difficulties 
in his way, and that much time is required to make even 
small progress. Here and there, however, by the com- 
parison of customs, old laws, the ancient names of places, 
and other archaeological circumstances, with those of a 
similar kind in Scandinavia or Germany, some advance 
may be made. 

It is to tribal organization and tribal customs that we 
must look for explanation of much that would otherwise 
be difficult to understand in the Anglo-Saxon settlement 
and the origin of the Old English race. Many of the 
ancient place-names can be traced to tribal origins. 
Others, whose sources we cannot trace, probably had 
their origin in tribal or clan names that have been lost. 
Many of the old manorial and other customs, especially 
those of inheritance, that survive, or are known to have 
prevailed, and the variations they exhibited in different 
English localities, were probably tribal in their origin. 
The three national names, Angles, Saxons, and Jutes, 
denoting the people by whom England was occupied, 
were not the names of nations, as nations are now under- 
stood, but convenient names for confederations of tribes. 
The dialects that were spoken by the English settlers 
were probably mutually intelligible, but were not, until 
the lapse of centuries, one speech. Their variations have 


not yet wholly passed away, as the differences in grammar, 
vocabulary, intonation, and pronunciation of English 
dialects still show. It is to the ancient tribes of North 
Germany and Scandinavia that we must look if we would 
understand who were the real ancestors of the Old English 
people, and in comparison with the Germanic element, 
the Scandinavian has probably not received the attention 
to which it is entitled. The old place-names in England, 
except along the Welsh border and in Cornwall, are almost 
all of Teutonic origin, but we cannot say what they all 
mean. It is easy to guess, but not easy to guess rightly, 
for the Northumbrian and Mercian speech of the earliest 
periods have been almost lost, 1 and the early West 
Saxon dialect during the later period was not what it 
was during the earlier. The names of places appear in 
perhaps the majority of cases to have been given them 
from topographical considerations. Some of these, 
derived from hills, fords, woods, and the like, may be of 
very early date, but most of them are probably later. 
The place-names derived from tribes or clans are, how- 
ever, as old as the settlement, whether they arose from 
a kindred of people or from one man of a particular race. 
In considering this subject the earliest forms of local 
government must not be ignored. In the primitive 
settlements the customary law was administered by 
families or kindreds. It at first was tribal, and not 
territorial. The communities must have been known by 
names they gave themselves, or those by which the 
neighbouring communities commonly called them. Prob- 
ably in most cases the names which survived were those 
by which their neighbours designated them. As regards 
the disappearance of Anglo-Saxon names, nothing is 
more striking in one county of Wessex alone Hamp- 
shire, the original Wessex than the large number of 
boundary names and names of places mentioned in the 
Saxon charters that now are lost or are beyond identifi- 
1 Skeat, W. W., ' Principles of English Etymology,' p. 490. 

I 2 

4 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

cation. 1 There are, however, mixed with the Teutonic 
names of places all over England, others denoting natural 
features, which must be ascribed to an earlier period 
even than the Anglo-Saxon. In the work of reading the 
great palimpsest exhibited by the map of England the 
philologist claims to have the last word. He tells us 
of declensions and conjugations, of vowel changes and 
consonant shif tings, and much more that is valuable, 
assuming to give authoritative interpretations ; but, as 
Ripley says, 2 ' Because a people early hit upon the 
knowledge of bronze, and learned how to tame horses 
and milk cows, it does not follow that they also invented 
the declensions of nouns or the conjugations of verbs.' 

As regards the names of places that were called after 
the names of their occupants or the descendants of 
some early settler, those in which the Anglo-Saxon 
patronymic termination -ing denoting son of, or 
descendants of occurs are the most important. This 
patronymical word -ing has been shown by Kemble 3 
to have been used in place-names in several ways. In its 
simplest form at the end of a name it denotes the son 
or other descendant of the person who bore that name. 
Another use of it, as part of a plural termination, was to 
denote the persons who lived in a particular place or 
district, as Brytfordingas for the inhabitants of Brytford. 
It is also sometimes used in another form, as in Cystaninga 
mearc, the mark or boundary of the Cystanings or people 
of Keston in Kent, 4 and in Besinga hearh, the temple 
of the Besingas, probably in Sussex. 5 

The word ing in combination was also sometimes 
used as practically an equivalent of the genitive singular. 
Examples of this usage occur in such names as ^Ethel- 
wulfing-land and Swithraeding-den, now Surrenden in 

1 ' Codex Diplomaticus ^Evi Saxonici,' edited by Kemble, Index. 

2 Ripley, W. Z., ' The Races of Europe,' p. 456. 

3 Kemble, J. M., Philological Soc. Proc., iv. 

* ' Codex Dipl.,' No. 994. 6 Ibid., No. 1,163. 


Kent, which are equivalent in meaning to ^Ethelwulfes 
land and Swithrsedes den, or wood. 1 

In the Anglo-Saxon charters, or copies of them which 
have been preserved, many names ending in the word 
-ingas, denoting people of a certain clan or ga, are 
mentioned. Of these, about 24 are in Kent, n in Sussex, 
5 in Essex, 7 in Berks, 8 in Norfolk, 4 in Suffolk, 12 
in Hants, and 3 in Middlesex. 2 Many more clans no 
doubt existed, whose names may probably be inferred 
from existing place-names. On this, however, I lay 
no stress. The termination -ingahem in place-names 
occurs in a large group in the North-East of France, where 
an early Teutonic colony can be traced. Local names 
ending in -ingen are scattered over Germany, most 
numerously in South Baden, Wurtemberg, and along the 
north of the upper course of the Danube, and it was to 
these parts of Germany that people closely allied to the 
Old Saxons migrated. They moved south-west, while 
many who were kindred to them in race passed over into 
England, and hence the similarity in the endings of their 

Anglo-Saxon names of places are almost universally 
feminine nouns ending in -e, and forming the genitive 
case in -an. When connected with other words they 
generally appear as genitives, but sometimes combine 
with these words, and form simple compounds without 
inflection. 3 Of these many examples will appear. 

The Old English place-names of which the words 
men or man form part, and which do not appear to 
be names derived from inflected words, are somewhat 
numerous, and most of them may probably be regarded 
as the tribal names by which the settlers at these places 
were first known. Of such names, Normanton, East- 

1 Kemble, J. M., loc. cit. 

2 Kemble, J. M., ' Saxons in England.' 

3 Guest, E., ' The English Conquest of the Severn Valley,' 
Journal Arch. Institute, xix. 197. 

6 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

manton, Blackemanstone, Hunmanbie, Osmenton, Ocke- 
mentone, Sevamantone, Salemanesberie, Galmentone, 
Walementone, Elmenham, Godmanston, are examples. 
It is hardly possible that such names as these could attach 
themselves to places, except as the abodes of men 
described. These, or nearly all of them, are Old English, 
and occur in the Charters or in Domesday Book. Broc- 
manton is also met with in the thirteenth century, 1 
and may probably be traced to a tribal Brocman. 

The philological evidence bearing on the subject of 
this inquiry is of two kinds : (i) The evidence of the old 
names in use during the Saxon period ; (2) the evidence 
of the old dialects. 

The anthropological ^vidence is also of two kinds, 
viz. : (i) The evidence of human remains, chiefly skulls 
from Anglo-Saxon burial-places, and that of similar 
remains of the same period from old cemeteries on the 
Continent ; (2) the racial characters of people in various 
parts of Northern Europe and in parts of England at the 
present time. 

The archaeological evidence that will appear is not only 
that relating to objects found, but also to customs that 
prevailed, especially those relating to inheritance, which 
are among the most persistent of early institutions. In 
several parts of England accounts have come down to 
us in the folk-lore or traditions and in historical refer- 
ences of a clan-like feeling between people of adjoining 
villages or districts. Traces of dislike or jealousy 
between village and village have been reported in several 
counties, notably in Hampshire and Cambridgeshire. 2 
In the latter county Conybeare mentions the rivalry 
between the men of Barrington on the Mercian side of 
the Cam and those of Foxton on the East Anglian side. 
He shows that this rivalry was of ancient date, and quotes 
a reference to a faction fight between the two villages in 

1 ' Testa de Nevill,' 626, 68. 

2 Conybeare, E., ' History of Cambridgeshire,' 139. 


July, 1327. Even in that great district which forms 
the borderland between Yorkshire and Lancashire stories 
are still current of the reception which the inhabitants 
of the Yorkshire valleys sometimes met with when they 
crossed the moorlands into Rossendale in Lancashire. 
The traditional reception of such a stranger was to call 
him a foreigner, and to ' heave a sod at him.' Such an 
old local tale conveys to us an idea of the isolation that 
must have prevailed among some at least of the neigh- 
bouring settlements of the Old English, especially when 
inhabited by people descended from different tribes, and 
not comprised within the same hundred or area of local 
administration. Thorold Rogers tells us that in the 
Hampshire Meon country the peasantry in one village, 
West Meon, had an open and hearty contempt for the 
inhabitants of the two neighbouring villages which, in the 
case of one, was almost like the dislike of the Southern 
French for the Cagots. There was, he says, a theory 
that the inhabitants were descended from the ancient 
Britons, whom the Jute settlers had failed to drive out 
of their morasses. 1 

On this subject of strangers in race settled near each 
other Seebohm says : ' The tribal feeling which allowed 
tribesmen and strangers to live side by side under their 
own laws (as with the Salic and Ripuarian Franks) was, 
it would seem, brought with the invading tribes into 
Britain.' 2 In the cases in which strangers in race lived 
near each other there was little under ordinary circum- 
stances to bring them into social intercourse, and the 
sense of estrangement was not altogether removed after 
many generations. It is difficult to see the occasions on 
which the people of different primitive settlements some 
miles apart would have opportunities of meeting if they 
were not included within the same hundreds or wapen- 

1 Rogers, Thorold, ' Economic Interpretation of History,' 284. 

2 Seebohm, F., ' Tribal Custom in Anglo-Saxon Law,' 498. 

8 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

Bearing in mind these circumstances, we cannot wonder 
if it should appear that the original Anglo-Saxon settlers 
in some instances called their neighbours in the next 
settlement, if they were of a different tribe, by the tribal 
name to which they belonged, or one expressive of the 
sense of strangers or foreigners. Such a meaning is 
apparently conveyed by the use of the Anglo-Saxon 
prefix el, other, strange or foreign. 1 Angles, Saxons, 
Jutes, Frisians,- Danes, Norse, and Wends, comprised 
people of many various tribes,- speaking many various 
dialects, some of which must have been less intelligible 
to people who as English settlers lived near them than 
their own vernacular speech. In this sense they would 
be more or less strangers to each other, and such a line 
of cleavage would be more marked in those cases in which 
different local customs prevailed in neighbouring town- 
ships. In some parts of England we may still find here 
and there traces of old place-names denoting, apparently, 
the idea of other, or strange, people. Such Anglo-Saxon 
names as Elmanstede, 2 now Elmstead, in Kent, and 
Elmenham, 3 now Elmham, in Norfolk, probably had 
this original signification. They can hardly be words 
derived from inflected names. These and other similar 
names express the sense that the inhabitants in these 
hams, steds, worths, beorhs, and tons, were other men 
or strangers to the people living near them, who probably 
gave the places these names. It is difficult to see what 
other meaning can be attached to such names as Elman- 
stede and Elmenham. They apparently point to con- 
ditions of early settlement somewhat similar to those 
under which townships are formed in many instances in 
the western parts of the United States and Canada. 
There emigrants of various European nations are forming 
their new homes in separate communities of their own 
people, while others in neighbouring townships who are 

1 Bosworth and Toller, < Anglo-Saxon Dictionary.' 

2 ' Codex Dipl.,' Index. 3 Ibid. 


doing the same are of other races, and are strangers to 
them. The newer Anglo-Saxon race is being reju- 
venated on American soil, as the older stock was by similar 
conditions formed in England. The isolation of many of 
the earliest villages in England may probably be seen in 
the traces we find of the primitive meeting-places for 
exchange of commodities i.e., the earliest markets. 
These are not in the towns, but on the borders or marks 
of the early settlements, where people of neighbouring 
places appear to have met on what was perhaps regarded 
as neutral ground. Some of these old border places may 
still be recognised by the name staple, although by the 
rise of newer villages they may be border places no longer. 
Thus, in Hampshire we have Stapler's Down, south of 
Odiham ; Stapeley Row, Ropley ; Staple Ash, Froxfield ; 
Stapleford, Durley ; Staple Cross, Boarhunt ; and Stapole 
Thorn, a name that occurs in a Saxon charter on the 
south of Micheldever. 1 An example on the border of 
two counties is that of Dunstable, and another is the 
Domesday place Stanestaple, in Middlesex. 

Even as late as the time of Henry I. there are orders 
that neighbours are to meet and settle their differences 
at the boundaries of their land, and there are many traces 
of the meeting-places of courts having been at the boun- 
daries of ancient settlements. 

The settlers who became the ancestors of the Old 
English race were people of many tribes, all included 
within the later designation Anglo-Saxon. They were 
not exclusively Teutonic, for among them was a small 
minority of people of various Wendish tribes, the evidence 
of whose immigration will appear in subsequent pages. 
In regard to speech, there must have been many dialects 
at first, and we can trace, more or less, the use in England 
of three classes of them viz., the old Germanic, whether 
Old Frisian or Old Saxon ; the Old Norrena, now repre- 
sented by the Icelandic ; and the Old Slavic speech of 
1 ' Liber de Hyda/ pp. 86, 87, A.D. 1026. 

io Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

the Wends the Wendish, of course, only to a very limited 
extent. The oldest examples of the Old Northern lan- 
guage are not, however, to be found in the Icelandic, but 
in the names and words graven on stones in runic char- 
acters in Scandinavia, Denmark, and Britain. This 
method of attempting to read some of our disguised or 
altered place-names appears to be reasonable to the 
archaeologist, who looks not merely to the historical 
statements of the old chroniclers and the names for his 
evidence, but also to the surviving customs, to anthro- 
pological and archaeological discoveries, to folk-lore, and 
all other sources from which information bearing on the 
settlement may be gleaned. The value of the informa- 
tion that may be gathered from these sources to the his- 
torian or philologist is great. We can see on the Ordnance 
map of England many names whose origin goes back only 
to recent centuries, but we find also in every county many 
others of extreme antiquity. If we could fully under- 
stand them we should know much relating to the Anglo- 
Saxon period of our history of which we are now ignorant. 
Even the different ways in which the homesteads in 
different parishes or townships are arranged, whether 
they are scattered or clustered in groups, give informa- 
tion by which the archaeologist is able to assist the his- 
torian. The scattered homesteads may in some districts 
be as old as the British period, or in others may have been 
formed first by emigrants who came from some old Con- 
tinental areas where the Celtic arrangement survived. 
There are many other and more numerous areas where 
nucleated villages exist, in which the homesteads are col- 
lected, some arranged on the plan of having roads radiat- 
ing from them i.e., the star-like way, similar to the 
German type common between the Elbe and the Weser. 
In other instances we find collected homesteads of an 
elongated, rounded, or fan-shaped form enclosing a small 
space, around which the original houses were built. 
These resemble the village types east of the Elbe, in the 

Introduction. 1 1 

old Slavonic parts of Germany, and the type was in all 
probability brought to this country by some Wends or 
Germanized Slavs. ' If a few villages here and there are 
of a Wendish rather than of a purely Germanic type, we 
may reasonably look for traces of Slavonic influence in 
the customs, folk-lore, and in some at least of the names 
of the district. 

From the circumstance that various old dialects were 
spoken in England during the Anglo-Saxon period, it 
follows that we may look for the origin of some of our 
place-names in the Old Norrena of the northern runic 
writing, or in the Icelandic tongue, as well as in those of 
old Germanic origin, and perhaps in some few instances 
in the Old Slavic dialect that was spoken by the Wends, 
of whose settlement in England evidence will appear. 
It was from these elements, with some admixture of 
the Celtic, that the Anglo-Saxon language was formed 
on English soil. 1 

In the Hundred Rolls of A.D. 1271 there are many 
people mentioned who bore the surname of Scot, which 
was no doubt originally given to them or their forefathers 
because they were Scots who had settled in England. 
Unless we are to believe the existence of the mythological 
ancestors of various tribes, such as Angul, the eponymous 
ancestor of the Angles ; Saxnote, of the Saxons ; Dan, of 
the Danes ; Gewis, of the Gewissas, and so on, we must 
allow that the earliest individuals who were called by a 
tribal name derived it in some way or other from that 
of the tribe, as those first called Scot did from the early 
Scots. Such names as Scot, Welsh, Breton, Cornish, 
Frank, Fleming, and others, were apparently given to 
the individuals who bore them by people of other descent 
near whom they lived, because those so designated were 
people of the nations or tribes denoted by these names. 
We may also trace such mediaeval names as Pickard, 

1 Marsh, G. P., ' Lectures on the English Language,' First 
Series, 42, 43. 

1 2 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

Artis, and Gascon, to natives of Picardy, Artois, and 

It is not easy to see how such a personal name as 
Westorwalening, which occurs in Anglo-Saxon literature, 1 
could have arisen except as the designation of a man 
belonging to the tribe of Westorwealena,; or Western 

The older names, Goding, Godman, Waring, Quen, Fin, 
Hune, Osman, Osgood, Eastman, Norman, Saleman, 
Alman, Mone, Wendel, Winter, and others, may also be 
traced to the names of the corresponding ancient tribal 
people, or to the countries whence they came. It is very 
difficult, for example, to see how the name Osgood was 
applied to a person, except that, having migrated from 
the homeland of the tribe to which he belonged, his 
neighbours, finding it necessary to designate him among 
themselves by some name, called him Osgood or Ostro- 
goth, because he came from Ostergotland in Sweden. 
These tribal settlers were all included under the general 
designations of Angles, Saxons, and Jutes, but have in 
many instances transmitted their tribal names to us in 
those of the places they occupied. 

In considering this part of our subject, it is important 
to remember that the nations and tribes of Germany and 
Scandinavia were in many instances known by more than 
one name. The people sometimes mentioned as Sassi and 
Swaefas were Saxons, or very closely connected with 
them. Those known as Hunsings, Brocmen, and 
Chaukians, were Frisians, or their close allies. The 
Dacians were Danes, and the Geats and Gutae were Jutes. 
The Rugians and Wilte were tribal people among the 
Wends, and these, by Scandinavians, were called Windr 
or Wintr. 

Some of the Danes were called after the names of their 
islands, and some of the Goths after the names of por- 
tions of ancient Gothland. In looking for traces of these 
1 Sweet, H., ' The Earliest English Texts,' 489. 

Introduction. 1 3 

races among our ancient place-names, it is clear, there- 
fore, that the old tribal designations cannot be disregarded. 
Another important consideration is that, for one man 
who bore a tribal name which has survived, there may 
have been many others of the same race called by other 
names, or whose names did not become attached to any 
place, and so have not come down to us. The testimony 
which names afford must, however, be considered with 
caution, for it is certain that they do not always imply 
what they seem to imply. From the archaeologist's 
point of view, modern place-names, without their most 
ancient forms as a guide, or without circumstantial 
evidence showing a reasonable probability what their 
most ancient forms were, are almost valueless. The 
Anglo-Saxon names, however, are of great value. Many 
instances are known of places which have two names, 
both of them apparently old, and it is probable that 
instances of this double nomenclature which have not 
been recorded, or which have not come down to our 
time, were much more numerous. As already men- 
tioned, many places must originally have got their names 
from the people who lived in them, or from people who 
were their neighbours. Possibly, in some cases, people 
in neighbouring settlements some miles away in one 
direction called a place by one name, and those some 
miles away in another direction called it by another. 
If these neighbours spoke different dialects, as they 
may have done on the borders of the primitive districts 
or States, the use of such double names would be more 
likely, and perhaps in some cases probable. The tendency 
to give nicknames, or ekenames, to both people and places 
has also to be taken into account. The tendency of 
people to turn names the meaning of which they did 
not understand, or which had become lost as the language 
became modified or changed, into familiar animal or other 
names, such as Camelford from Gavelford, when the 
meaning of the primitive name had ceased to be remem- 

14 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

bered, must also be recognised. The alteration in some 
place-names may be traced also to another cause the 
influence of humour. Of such names, whatever may be 
the exact date of its origin, is that of the vale of Cat- 
mouse in Rutland. It occurs on some old maps as 
Catmose, and whatever may have been its ancient signifi- 
cance, it is certain that it could have had no reference 
to cat and mouse. In some parts of England the old 
local name Mousehole occurs. This is probably also a 
humorous name, derived in some instances at least from 
mosshole i.e., the place where moss or peat was formerly 
dug. Such names as Sawbridgeworth, the Domesday 
name of which was Sabrixte-worde, and Hungriweniton 
are examples of the same kind. Market Jew, the 
popular name for Marazion, is said to have come from 
the old name Marghaisewe, meaning a Thursday market. 1 
Ekenames or nicknames were also used by the Anglo- 
Saxons, and were often those of animals. Such a name 
is that of Barrington in Cambridgeshire, as cited by 
Skeat, the name denoting the ton of the sons of Bera 
(bear). 2 Barrington, as already mentioned, was a frontier 
village. The use of ekenames or nicknames is certainly 
as old in this country as the period of the Anglo-Saxons. 
Our earliest literature affords evidence of it. They were 
not only applied to individuals, but to communities or 
places. It is perhaps impossible to say at the present 
time, in regard to numerous old place-names that still 
remain, which are original names or survivals of them, 
and which are ancient nicknames or survivals of them ; 
but it is probable that there are many ancient eke- or 
nicknames the meanings of which we cannot interpret. 
A philologist who undertakes to explain English place- 
names by the rigid rules of modern philology, without 
taking into account the human element connected with 

1 Courtney, M. A., Folk-Lore Journal, v. 15. 

2 Skeat, W. W., Cambridge Antiq. Soc., Oct. pub., xxxvi., 
p. 1 8. 

Introduction. 1 5 

the subject, the tendency of people to modify names into 
more familiar forms, or to modify their sound for the 
sake of change and variety alone, will find himself in 
difficulties with a considerable number of them. The 
oldest forms of those place-names that are also tribal 
names are important evidence, which will not be invali- 
dated if in many instances the name has been derived 
from the personal name of the head of a family rather 
than from the people of a community. The early cus- 
tomary ties of kindred among the Anglo-Saxons were 
very strong. With a chieftain, some of his kindred 
commonly lived under a primitive form of family law. 
A chief or headman named Hundeman or Huneman 
by his neighbours around the Anglo-Saxon place Hunde- 
manebi, now Hunmanby in Yorkshire, may reason- 
ably be considered to have been a Frisian of the Hunni 
or Hunsing tribe, and the people who settled with 
him to have been of his family or kindred. Similarly, 
where we find a place named after the Wends or Vandals, 
it may have derived its name from the Vandal chief alone, 
or from the community of kindred people under him. 
Such an Anglo-Saxon name as Wendelesworth in Surrey 
could hardly have been derived from any other circum- 
stance than the settlement on the south bank of the 
Thames of a man named Wendel, because he was of the 
Vandal or Wendish race, or from a kindred of Vandals. 
The name of this place appears much earlier than that 
of the stream of the same name. It matters little whether 
the name arose from the Wendish chief or from his people. 
The name Wendel was probably given to him or them, 
because of his or their Wendish or Vandal origin, by the 
people of adjoining settlements in Surrey or Middlesex, 
who were of another tribal origin. 

This case of Wandsworth is interesting, not only be- 
cause its old name points to a Wendish origin, but also 
on account of its custom of junior inheritance, which was 
of immemorial usage and came down to modern times. 

1 6 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

On the manor of Wandsworth the youngest son inherited 
his father's land, a custom of peculiar interest in reference 
to Wendish researches. The Wends who took part in 
the Anglo-Saxon settlement were Slavs of such a mixed 
Slav descent that they had retained a custom, that of 
junior right, which was the ancient law of inheritance 
among the Slavs, and it is very difficult to avoid the 
conclusion that the Wendish origin of the name is con- 
firmed by the survival of the custom. We are not now, 
however, considering the settlement in any one district, 
but the general evidence of a mixture of people of many 
tribes in different parts of the country, by the formation 
of communities of people of various races near each other. 
In connection with this inquiry the survival of names of 
places derived from the names of well-known tribes among 
the. ancient Germans and Scandinavians, and the sur- 
vival here and there, notwithstanding the changes likely 
to have occurred in the course of many centuries, of 
manorial customs which are known to have been ancient 
customs, or to closely resemble customs which in ancient 
time prevailed in parts of Germany and Scandinavia, are 
most important considerations. Customs of family in- 
heritance, where they can be traced, are in many instances 
of as much value as contemporary historical information. 
It does not appear that there is any county in England 
where the surviving place-names are exclusively of Saxon, 
Anglian, Jutish, Danish, or Norse origin. If, for example, 
we consider those in the great areas to which the natural 
entrances from the sea are by the Humber, the Wash, the 
Thames, and the Southampton Water, with its adjoining 
estuaries, we shall find evidence of names of various 
origins, pointing to settlements of people of distinct 
races or tribes. In all parts of our country we find that 
during the last thousand years men have left in their 
architecture survivals of the period in which they lived. 
Tribal customs among our forefathers had an earlier 
origin than their arts, and we may recognise in their 

Introduction. 17 

survival proof of the settlement of people of several 
different tribes. 

Like a stream which can be followed up to many 
sources, the Anglo-Saxon race may be traced to many 
tribal origins. It is not the purpose of this book to 
describe the conquest of England, but rather its settle- 
ment by the conquering tribes and races. With this 
object in view, it is necessary to give attention rather to 
the sites of settlements than the sites of battles, to the 
arrangements of villages rather than the campaigns by 
which the districts in which those villages are situated 
were opened to settlement. It is not within its scope to 
ascertain the number of conquered British people slain 
on any occasion, but rather to find the evidence which 
indicates that some of them must have been spared in 
parts of the country, and lived side by side with their 
conquerors, to become in the end blended with them as 
part of a new race. It is within its scope to show that 
in various parts of England people of diverse tribes 
became settled near to each other, in some districts one 
tribe preponderating, and in some another, a preponder- 
ance which has produced ethnological differences that 
have survived to the present time, and has left differences 
in dialects that bear witness to diversities in their origin. 



WE have so long been accustomed to call some of 
the English settlers Saxons that it is with some 
surprise we learn none of them called themselves 
by this name. As far as England was concerned, this was 
the name by which they were commonly called by the 
Britons, and it was not generally used by the people them- 
selves until some centuries later. Nations and tribes, as 
well as individuals, must always be known either by their 
native names or by the names which other people give 
them. They may, consequently, have more than one name. 
The name Saxon, although not used by the tribes that 
invaded England in the fifth and sixth centuries as their 
own designation for themselves, is more ancient than this 
invasion. Before the end of the Roman rule in Britain 
it was used to denote the part of the English coast from 
the Wash to the Solent and the Continental coast of 
North-Eastern France and Belgium, both of which were 
known as the Saxon Shore. This name apparently arose 
from the descent of pirates who were called Saxons. On 
the other hand, there is evidence leading to the con- 
clusion that there were early settlements of people known 
as Saxons on these coasts. Both these views may be 
right, for the piratical Saxons, like the Northmen of later 
centuries, may first have plundered the coasts and sub- 
sequently settled along them. In any case, a Roman 


The Saxons and their Tribes. 19 

official or admiral, known as Comes litoris Saxonici, 1 
Count of the Saxon Shore, was appointed to look after 
these shores. After the departure of the Roman legions 
the partly Romanized Britons naturally gave the name 
Saxon to invaders from Germany, as this name had 
come down to them from the Roman period, for after 
the time of Constantine the Great all the inhabitants 
of the coasts of Germany who practised piracy were 
included under the Saxon name. 2 It is a curious cir- 
cumstance that the parts of England in which the Saxon 
place-names, such as Sexebi and Sextone, survived at 
the time of Domesday survey are not in those counties 
which were comprised within either of the Saxon king- 
doms of England. In considering the settlement, the 
name Saxons comes before us in a wider sense than that 
of a tribe, as denoting tribes acting together, practically 
a confederacy. In this sense it was used by the early 
British writers, Angles, Jutes, and people of other tribes, 
all being Saxons to them, and the settlers in all parts of 
England were known as Saxons by them, as well as the 
people of Sussex, Essex, and Wessex. In this wider 
sense the name Saxonia was used by Bede, for though 
an Anglian, he described himself as an office-bearer in 
Saxonia. The settlers in Hampshire, who after a time 
were known in common with those in neighbouring 
counties as West Saxons, did not call themselves Saxons, 
but Gewissas, and the most probable meaning of that 
name is confederates, or those acting together in some 
assured bond of union. 3 Their later' name of West 
Saxons was apparently a geographical one. 

The name Saxon was no doubt found a convenient one 
to describe the tribal people who migrated to England 
from the north coasts of Germany, extending from the 
mouth of the Rhine to that of the Vistula, but among 

' Notitia Utriusque Imperil.,' ' Mon. Hist. Brit.,' xxiv. 

2 Camden, W., ' Britannia,' i., ci. 

3 Stevenson, W. H., English Hist. Review, xiv. 36. 


2O Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

themselves these Saxons were certainly known by their 
tribal names. Saxons from older Saxony were no doubt 
largely represented among them, but the singular fact 
remains that in England the name Saxon was used, at 
first, only by the British chroniclers as a general designa- 
tion for their enemies, while the incoming people were 
clearly known among themselves by their tribal names. 
At various periods people called Saxons in Germany 
colonized other lands besides England. Some migrated 
eastward across the Elbe into the country of the Wends, 
and began that process of gradual absorption under 
which the Wendish people and their language have 
now been completely merged into the German. Others 
migrated to the south. 

The early reference by Caesar to a German nation he 
calls the Cherusci probably refers to the people after- 
wards called Saxons. Some German scholars identify 
the god of these people, called Heru or Cheru, as identical 
with the eponymous god of the Saxons, called Saxnot, 
who corresponded to the northern Tyr, or Tius, after 
whom our Tuesday has been named. 1 The Saxon name 
was at one time applied to the islands off the west coast 
of Schleswig, now known as the North Frisian Islands, and 
the country called by the later name Saxland extended 
from the lower course of the Elbe to the Baltic coast near 
Rugen. The earlier Saxony, however, from which 
settlers in England came was both westward and north- 
ward of the Elbe. There were some Saxons who at an 
early period migrated as far west as the country near the 
mouth of the Rhine, and it was probably from this colony 
that some of their descendants migrated centuries later 
into Transylvania, where their posterity still preserve 
the ancient name among the Hungarians or Magyars. 

As regards the Saxons in England, it is also a singular 
circumstance that they were not known to the North- 

1 Wagner, W., ' Asgard and the Gods,' translated by Anson, 
9, 10. 

The Saxons and their Tribes. 21 

men by that name, for throughout the Sagas no instance 
occurs in which the Northmen are said to have come 
into contact in England with people called Saxons. 1 One 
of the names by which they were known to the Scandi- 
navians appears to have been Swaefas. 

The Saxons are not mentioned by Tacitus, who wrote 
about the end of the first century, but are mentioned by 
Ptolemy in the second century as inhabiting the country 
north of the Lower Elbe. 2 Wherever they may have 
been at first located in Germany, it is certain that people 
of this nation migrated to other districts from that 
occupied by the main body. We know of the Saxon 
migration to the coast of Belgium and North-Eastern 
France, and of the special official appointed by the 
Romans to protect these coasts and the south-eastern 
coasts of Britain. On the Continental side of the Channel 
there certainly were early settlements of Saxons, and it 
is probable there were some on the British side. These 
historical references show that the name is a very old one; 
which was used in ancient Germany for a race of people, 
while in England it was used both in reference to the Old 
Saxons and also in a wider sense by both Welsh and 
English chroniclers. In Germany the name was prob- 
ably applied to the inhabitants of the sea-coast and water 
systems of the Lower Rhine, Weser, Lower Elbe and 
Eyder, to Low Germans on the Rhine, to Frisians and 
Saxons on the Elbe, and to North Frisians on the 
Eyder. 3 

In considering the subject of the alliances of various 
nations and tribes in the Anglo-Saxon conquests, it is 
desirable to remember how great a part confederacies 
played in the wanderings and conquests of the northern 
races of Europe during and after the decline of the 
Roman Empire. The name Frank supplies a good 

1 du Chaillu, ' The Viking Age,' i. 20. 

8 Ptolemy, ' Geography,' lib. ii., chap. x. 

3 Latham, R. G., ' Ger mania of Tacitus,' cxv. 

22 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

example. This was the name of a great confederation, 
all the members of it agreeing in calling themselves free. 1 
Hence, instead of assuming migrations (some historically 
improbable) to account for the Franks of France, the 
Franks of Franche-comte, and the Franks of Franconia, 
we may simply suppose them to be Franks of different 
divisions of the Frank confederation i.e., people of 
various great tribes united under a common designation. 
Again, the Angli are grouped with the Varini, not only 
as neighbouring nations on the east coast of Schleswig, 
but in the matter of laws under their later names, Angles 
and Warings. Similarly, we read of Goths and Vandals, 2 
of Frisians and Chaucians, of Goths and Burgundians, of 
Engles and Swaifas, of Franks and Batavians, of Wends 
and Saxons, of Frisians and Hunsings ; and as we read of 
a Frank confederation, there was practically a Saxon 
one. In later centuries, under the general name of 
Danes, we are told by Henry of Huntingdon of Danes 
and Goths, Norwegians and Swedes, Vandals and Frisians, 
as the names of those people who desolated England for 
230 years. 3 The later Saxon confederation is that which 
was opposed to Charlemagne, but there was certainly an 
earlier alliance, or there were common expeditions of 
Saxons and people of other tribes acting together in the 
invasion of England under the Saxon name. 

In view of a supposed Saxon alliance during the in- 
vasion and settlement of England, the question arises, 
with which nations the Saxon people who took part in 
the attacks on Britain could have formed a confederacy. 
Northward, their territory joined that of the Angles ; on 
the north and west it touched. that of the Frisians, and 
on the east the country of the Wendish people known 
as the Wilte or Wilzi. Not far from them on the west 
the German tribe known as the Boructarii were located, 

1 Latham, R.'G., ' Germania of Tacitus,' Epilegomena, lix. 

2 Paulus Diaconus. 

3 Huntingdon's Chron., Bonn's ed., 148. 

The Saxons and their Tribes. 23 

and these are the people from whom Bede tells us that 
some of the English in his time were known to have been 

During the folk-wanderings some of the Suevi migrated 
to Swabia, in South Germany, and these people, called 
by the Scandian nations the Swaefas, were practically of 
the same race as the Saxons, and their name is sometimes 
used for Saxon. The Angarians, or Men of Engern, also 
were a tribe of the Old Saxons. Later on, we find the 
name Ostphalia used for the Saxon country lying east 
of Engern, now called Hanover, and Westphalia for the 
country lying west of this district. Among the Saxons 
there were tribal divisions or clans, such as that of the 
people known as the Ymbre, or Ambrones, and the pagus 
of the Bucki among the Engern people. 1 

This pagus of the Old Saxons has probably left its 
name not only in that of Buccingaham, now Bucking- 
ham, but also in other English counties. In Norfolk we 
find the Anglo-Saxon names Buchestuna, Buckenham, 
and others. In Northampton the Domesday names 
Buchebi, Buchenho, Buchestone, and others, occur. In 
Huntingdonshire, similarly, we find Buchesunorth, Buches- 
worth, and Buchetone ; in Yorkshire Bucktorp, in Not- 
tinghamshire Buchetone, in Devon Buchesworth and 
Bucheside, all apparently named after settlers called 
Buche. If a settler was of the Bucki tribe, it is easy to 
see how he could be known to his neighbours by this 

The Buccinobantes, mentioned by Ammianus, 2 were a 
German tribe, from which settlers were introduced into 
Britain as Roman colonists before the end of Roman rule 
in Britain. 3 The results of research render it more and 
more probable that Teutonic people under the Saxon 
name were gradually gaining a footing in the island 

' Monumenta Germanise,' edited by Pertz, Scriptores i., 154. 

2 Latham, R. G., loc. cit., Epilegomena, Ixxxii. 

3 Stephens, G., ' Old Northern Runic Monuments,' i. 61. 

24 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

before the period at which the chief invasions are said 
to have commenced. In the intestine wars that went 
on in the fifth century the presence of people of Teutonic 
descent among the Britons might naturally have led to 
Teutonic allies having been called in, or to have facili- 
tated their conquests. 1 

Ptolemy is the first writer who mentions the Saxons, 
and he states that the}' occupied the country which is 
now Holstein ; but between his time and the invasion of 
Britain they probably shifted more to the south-west, 
to the region of Hanover and Westphalia, some probably 
remaining on the north bank of the Elbe. He tells us 
of a people called the Pharadini, a name resembling 
Varini or Warings, allies of the Angles, who lay next 
to the Saxons. He mentions also the three islands of 
the Saxons, which are probably those known now as the 
North Frisian Islands, north of the coast where the 
Saxons he mentioned are said to have lived. This is 
the country that within historic time has been, and still 
is in part, occupied by the North Frisians. The origin 
of the name Saxon has been a puzzle to philologists, and 
Latham has summed up the evidence in favour of its 
being a native name as indecisive. There was certainly 
a god known in Teutonic mythology as Saxnote or Sax- 
neat, but whether the name Saxon was derived from the 
god, or the god derived his name from the people who 
reverenced him, is uncertain. We find this Saxnote men- 
tioned in the pedigree of the early Kings of Essex. Thunar, 
Woden, and Saxnote are also mentioned as the gods whom 
the early Christians in Germany had to declare publicly 
that they would forsake, 2 and the identity of Saxnote 
with Tiu, Tius, or Tyr, is apparent from this as well 
as from other evidence. 

During the Roman period a large number of Germans, 
fleeing from the south-east, arrived in the plains of 

1 Stephens, G., ' Old Northern Runic Monuments/ i. 62. 

2 ' Monumenta Germanise,' edited by Pertz, i. 19.; 

The Saxons and their Tribes. 25 

Belgium, and the names Flamand, Flemish, and Flanders 

were derived from these refugees, who in some accounts 
are described as Saxons, and the coast they occupied as 
the well - known litus Saxonicum, or Saxon shore. 1 
This is an important consideration in reference to the 
subsequent settlement of England, for it shows that 
there were people called Saxons before the actual in- 
vasion occurred, located on a coast much nearer to this 
country than that along the Elbe. In the time of Charle- 
magne the lower course of the Elbe divided the Saxons 
into two chief branches, and those to the north of it were 
called Nordalbingians, or people north of the Elbe, which 
is the position where the Saxons of Ptolemy's time are 
said to have been located. One of the neighbouring races 
to the Saxons in the first half of the sixth century in North 
Germany was the Longobards or Lombards. Their great 
migration to the south under their King Alboin, and their 
subsequent invasion of Italy, occurred about the middle 
of the sixth century. This was about the time when the 
Saxons were defeated with great slaughter near the Weser 
by Hlothaire, King of the Franks. Some of the survivors 
are said to have accompanied the Lombards, and others 
in all probability helped to swell the number of emigrants 
into England. It is probable that after this time they 
became more or less scattered to the south and across the 
sea, and in Germany the modern name Saxony along the 
upper course of the Elbe is a surviving name of a larger 
Saxony. The Germans have an ancient proverb which is 
still in use : ' There are Saxons wherever pretty girls 
grow out of trees ' 2 perhaps a reference to the fair 
complexion of the old Saxon race, and to its wide 

The circumstance that the maritime inhabitants of the 
German coasts were known as Saxons before the fall of 
the Roman Empire shows that the name was applied to 

1 Reclus, E., ' Nouvelle Geographic Universelle,' iv. 81, 82. 

2 Menzel, W., ' History of Germany,' Bohn's ed., i. 117. 

26 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

a seafaring people, and under it at that time the early 
Frisians were probably included. The later information 
we obtain concerning the identity -of the wergelds, or 
payments for injuries, that prevailed among both of 
these nations supports this view. The Saxon as well as 
the Frisian wergeld to be paid to the kindred in the case 
of a man being killed was 160 solidi, or shillings. 1 

There are two sources, so far as our own island is con- 
cerned, whence we may derive historical information con- 
cerning the conquest and settlement of England viz., 
from the earliest English writers and from the earliest 
Welsh writers. Bede is the earliest author of English 
birth, and Nennius, to whom the ' Historia Britonum ' 
is ascribed, is the earliest Welsh author. The veracity 
of the ' Historia Britonum ' is not seriously doubted 
at least, the book under that name of which Nennius is 
the reputed author. Its date is probably about the 
middle of the eighth century, and we have no reason to 
suppose that the learning to be found at that time in 
the English monasteries was superior to that in the 
Welsh. Nennius lived in the same century as Bede, 
but wrote about half a century later. His information 
is of value as pointing to a large number of German 
tribes under the general name of Saxons, rather than 
people of one nationality only, having taken part in the 
invasion and settlement of England. Nennius tells us 
of the struggles which went on between the Britons and 
the invaders. He says : ' The more the Saxons were 
vanquished, the more they sought for new supplies of 
Saxons from Germany, so that Kings, commanders, and 
military bands were invited over from almost every pro- 
vince. And this practice they continued till the reign 
of Inda, who was the son of Eoppa ; he of the Saxon race 
was the first King in Bernicia, and in Caer Ebrauc 
(York).' 2 

1 Seebohm, F., ' Tribal Custom in Anglo-Saxon Law,' 213. 

2 Nennius, ' Historia Britonum/ Bonn's ed., p. 409. 

The Saxons and their Tribes. 27 

In reference to Csesar's account of German tribes, it is 
significant that he mentions a tribe or nation called the 
Cherusci as the head of a great confederation. It is of 
interest to note also that, as long as we find the name 
Cherusci used. Saxons are not mentioned, but as soon as 
the Cherusci disappear by name the Saxons appear, and 
these in a later time also formed a great confederacy. 
The name Gewissas, which was that by which the West 
Saxons were known, included Jutes i.e., in all proba- 
bilitjr, Goths, Frisians, Wends, and possibly people of 
other tribes, as well as those from the Saxon fatherland. 

The Saxons of England were converted to Christianity 
before those of the Continent, and we derive some in- 
direct information of the racial affinities between these 
peoples from the accounts of the early missionary zeal 
of priests from England among the old Saxons. Two 
of these, who are said to have been Anglians, went into 
Saxony to convert the people, and were murdered there ; 
but in after-centuries their names were held in high 
reverence, and are still honoured in Westphalia. We 
can scarcely think that they would have set forth on 
such a missionary expedition unless their dialect or 
language had so much in common as to enable them as 
Anglians from England to make themselves easily under- 
stood to these old Saxons. 

The question who were the true Saxons i.e., the 
Saxons specifically so called in Germany has been much 
discussed. The name may not have been a native one, 
but have been fixed on them by others, in which case, 
as Beddoe says, it is easier to believe that the Frisians 
were often included under it. 1 They may have been, and 
probably were, a great martial and aggressive tribe, which 
spread from the country along the Elbe over the country of 
the Weser, after conquering its previous inhabitants, the 
Boructarii, or Bructers. Such a migration best accounts 
for the later appearance of Saxons in the region which 
1 Beddoe, J., ' Races in Britain,' 41. 

28 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

the Old English called Old Saxony, and erroneously 
looked upon as their old home, because their kindred 
had come to occupy it since their separation. The 
Saxonia of the ninth century included Hanover, West- 
phalia, and Holstein, as opposed to Friesland, Schleswig, 
the Middle Rhine provinces, and the parts east of the 
Elbe, which were Frisian, Danish, Frank, and Slavonic 
respectively. 1 Among the Saxons of the country north 
of the Elbe were the people of Stormaria, whose name 
survived in that of the river Stoer, a boundary of it, and 
perhaps also in one or more of the rivers Stour, where 
some of the Stormarii settled in England. 

William of Malmesbury, who wrote early in the twelfth 
century, tells us that the ancient country called Germany 
was divided into many provinces, and took its name from 
germinating so many men. This may be a fanciful deriva- 
tion, but he goes on to say that, ' as the pruner cuts off 
the more luxuriant branches of the tree to impart a livelier 
vigour to the remainder, so the inhabitants of this country 
assist their common parent by the expulsion of a part of 
their members, lest she should perish by giving sustenance 
to too numerous an offspring ; but in order to obviate the 
discontent, they cast lots who shall be compelled to 
migrate. Hence the men of this country made a virtue 
of necessity, and when driven from their native soil have 
gained foreign settlements by force of arms.' 2 He gives 
as instances of this the Vandals, Goths, Lombards, and 
Normans. There is other evidence of the prevalence of 
this custom. The story of Hengist and Horsa is one of 
the same kind. The custom appears to have been common 
to many different nations or tribes in the northern parts 
of Europe, and points, consequently, to the pressure of 
an increasing population and to diversity of origin among 
the settlers known as Saxons, Angles, and Jutes in 

1 Latham, R. G., ' Handbook of the English Language,' 23. 

2 William of Malmesbury's Chronicle, ed. by Giles, Book I., cl. 

The Saxons and their Tribes. 29 

The invasions of England at different periods between 
the fifth and tenth centuries, and the settlement of the 
country as it was until the end of the Anglo-Saxon period, 
were invasions and settlements of different tribes. It is 
necessary to emphasize this. Bede's list of nations, among 
others, from whom the Anglo-Saxon people in his day 
were known to have descended is considerably longer 
and more varied than that of Jutes, Saxons, and Angles. 
During the centuries that followed his time people of 
other races found new homes here, some by conquest, as 
in the case of Norse and Danes, and others by peaceful 
means, as in the time of King Alfred, when, as Asser tells 
us, Franks, Frisians, Gauls, Pagans, Britons, Scots, and 
Armoricans placed themselves under his government. 1 
As Alfred made no Continental conquests, the Franks, 
Gauls, and Frisians must have become peaceful settlers 
in England, and as the only pagans in his time in Europe 
were the northern nations Danes, Norse, Swedes, and 
Wends some of these must also have peacefully settled 
in his country, as we know that Danes and Norse did 
largely during this as well as a later period. Men of 
many different races must have been among the ancestors 
of both the earlier and later Anglo-Saxon people. 

In the eighth and ninth centuries three kingdoms in 
England bore the Saxon name, as mentioned by Bede 
and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle viz., Essex, Sussex, 
and Wessex and one province, Middlesex. As will be 
seen when considering the evidence relating to the settlers 
in various parts of England, it does not follow that these 
several parts of our country which were called after the 
Saxon name were colonized by people known as Saxons 
in Germany. The customs that prevailed in these parts 
of England were different in many localities. The relics 
of the Anglo-Saxon period that have been discovered in 
these districts present also some distinctive features. It 

1 Asset's ' Life of Alfred,' edited by Camden in ' Anglica 
Scripta,' p. 13. 

3O Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

is certain from the customs that prevailed, some of which 
have survived, from the remains found, from the old 
place-names, and from the variations in the shape 
of the skulls discovered, that the people of the Saxon 
kingdoms of England could not have been people 
of one race. The anthropological evidence which has 
been collected by Beddoe 1 and others confirms this, for 
the skulls taken from Saxon cemeteries in England 
exhibit differences in the shape of the head which could 
not have resulted from accidental variations in the head- 
form of people all of one uniform race or descent. 2 The 
typical Saxon skull was dolichocephalic, or long, the 
breadth not exceeding four-fifths of the length, like those 
of all the nations of the Gothic stock. Goths, Norwegians, 
Swedes, Danes, Angles, and Saxons among the ancient 
nations all had this general head-form, as shown by the 
remains of these several races which have been found, 
and from the head-form of the modern nations descended 
from them ; but among these long-headed people there 
were some with variations in the skull and a few with 
broad skulls. 

The Saxons must have been nearly allied to some of 
the Angles. This is shown by the probability that the 
so-called Saxons are located by Ptolemy in the country 
north of the Elbe, which by other early writers is assigned 
mainly to the Angles. His references to the tribe or 
nation known as the Suevi point to the same conclusion, 
the Suevi -Angli mentioned by him 3 being apparently 
another name for the people of the country which, accord- 
ing to others, was occupied by Saxons, and these Suevi 
or Suabi are mentioned as a Saxon pagus in early German 
records. 4 The Scandian peninsula, so remarkable for 

1 Loc. cit. 

2 Haddon, A. C, ' The Study of Man,' quoting Beddoe, ' His- 
toire de 1'Indice cephalique.' 

3 Latham, ' Germania of Tacitus,' 27, quoting Ptolemy. 
* ' Monumenta Germanise,' edited by Pertz, i. 368. 

The Saxons and their Tribes. 31 

early emigration, was probably the original home at some 
very remote period of the ancestors of the nations known 
in later centuries as Saxons, Suevi, and Angles. The 
racial characters of all the Teutonic tribes of North 
Germany, as of their modern representatives, were fair 
hair and eyes, and heads of the dolichocephalic shape. 
These characters differentiated the northern tribes of 
Germany from the more ancient occupants of Central 
Europe, as at the present time they distinguish them from 
the darker-haired South Germans of Bavaria and Austria, 
who have broader skulls than those of the north. The 
skulls which are found in ancient burial-places in Ger- 
many of the same age as the Anglo-Saxon period are of 
two main types viz., the dolichocephalic or long, and the 
brachycephalic or broad. In the old burial-places at 
Bremen, from which 103 examples were obtained, only 
5 typical broad skulls were found, against 72 typical long 
skulls and 26 which were classed by Gildemeister as 
intermediate in form. 1 These 26 he regarded as Frisian, 
and gave them the name Batavian. In the South of 
Germany graves of the same age yield a majority of broad 
skulls, which closely correspond to those of the peasantry 
of the present time in the same parts of the country. 
From this it may be inferred that during the period of 
the English settlement people with long skulls were in 
a great majority in North Germany, and people with 
broad skulls in a majority in the southern parts of that 
country, certainly in those districts south of Thuringia. 
Bede tells us that the people of England were descended 
from many tribes, and Nennius says that Saxons came 
into England from almost every province in Germany. 
Unless we are to entirely discredit such statements, the 
probability that some of the settlers whom Nennius calls 
Saxons may have been broad-headed is great. That 
various tribal people under the Saxon name took part 

1 Beddoe, J., ' Races of Britain,' 43, quoting Gildemeister, 
Archiv fur Anthropologie, 1878. 

32 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

in the invasion and settlement of England is probable 
from many circumstances, and, among others, the minor 
variations in the skulls found in Anglo-Saxon graves 
corresponding to the minor variations found to exist 
also among the skulls discovered at Bremen. Of these 
latter Beddoe says : ' There are small differences which 
may have been tribal.' 1 The same author remarks also 
of these Bremen skulls, that there are differences in the 
degree of development of the superciliary ridges which 
may have been more tribal than individual. 2 

Of 100 skulls of the Anglo-Saxon period actually found 
in England, and whose dimensions were tabulated by 
Beddoe, the following variations were found, the per- 
centage of the breadth in comparison with the length 
being expressed by the indices : 3 

T ,. Number of 

Indices. 01 


65-66 I 

67-68 I 

69-70 . . . . . . . . 8 

71-72 .- 14 

73-74 33 

75-76 . . . . . . . . 21 

77-78 14 

79-80 . . . . . . . . 6 

8l-82 2 


From this table it will be seen that 8 of the 100 have 
a breadth very nearly or quite equal to four-fifths of 
their length i.e., they are the remains of people of a 
different race from the typical Anglo-Saxon. 

The typical Saxon skull is believed to have been similar 
to that known as the ' grave-row ' skull on the Continent, 
from the manner in which the bones were found laid in 
rows. These occur numerously in Saxon burial-places in 

1 Beddoe, J., ' Races of Britain,' 46. 2 Ibid. 

3 Haddon, A. C., loo. cit., 85. 

The Saxons and their Tribes. 33 

the Old Saxon and Frisian country, their mean index 
being about 75 i.e., they are long skulls. 

The variation in the skulls from Anglo-Saxon graves 
in England, as will be seen from the table, is very 
considerable, but the majority have an index from 73 to 
78 i.e., they resemble in this respect those commonly 
found in the old burial-places of North Germany. The 
variations have been attributed by some writers to the 
racial mixture of Saxons with the conquered Britons. 1 
Since, however, similar variations are seen in skulls 
obtained from the graves at Bremen and other parts of 
North Germany, it is probable that the so-called Saxons 
were not a people of a homogeneous race, but comprised 
tribal people who had variations in head-form, a small 
percentage being even broad-headed. The migration of 
such people into England among other Saxons would 
explain the variations found in the Anglo-Saxon head- 
form, and, moreover, help us to explain variations in 
custom that are known to have existed within the so- 
called Saxon kingdoms of England. 

1 Haddon, A. C., loc. cit., 85. 



THE Angles are first mentioned by Tacitus under the 
name of Angli in connection with another tribe, the 
Varini. From the third to the fifth century we hear 
nothing of the Angli. In the time of Bede they reappear 
as the Angles in a new country- 1 The part they are said 
to have played in the settlement of England is very large, 
all the country north of the Thames, except Essex, being 
supposed to have been occupied by Angles. The dis- 
trict in North Europe that bore their name is very small 
Anglen, a part of Schleswig. There is evidence, how- 
ever, that they were more widely seated, occupying a 
large part of the south of the Danish peninsula, some at 
least of the Danish islands, and part of the mainland of 
Scandinavia. The Angles were certainly closely con- 
nected to, or in alliance with, the Warings, the Varini 
of Tacitus, and this was long continued. In the time of 
Charlemagne we read of a common code of laws sanctioned 
by that King, called 'Leges Anglorum et Werinorum,' 
the laws of the Angles and Warings. The Angle country 
on the mainland of Northern Europe touched the Frisian 
country on the west, that of the Saxons on the south, and 
that of the Wendish tribes of the Baltic coast on the 
east. Their immigration into England was so large, 

1 Latham, R. G., ' The Ethnology of the British Isles,' 
p. 151. 


The Angles and their Allies. 35 

and the area of the country they occupied so much greater 
in extent than their Continental homelands, that we are 
led, as in the case of the Saxons, to look for a confederacy, 
or an alliance of some kind, under which people of various 
tribes joined the Anglian expeditions. 

That the names Saxons and Angles were understood 
in a composite sense in the time of Bede is evident from 
his writings. In narrating some events connected with 
missionary undertakings, he says : ' About that time the 
venerable servant of Christ and priest, Egbert, proposed 
to take upon himself the apostolic work to some of those 
nations that had not yet heard it, many of which nations 
he knew there were in Germany, from whom the Angles 
and Saxons who now inhabit Britain are known to have 
derived their origin, for which reason they are still called 
Germans by the neighbouring nation of the Britons. 
Such are the Freesons, Rugians, Danes, Hunni, Old 
Saxons, and the Boructarians.' 1 From this we learn 
that some of the people who settled in England under 
the names Angles and Saxons were of Danish origin. 
The country of the Continental Angles was close to the 
Danish islands, and, independently of any historical 
statement of the fact, it would be reasonable to suppose 
that the confederacy of which the Angles formed the chief 
part would for the purpose of their settlement in England 
include some of their neighbours, the Danes. Bede's 
statement shows that this actually was the case, and is 
proof that there were Danes settled in England under 
the name of Angles or Saxons before the Danish inva- 
sions began about the end of the eighth century. In con- 
sidering Bede's reference to Germans, we should re- 
member also that the name Germany in his time was 
understood probably in that wider sense in which it was 
understood by King Alfred viz.j as extending from the 
Danube to the White Sea. 

1 Beda, 'Ecclesiastical History,' edited by J. A. Giles, book v., 
chap. ix. 


36 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

The Warings, whose name is coupled with the Angles 
by the early writers, were a people located on the south- 
west coast of the Baltic. From the first mention of them 
to the last we find them associated with the Angles, and 
as these accounts have a difference in date of some 
centuries, we may feel sure that the connection was a close 
one. Procopius tells us of Varini who were seated about 
the shores of the northern ocean, as well as upon the 
Rhine, so that there appears to have been a migration at 
an early date. 1 Beddoe has remarked that 'the limits 
of confederacies like those of the Franks, Saxons, Frisians, 
and Angles, who seem sometimes to have included the 
Warini, varied from time to time, and by no means 
always coincided with the limits of the dialects.' 2 This 
is an important consideration, for we find in the Frank 
confederation Franks who spoke a German tongue and 
others who did not, and it may have been the same in 
the confederated Angles and Warings. The Angles were 
a Teutonic race, and the Warings were probably a mixed 
one. In one of the Sagas they are mentioned as Waernas 
or Wernas. 3 Tacitus, who does not appear, however, 
to have visited their country, mentions them as a German 
nation. 4 The Warings were one of the early commercial 
nations of the Baltic, and traded to Byzantium, going up 
the rivers of Slavonia in small barks, and carrying them 
across from river to river. The last mention of them is 
in 1030. By the early Russians they were known as 
Warings, their country as Waringia, and the sea near it 
as the Waring Sea. In Byzantium they called them- 
selves Warings. They were in later centuries much 
mixed up with the Norsemen, and this infusion became 
stronger and stronger, until they disappeared as a separate 

1 Procopius, ' de Bello Gothico,' iv. 20 ; Latham, ' Germania 
of Tacitus,' Epilegomena, cvi. 

2 Beddoe, J., ' Races in Britain,' p. 39. 

3 ' The Scop, or Gleeman's Tale,' edited by B. Thorpe. 

4 Latham, R. G., ' Germania of Tacitus,' Notes, pp. 

The Angles and their Allies. 37 

nation. 1 It was chiefly men of this race* who in the 
eleventh and twelfth centuries enlisted in the military 
service of the Byzantine Emperors, and were known in 
Constantinople as the Varangian guard, and in this corps 
there were also some Old English, a circumstance that 
points to connection in race. The Billings are said to 
have been the royal race of the Warings, 2 and it is prob- 
able that under this designation some of these people 
may be traced among the old place-names in England. The 
western part of Mecklenburg was long known as the Mark 
of the Billings. The name Wsering occurs in Scandi- 
navian runic inscriptions. In one found at Torvic, 
Hardanger, Norway, the inscription reads, ' Lsema (or 
Laeda) Waeringsea ' 3 i.e., ' Laema (or Lseda) to Waering,' 
as if intended to be a monument to one who bore the 
Waring name. 

The district called Anglen in the time of the Saxons is 
on the south-west of Sleswig, and is bounded by the 
river Slie, the Flensborger Fjord, and a line drawn from 
Flensborg to Sleswig. This district is small, not much 
larger, as Latham has pointed out, than the county of 
Rutland. 4 Bede tells us that it had by the emigration 
of its inhabitants become deserted. Such a small district 
alone was not, however, likely to have been the mother- 
country of a large emigration across the North Sea for 
the occupation of a conquered country so large as Eng- 
land. Of course, the Anglen of Sleswig must have 
been a part only of the country from which the Angles 
came. That a population sufficiently strong to have 
largely conquered and given a name to England, and 
sufficiently famous to have been classed by Ptolemy 
among the leading nations of Germany, lived in so small 
an area is extremely unlikely. We must therefore con- 

1 Clarke Hyde, Transactions of Ethnological Society, vii. 65-76. 

2 Ibid., 64, and ' Traveller's Song." 

3 Stephens, G., ' Old Northern Runic Monuments,' iii. 407. 

4 Latham, R. G., ' Handbook of the English Language,' 
p. 70. 

38 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

elude that the Angles extended over a larger area, and 
that in the invasion and settlement of England their 
name was usedjas that of a confederacy which included 
Warings. There remains, however, the statement of 
Bede concerning Anglen. Its abandoned condition at 
the time he wrote is not improbable, but there is another 
explanation, as Latham has pointed out, which helps to 
account for its deserted state viz., because it was a 
frontier land or march between the Danes and Slavonians 
(or Wends) of the eastern half of Holstein. 1 Many 
frontier lands of a similar kind have become deserted 
from a similar cause, and examples of this may be found 
in modern as well as ancient history. King Alfred, 
describing the voyager's course in his geographical de- 
scription of the Baltic, mentions Denmark and Gothland, 
also Sealand, and other islands, and says : ' On these 
lands lived Engles before they hither to land came.' 2 
This extract makes it quite clear that at the time he wrote 
it was understood in England that the Angles came partly 
from Old Denmark and Gothland, on the Scandinavian 
coast, and partly from Sealand and the Danish islands, 
as well as from Sleswig. This identification of Goth- 
land and the part of Old Denmark in Scandinavia, also 
the Danish islands, as lands from which the Anglian 
settlers in England partly came is of much importance. 
It helps us to understand the circumstance that a greater 
extent of England was occupied .by Angles than by 
Saxons ; that the predominant people gave their name 
to the country ; and shows that there was a Scandinavian 
immigration before the eighth century. Our chroniclers 
have assigned a large territory in North Germany as the 
fatherland of the Saxons, but only Schleswig as the 
fatherland of the Angles. In this they certainly over- 
looked the statement of King Alfred, who had no doubt 
the best traditions, derived from the Northern countries 

1 Latham, R. G., ' Handbook of the English Language,' p. 70. 
8 King Alfred's ' Orosius,' edited by H. Sweet, p. 16. 

The Angles and their Allies. 39 

themselves, of the origin of the race in assigning Goth- 
land, Scandinavian Denmark, and the Danish isles as 
their homes, as well as the small territory of Anglen. 
Ancient Gothland occupied a larger part of Sweden than 
the limits of the modern province of the same name, and 
Scandian Denmark comprised Holland and Scania? now 
in Sweden. This great extent of country, with the 
Danish islands and the mainland coasts, would be suffi- 
cient to afford a reasonable explanation of the numerical 
superiority of the Angles among the English settlers. 
They were clearly people who formed a confederacy, as 
has been shown was the case of the Saxons, and these 
confederate invaders took their name from those who 
were the leaders of it. Even as late as Edward the Con- 
fessor's time the names Angles and Danes were con- 
sidered as almost the same. His laws tell us of the 
counties which were under the laws of the Angles, using 
the name Angles for Danes. That the name of the earliest 
Angles comprised people of various tribes is also certain 
from the words used by Bede in his reference to them as 
the peoples of the old Angles. His actual words are 
' populi Anglorum.' These words occur in the account 
he wrote of the names of their months, and may be seen 
in chapter xv. of his ' De Temporum Ratione.' Bede 
has thus put it on record that there were among the 
ancestors of Northumbrian Anglians of his time peoples 
or tribes of Angles. That some of them were of Scan- 
dinavian origin is clear from the evidence already stated. 
It is also practically certain from the information Bede 
gives us concerning the date at which these peoples of 
the ancient Angles began their year. This was the eight 
Calends January, or December 25, the night of which, 
Bede says, was called by them * Modranichte,' or the 
' Night of Mothers,' an ancient pagan name, the origin 
of which he tells us he did not know. The ancient 
Anglians thus began their year at midwinter, as the 
Scandinavians did. The old Germanic year, on the other 

40 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

hand, began at the beginning of winter, or November n, 
later on known as St. Martin's Day. 1 From this differ- 
ence in their mode of reckoning as compared with the 
Germans, and their agreement with the Scandinavians, 
it is very difficult to avoid the conclusion that the ancient 
Angles must have been more Scandian than Germanic. 
That the Angles and Danes were probably connected in 
their origin is shown also by the statement of Saxo, the 
Danish historian, who tells us that the stock of the Danes 
had its beginning with Dan and Angul, their mythological 

Runic inscriptions are an important source of evidence 
in tracing the migrations of the Northern Goths, and of 
the neighbouring nations who acquired their knowledge 
of runes from them. In Sweden, Denmark, and Norway 
there are on fixed objects thousands of inscriptions in 
this ancient alphabet. Similar records are scattered 
over the regions which were overrun and settled by the 
Scandian tribes. 2 They have been found, on movable 
objects only, in the valley of the Danube, which was the 
earliest halting-place of the Goths on their Southern 
migration. They have been found also on fixed objects 
in Kent, which was conquered by the so-called Jutes, in 
Cumberland and other northern parts of England, 
Orkney, and the Isle of Man, where Norwegians formed 
settlements. 3 They are found in Northumberland, where 
the Anglians settled at an earlier period than that of the 
later Norse invaders. Runes may be classed in three 
divisions Gothic, Anglian, and Scandinavian. The 
oldest may date from the first or second century A.D., 
and the latest from the fourteenth or fifteenth century. 
The runic alphabet is called the Futhorc, after the word 
formed by its first six letters. The Anglian runes are 

1 Tille, A., Transactions of Glasgow Arch. Soc., iii., part ii., 
' The Germanic Year,' quoting Wienhold. 

2 Taylor, Isaac, ' History of the Alphabet,' pp. 210-215. 

3 Ibid. 

The Angles and their Allies. 41 

used on the Ruthwell Cross, and several other Northum- 
brian monuments of the seventh and following centuries. 
One of the earliest examples is on a sword found in the 
Thames near London, 1 now in the British Museum. The 
Old English inscribed runic coins are scarce, and run 
from about the seventh to the first half of the ninth 
century, those solely in runic letters being outnumbered 
by others in which nmic and Roman letters are 
mixed. 2 From the circumstance of the discovery of 
inscriptions in runic characters in parts of England which 
were settled by Angles and Jutes, and not in those parts 
which were settled by Saxons, we are able to draw two 
conclusions : (i) That the settlers in Kent must have been 
near in race or allied to the Anglian settlers of Northum- 
berland and other Anglian counties ; and (2) that there 
must have been an absence of any close intercourse or 
communication, and consequently a considerable differ- 
ence, between the Scandinavian Angles and the Saxons, 
seeing that the Angles were acquainted with the runes 
and the Saxons were not, as far as appears from the 
total absence of such inscriptions on stones or other fixed 
monuments in Germany, and in Wessex, Sussex, or 
Essex. The runic inscriptions found in England are 
marked by the Anglian variety of the letters. 

From their original home in the North, the Goths went 
southwards, and carried their art of runic writing with 
them, leaving examples of it here and there in inscriptions 
on portable articles found in the valley of the Danube, 
written in characters which mark the identity of the 
people with those of Northern Gothland. From their 
Northern home across the North Sea went also the 
Anglians, neighbours and allies of the people of Goth- 
land, and they also carried with them the art of nmic 
writing, which they had learnt from the Goths in the 
North, to their new homes in England. Across the same 

1 Taylor, Isaac, loc. cit. 

2 Stephens, G., loc. cit., ii. 515. 

42 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

sea went also the Jutes or Goths to Kent, and left there 
examples of the same general evidence of the Northern 
lands whence they came and of the race to which they 

From the circumstances mentioned, it will appear that 
Anglen, on the east coast of Denmark, could have been 
only a small part of the country inhabited by the people 
called by the Anglian name at the time of the English 
settlement. As Stephens says, the names Engelholm 
and Engeltoft, on the Scandinavian coast or mainland, 
still remind us of the ancient Angles. That name, he 
says, was, as regards the English settlement, the first 
under which the Scandians were known. Later on 
they were called Vikings or Northmen, or Normans. 
They carried with them to their new homes their native 
civilization and many advantages in the knowledge of 
arts and arms. 1 Stephens says that no runic characters 
have ever been discovered in any original German or 
Saxon manuscript. It appears certain that no runic 
stone or other fixed runic inscription has ever been 
discovered on German or Saxon soil. The ornaments 
of a personal kind which bear runic letters have been 
found by hundreds in the Northern lands, and those 
which have been found in Germany and other parts of 
Europe must have been carried there. 2 Since the Anglian 
inscriptions found in England are in characters earlier 
than those which are called Scandinavian, they must 
have been written by people who came during the earlier 
immigration, or by their descendants. The Scandinavian 
runes discovered in England are chiefly inscriptions on 
objects belonging to, or made by, the men who came in 
during the so-called Danish or Viking period. 3 

Many hundreds of inscribed stones have been found in 
ancient Germany, but they bear Roman inscriptions. 

1 Stephens, G., ' Runic Monuments in England and Scandi- 
navia,' i. 360. 

2 Ibid., i. iv. 3 Ibid., i. 360. 

The Angles and their Allies. 43 

The nines, consequently, afford us evidence in connection 
with the settlement of Angles in Britain of a kind which 
is wholly wanting in connection with the Saxons. As 
the total absence of runes on fixed monuments in Ger- 
many may be considered conclusive evidence that they 
were unknown to the German tribes, it is clear that these 
tribes could not carry them to England, and, as might be 
expected, there is, in the parts of England which were 
mainly settled by German tribes, a similar absence of 
runic inscriptions to that which exists in Germany. 
There is, however, a trace of some early inscribed stones 
in Wiltshire, which, according to Aubrey, were in exist- 
ence until the year 1640. This is not improbable, but if 
Aubrey's statement is correct the occurrence of such 
inscriptions may be explained by the existence of a 
settlement of Goths or other Scandians there, and we 
find other evidence, which will be stated later on, of such 
settlements in Hampshire, Dorset, and Wiltshire. On 
this subject Stephens quotes Sir R. Colt Hoare, who says : 
' At a place called the King's Grave, where is now the 
Sheep-Penning of West Amesbury, Aubrey writes, " here 
doe appear five small barrows at one corner of the Penning. 
At the ends of the graves were stones which the people of 
late (about 1640) have fetch't away, for stones, except 
flints, are exceedingly scarce in these partes. 'Tis said 
here there were some letters on these stones, but what 
they were I cannot learn." u 

The inscriptions in runic characters of an earlier date 
than the ninth century which have been found in Eng- 
land cannot have been due to the invasions of the Danes 
and Northmen, and consequently they must have been 
the work of earlier Goths and Angles. That on the sword 
or knife discovered in the Thames near London has been 
assigned by Stephens to the fifth century. 2 This points 

1 Stephens, G., ' Runic Monuments in England and Scandi- 
navia,' i. 360, quoting Sir R. Colt Hoare and Aubrey. 

2 Stephens, G., ' Old Northern Runic Monuments,' i. 124-130. 

44 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

to the period of the settlement of Kent, and the earliest 
invasions of the Goths and Angles. A gold ring, which 
was found near Coslin, in Pomerania, in 1839, and which 
bore a runic letter of a specially Anglian or English type, 
is, according to Stephens, of the same period viz., 
A.D. 400-500. He ascribes this rune ( >^) to English 
work, the letter being a variation of the Gothic rune 
( ^ ), and its equivalence being the sound yo. With 
this single exception, this rune has only been found 
in England. 1 This discovery, in conjunction with the 
inscription on the sword found in the Thames, tends to 
show that there was a connection between the early 
Gothic and Anglian settlers in England and the inhabi- 
tants of the Baltic coasts in the fifth century. The 
evidence afforded by the finding of runic letters of this 
early date at Coslin does not stand alone ; it is sup- 
ported by that of the objects which were discovered with 
it. The ring was found with a bracteate bearing runic 
characters, five other bracteates without runes, and two 
Roman golden coins, one of Theodosius the Great (A.D. 
379-395), the other of Leo I. (A.D. 457-474). This latter 
coin, therefore, assists in confirming the date of the 
objects as about the end of the fifth century. Stephens 
says : 2 ' This is one of the few golden bracteates we can 
date with some certainty from a comparison of the other 
gold pieces with which it lay-' As is well known, the 
golden bracteates belong to a unique class of northern 
remains, and chiefly date from the early Iron Age in 
Scandinavia. They were generally shaped like coins, 
but were not used as coins, being intended for suspensory 
ornaments. They are of no common pattern, but differ 
much in size, weight, and other features. 3 As they 
differed much in their design, so they differed in regard 
to having runes or not. The most important hoard of 
them found in England was discovered at Sarr, in Thanet, 

1 Stephens, G., ' Old Northern Runic Monuments,' vol. ii., 
P. 602. 2 Ibid., ii. 542. 3 Ibid., ii. 509. 

The Angles and their Allies. 45 

in 1863. These, however, had no runic letters on them. 
The evidence that Goths and Vandals or Wends were 
often allied cannot be disputed, and that there was some 
alliance and consequent intercourse between their respec- 
tive countries and the settlements of the Goths in Eng- 
land the discovery of these objects with Anglian or 
English runes on the Wendish coast near Coslin in the 
fifth century is good evidence. The discovery of an 
English runic inscription of such an early date in Pome- 
rania is important from another aspect. It was found 
in what was Gothic and Vandal territory, and the con- 
nection of the Vandals with the Anglo-Saxon settlement 
rests on strong evidence of another kind. Coslin, where 
the ring was found, is on the Baltic coast, east of Riigen 
Island, and nearly opposite to the island of Bornholm. 
This coast was in the third century of our era near the 
country of the Burgundians, before their great migration 
to the south-western part of Germany and to France. 
During the third and following century the Goths and 
Vandals acted together as allies in various expeditions. 
The Isle of Gotland, as proved by the immense number 
of Roman coins of the later Empire discovered there, was 
even at that early period a great commercial centre. 
The Vandals were also great navigators, and the so-called 
Angles were in all probability a branch of the Gothic 
race, certainly of Gothic extraction. There must have 
been communications between the Gothic northern ports 
and the English settlements, and the discovery on the 
sword in the Thames, and a similar discovery of English 
runes on a ring found near the Baltic coast of Pomerania, 
is not, considering all these circumstances, a matter for 

In order to realize the full significance of the evidence 
afforded by the runic inscriptions and their connection 
with the settlement of England, it is necessary to look at 
it from several points of view : First, that runes were 
of Northern Gothic origin, and the Gothic Futhorc or 

46 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

alphabet is the earliest ; secondly, that the Anglian 
Futhorc consists of similar characters varied from the 
Gothic ; and, thirdly, that the Scandinavian has later 
additions. The evidence shows that Goths and Angles 
introduced the art of runic writing into England before 
the end of the fifth century. It is interesting to con- 
sider also the probable origin of the runic letters them- 
selves. Isaac Taylor has proved 1 that the early Gothic 
runes were modifications of the letters of the Greek 
alphabet, and were developed in Northern Gothland as a 
result of the commercial intercourse of the Goths across 
Eastern Europe with the Greek traders of the Levant. 
The Byzantine coins found in the island of Gotland cer- 
tainly point to a trade of this kind at a sufficiently early 
period. Lastly, we have to consider the very interesting 
fact that when the runic letters which had been modified 
from the Greek were introduced into Britain by the 
Goths, these modified Greek characters which had come 
across Europe to the north, and thence to England, met 
there the letters of the Celtic or Romano-British alphabet, 
also derived from the Greek, but which had come there 
across Gaul from the Mediterranean 2 through Roman 

The Warings, who were such close allies of the Angles, 
were certainly much concerned with the early commerce 
of the Baltic and the overland trade between the 
dominions of the Greek Emperors and the Baltic ports. 
Nestor, a monk of Kiev, who wrote in the eleventh cen- 
tury, mentions Novgorod as a Varangian city, and it is 
therefore concluded that there was at that time a large 
settlement of Varangians in that part of Russia. We 
learn, also, that there were Gotlanders in early Russia, 3 
and we know that the Isle of Gotland has revealed 
abundant traces of an ancient overland trade across that 
country. Another fact of interest concerning the later 

1 Taylor, I., loc. cit. 2 Ibid. 

3 Morfill, W. R., ' Russia,' p. 19, quoting Nestor. 

The Angles and their Allies. 47 

Warings is their possible connection with the Isle of 
Riigen, which, in the life of Bishop Otto, is mentioned as 
Verania and the population as Verani, who were re- 
markable for their persistent paganism. 1 These refer- 
ences point, without doubt, to the connection of Riigen 
with Slavonic paganism, and to the Warings of that time 
as associated with it. There is, as already mentioned, 
another more ancient reference to them by Ptolemy, 
under the name of Pharadini, the root syllable Var 
or Phar being almost certainly the same. Their name 
also appears in that of the old river-name Warina, the 
Warna, which gives its name to Warnof, and in War- 
nemiinde, both on the Baltic coast. Procopius mentions 
the Warings, and tells us of the marriage of a sister of 
one of the Kings of the East English with one of their 
Kings. These allies of the ancient Anglians have left 
their mark on the subsequent history of Eastern Europe. 
Their influence among the old Slavs of what is now Russia 
was great, owing to their settlements among them and 
the. commerce through their territory with Byzantium. 
In Constantinople itself the Varangian body-guard of 
the Greek Emperors was of political importance. The 
tall stature of these men and their fair complexions excited 
wonder among the Greeks and Asiatics . of that city. 
Their name in Constantinople became the Byzantine 
equivalent for soldiers of a free company. The body of 
Huscarls organized by Cnut in England was a counter- 
part of the Varangian guard. In physical appearance 
their allies the Angles must have resembled them. Even 
at the present day the stature of the people in the least 
disturbed districts of England that were settled by 
Angles is above the average. It was, however, among the 
old Slavs that their influence was greatest, for the Slav, 
moulded by the Varangian, and converted to the Greek 
Church through Byzantine influence, became the Russian. 2 

1 Latham, R. G., ' Ethnology of the British Isles,' 154. 

2 Rambaud, A., ' History of Russia,' i. 24. 

48 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

The custom of disposing of the dead by cremation is 
so different from that of interment that where both pre- 
vailed there must in ancient time have been people of 
different races or tribes living in such a district. One 
fact which excavations in Anglo-Saxon burial-places 
proves beyond doubt is the contemporaneous practice 
of cremation and burial in various parts of England. 
In Norfolk, Cambridgeshire, Northamptonshire, and 
Gloucestershire, evidence has been obtained that both 
practices went on. 1 In some parts of Norfolk, Suffolk, 
and Derbyshire, cremation appears to have been the sole 
observance, 2 as at Walsingham, and at Kingston near 
Derby. In the cemeteries of Kent and Sussex burial 
appears to have been almost the exclusive practice. 
Derbyshire is peopled by descendants of Anglians, 
according to the present physical race-characters of the 
people. A passage in Beowulf furnishes evidence of 
the practice of cremation among the Angles, 3 ' To make 
a mound, bright after the funeral fire, upon the nose of 
the promontory, which shall be for a memorial to my 
people.' The pagan Anglians appear, from these dis- 
coveries and this passage, to have burnt their dead, as 
the pagan Esthonians did at a later period in the time of 
King Alfred. 4 The custom among the Teutons thus 
appears to have been a Northern one, and Anglian rather 
than Saxon. From the evidence which has been obtained, 
cremation appears to have been practised in Jutland and 
the western part of the Danish isles about the time of the 
Anglian migration, while burial prevailed at the same 
time in Zealand and part of Funen Isle. 5 

1 Akerman, J. Y., ' Remains of Pagan Saxondom,' Intro- 
duction, xiv. 

2 Ibid. 3 Ibid., xv. 
* ' Orosius,' edited by Bosworth, J., 54. 

6 Englehard, C., ' L'ancient age de fer en Seland.' 




THE Jutes, who, according to the English chroniclers, 
were one of the three nations by which England was 
settled, are but little mentioned under that name by 
early historians of Northern Europe. Bede calls them 
Jutes, so that we may conclude that at the end of the 
seventh century this was the name by which these people 
were known in England. In early records relating to 
Germany and the North they appear to have been called 
by man}? names Vitungi or Juthungi, Jutae, Gaetas, 
Gothi, Gothini, Gythones, Guthones, Gutae, Gautae, Vitae, 
and Gaeta. 1 The name Geats they derived from Geat, a 
mythological ancestor of Woden, according to the West 
Saxon genealogy, and Asser tells us that Geat was wor- 
shipped as a god. 2 

Tacitus mentions Goths under the name Guthones, and 
states that they occupied the country east of the Vistula. 
He says also that the Goutai lived in the island of Scandia, 
and we may identify the locality with the Swedish 
province of Gothland. 3 The people around the Gulf of 
Riga at the present day, including the Livonians, are 
partly of Teutonic origin, and may in part be descendants 

1 Latham, R. G., ' Germania of Tacitus,' Epilegomena, cxiv. 

a Asser, ' Life of Alfred.' 

3 Taylor, Isaac, ' Greeks and Goths,' p. 46. 

49 4 

50 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

of those ancient Gothic people who are known to have 
lived east of the Vistula. 

The Jutes who settled in England had much in common 
with the Frisians ; so also had the Goths. In the 
mythological genealogies given in the Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle and elsewhere, Godwulf appears as the father 
of Fin, which probably refers to a very remote connection 
between the Frisians and the Goths, for later on the name 
Fin occurs as a representative of the Frisian nation. 1 
The languages, as far as Frisian and the Moeso-Gothic are 
concerned, point to a similar connection. There is 
evidence of a large Frisian immigration in various parts 
of England, and much of the country was evidently 
settled by them under the names Saxons and Angles. As 
Goths and Frisians were connected in their mythological 
names, and the great mythological Frisian is Fin, 2 his 
name perhaps refers to an ancient link also with the Fin 
race, thus faintly transmitted through some remote con- 
nection. The accounts which the Frisians have of the 
expedition of Hengist are similar to those which we 
possess of him among the Jutes of Kent. 

The Jutes, like the Angles, in all probability, were 
originally located in Scandinavia, for Ptolemy, writing 
in the second century of our era, places the Gutse in the 
south of that peninsula. In Bede's time Jutland was 
known by its present name, and no doubt took it from the 
Jutes, but the time of their settlement in Kent and that 
of Bede are separated by nearly three centuries, and 
during this interval the Jutes may have become located 
also in Jutland. There is neither contemporary history 
nor tradition that a people so called were there before 
Bede's time. His statement that those who settled in 
England came from Jutland is, as Latham has pointed 
out, only an inference from the fact that when he wrote 

1 Lappenberg, J. M., ' History of the Anglo - Saxon Kings,' 
i. 24, note. 
a ' The Traveller's Song.' 

The Jutes, Goths, and Northmen. 5 1 

Jutes, Angles, and Saxons were in contact in the Danish 
peninsula and the adjoining part of North Germany, and 
also in contact in England. Under these circumstances 
it was a logical inference that the Angles came from 
Anglen and the Jutes from Jutland, but this is probably 
only true in part. Jutland may have been a Jutish colony 
like Kent and the Isle of Wight, and probably an earlier 
one, seeing that it is so much nearer to the original 
homeland of the Gothic race in Scandinavia, but that 
would not necessarily imply that all the Jutes came from 

Whatever may have been the origin of their name, it 
is probable that they were, like the modern Danes, men 
of more than average stature. It has been commonly 
assumed that during the inroads into the countries that 
were provinces of the Roman Empire, and the settle- 
ment of people who gave rise to new nations therein, 
only Britain was attacked by bands of Saxons, Angles, 
and Jutes. We do not read of conquests by these nations 
elsewhere. Some of the Saxons are, indeed, said to have 
accompanied their neighbours, the Lombards, in their 
great Southern expedition and invasion of Italy, but 
little is known of this alliance. 

Apart from the statement of Bede, whose list of tribes 
from which the Old English of his time were known to 
have descended, is not repeated by the later chroniclers, 
it would seem improbable that, in the general rush for 
new territory, two or three German tribes or nations 
should have had left to them the island of Britain as a 
kind of exclusive territory for conquest and settlement. 
Bede, the earliest Anglo-Saxon historian, wrote, no 
doubt, according to the best information current in 
his day, and his statement concerning the many German 
tribes from which the English were descended is sup- 
ported by modern research. Tradition cannot be alto- 
gether neglected. In all old countries there comes a 
time when history dawns, but men lived and died before 


52 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

that dawn, and only traditions concerning them came 
do\yn to the historic period. Many such traditions are 
no doubt based on actual occurrences, the details of 
which have become more or less hazy, and in some 
instances distorted by the additions acquired through 
their narration by word of mouth from age to age. 
The story of Hengist may be a tradition of this kind. 

As already stated, Nennius, in the ' Historia Britonum,' 
gives one name to all the invaders of Britain, that of 
Saxons, and does not attempt to distinguish them under 
the national or tribal names by which they were known 
among themselves. It was sufficient for his purpose as 
a British historian to describe these enemies of his 
countrymen by one general name. 

In the passage of Bede in which he refers to some of 
the tribes from which his countrymen were known to 
have descended, we obtain a glimpse of those wider views 
of the origin of the Old English race which were known 
in his time, and were probably well recognised by existing 
tribal differences in dialect, customs, and even in the 
physical appearance of the people at the time he wrote . 

In the passage of Nennius in which he mentions that 
among the early invaders of Britain there were some who 
came from almost all the provinces of Germany, we have 
corroboration of Bede's statement and another glimpse 
of the current knowledge in Britain at that time, and 
of the wider origin of the Old English than the later 
chroniclers have transmitted to us. 

The general names Saxons, Angles, and Jutes were no 
doubt at first used as comprehensive terms for people 
of various tribes, but as time passed on, and the chroniclers 
omitted all references to the tribal names mentioned by 
Bede, these three names came to be regarded in a more 
limited sense as the names of the actual nations from 
which alone the Old English sprang. The omission of 
Frisians is especially remarkable. It has been shown 
that under the name Saxons the Frisians must have been 

The Jutes, Goths, and Northmen. 53 

included, and it will also be shown that fhey must be 
included among the Anglian settlers. It has also been 
shown that the Angles were allied to the Warings seated 
on the south-west of the Baltic coast. As Bede mentions 
the Danes in his list, it is also practically certain that the 
early Danes were allies of the Angles. The list, therefore, 
of the nations and tribes from whom the English of the 
end of the seventh century were descended becomes 
enlarged. Frisians, Danes, Hunni or Hunsings, Rugians, 
and Boructers, must certainly be numbered among 

Moreover, when we consider Bede's list by the light of 
modern research, we arrive at the conclusion that some 
of the Franks probably took part in the settlement of 
England, for he mentions the Boructarii or Bructers, 
and these are known later on to have been part of the 
Frank confederation. 

It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that the Goths 
must have been allies of the Angles. They were also 
close allies of the Vandals or Wends, of which nation the 
Rugians formed part. The commerce of the Baltic during 
the period of the Anglo-Saxon settlement was largely 
in the hands of the Goths. It is impossible to over- 
rate the commercial importance of the Isle of Gotland 
at this time and for many centuries later. The ruins 
of Wisby, the chief port of ancient Gotland, are to this 
day the greatest wonder of the Baltic, and Oland Isle 
was another seat of ancient Gothic trade. There is 
some connection between the ancient trade of the Goths 
and the settlement of them and their allies in England. 
The most remarkable native commodity which came in 
ancient days from the Baltic was the fossil-gum known 
as amber. The trade in amber can be traced almost as 
long as any in Europe. It was known to the Greeks and 
Romans, and came from the North to the South by the 
old trade routes across the Continent. The Goths were 
known only too well to the later Roman Emperors. Long 

54 Ongin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

after the Romans had left Britain that country was still 
recognised as one of the provinces of the Empire, and as 
late as A.D. 537 Belisarius, in the name of the Emperor, 
granted it to the Goths, 1 which seems to show that the 
Byzantine Emperor of the sixth century knew quite well 
that Goths were already settled in our country. 

The ancient people on the coast of the Baltic who 
collected amber and exchanged it for other commodities 
were called the Guthones and the ^Estyi. There were 
two routes by which amber could reach the South of 
Europe in the time of the Empire one through Ger- 
many, the other by the route further eastward through 
the countries known as Sarmatia or Slavonia. The 
double name for the people near the mouth of the Vistula 
probably arose in this way, from their being known to 
the Germans as the ^Estyi, and to the Slavonians who 
traded across to the Black Sea as Guthones. These 
Guthones were Goths of the same race or descent as the 
islanders of Gotland, and as the people of East and West 
Gothland in Sweden. That the Reid-Goths at least, 
some of them lived in the Scandian peninsula is proved 
by a runic inscription on a stone at Rok in East Goth- 
land, in which a chieftain named Waring is commemo- 
rated, and in which he is said to have increased their 
power. 2 This inscription also connects the Waring name 
with the eastern or Ostrogoths of Sweden. Amber was 
certainly used as an ornament among the Anglo-Saxons 
at a very early date. It has been frequently found in 
the form of beads and other articles in cemeteries in 
many parts of England, and its use at this early time in 
England points to an early trade with the Baltic. Its 
common use in the manufacture of beads and other 
personal ornaments may perhaps also point to a custom 
of personal decoration which was introduced into England 
by settlers from the Baltic. These amber traders were 

1 Church, A. J., ' Early Britain,' 88. 

2 Stephens, G. f ' Old Northern Runic Monuments,' i. 228. 

The Jutes, Goths, and Northmen. 55 

commonly known in England by their Gerfrian name of 
Eastmen, the ^Estyi of the early writers. 

The names Estum and Estmere are mentioned by 
King Alfred in connection with the Vistula in his descrip- 
tion of the relative situation of Veonod-land i.e., Wend- 
land, Vitland, and other countries on the southern coast 
of the Baltic Sea. The ^Estyi are mentioned by Pliny 
and Tacitus, the former of whom locates them in ' ^Estu- 
arium Oceani,' an expression which, as Latham has 
pointed out, probably arose through the name Est-ware 
or Eastmen being misunderstood to have reference to 
an estuary. 1 Pliny connects the ^Estyi with the amber 
country, and Tacitus, in following the coast-line of the 
Baltic, comes to their country. The locality of these 
people of the amber district was therefore the coast in 
which amber is found at the present day. To the north 
of it is the Isle of Gotland, and this island in the time of 
the Romans and during the Anglo-Saxon period was the 
greatest commercial centre in the North of Europe. The 
proof of its trade with England and overland with 
Eastern countries is complete. The evidence of its early 
trade during the Roman period is shown by the large 
number of Roman coins which have been found in the 
island. Thousands, indeed, of the Roman and early 
Byzantine periods have been discovered there. Similarly, 
during the Viking Age, the coins found in Gotland show 
that the island stood foremost as the commercial centre 
of the North. It kept its supremacy for ten or twelve 
centuries. 2 In addition, thousands of Arabic coins have 
been found there ; also silver ornaments, to which the 
name Kufic has been given, showing that the old trade 
route with Gotland extended at one time as far eastward 
as Bokhara, Samarcand, Bagdad, and Kufa. 3 

Another source of evidence concerning the eastern 
trade of Gotland, and more particularly with the Eastern 

1 Latham, R. G., ' The Germania of Tacitus,' Notes. 

2 du Chaillu, ' Viking Age,' ii. 218. 3 Ibid., ii. 219. 

56 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

Empire, is that derived from certain weights of the 
Viking period found in the island, and now in the museum 
at Stockholm. These relate to the weights of gold and 
silver, and their unit is exactly the same as that of the 
Eastern stater, 1 thus pointing to a common weight in 
use for purposes of exchange between Goths of the Baltic 
and Greeks of the Levant. 

It is of interest to note this influence of eastern trade 
in the monetary computation introduced into England 
by Danish and Scandian settlers. The ora is mentioned 
in the treaty between Alfred and Guthrum, in subsequent 
laws, and in Domesday Book. The marks and oras of 
the Danes were the computation in use in England within 
the Danelaw until after the Norman Conquest. 

Although it is not probable that Danish marks and 
other coins were used as coins in England, money com- 
putations were often made in them. In Domesday Book 
the Danish money is mentioned as the computation in 
which customary payments were made in various 
boroughs and manors outside the Danelaw Bristol, 
Dorchester, Wareham, Bridport, Shaftesbury, Ringwood, 
some manors in the Isle of Wight, in North-East Gloucester- 
shire, and elsewhere, being among the number, thus 
clearly pointing to Scandinavian settlers. 

The pounds and shillings of Wessex were Roman in 
their origin. The marks and oras of the Danish districts 
in England had an Eastern equivalence. As regards 
their value, they had their origin in the Eastern Empire 
and in the monetary exchange that prevailed along the 
Eastern trade route from Byzantium to the Baltic. 
More than 20,000 Anglo-Saxon coins have been found in 
Sweden and the Isle of Gotland, ranging in date from 
Edward the Elder to Edward the Confessor. Many of 
them are preserved in the Royal Collection at Stock- 
holm. 2 

1 Seebohm, P., ' Tribal Custom in Anglo-Saxon Law,' 236. 
a du Chaillu, loc. cit., ii. 219. 

The Jutes, Got/is, and Northmen. 57 

These remarkable discoveries, and especially the Roman 
coins on the one hand and the Anglo-Saxon on the other, 
show that the great trade of Gotland was continuous 
from the Roman period to the later Saxon time in 
England. Its commercial prosperity as the chief centre 
of maritime trade in the North of Europe must con- 
sequently have extended over the whole period of the 
attacks on Britain by the Saxons, Angles, Jutes or 
Goths, and Danes. There can, indeed, be little doubt 
that such a maritime centre as the island was during the 
fifth and succeeding centuries furnished ships for the 
invasions and settlement of England by Goths and their 
allies. Gotland was no ordinary island, and Wisby, its 
great port, was no ordinary seaport. It must have 
exercised no ordinary influence on maritime affairs in 
Northern Europe during the time it flourished, and this 
influence certainly extended to England. The Goths and 
other Teutonic people of the Baltic are brought under 
very early notice by Pytheas, the renowned navigator of 
Marseilles, in the fourth century B.C. He tells us that 
he sailed up the Baltic in search of the amber coast, 
rounding the cape of what is now called Jutland, and 
proceeding about 6,000 stadia along the coasts of the 
Guttones and Teutones. As the date of this voyage was 
about 325 B.C., the account shows that Goths and Teutons 
at that early time were known names for Northern 

The relations of the Goths and the Vandals is important, 
and must be fully considered in reference to any part of 
Europe that was conquered and settled by the former 
nation, which was more advanced in civilization and the 
arts than their allies. The Goths invented runes, and 
so established among Northern races the art of writing, 
and they were skilled metallurgists and gilders. The 
Vandals of the Baltic coast whom they conquered were a 
less advanced people, but a lasting peace appears to have 
been formed between them, and to have been subse- 

58 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

quently remembered in Northern mythology. The con- 
flict of the ^Esir and Vanir is a Northern myth, which, 
considered ethnologically, may be regarded as founded 
on the wars carried on between the Teutonic and Slavonic 
races. That between the Goths and Vandals was a 
war of this kind, and it resulted in peace and a lasting 
alliance. The myth of the conflict of the ^Esir and Vanir 
also terminated in a lasting peace and the exchange of 
hostages between the contending races. The alliance 
between the Northern Goths and the Vandals and their 
combined expeditions can be traced in the Anglo-Saxon 
settlement and in the present topography of England. 
In many parts of our country Gothic and Wendish place- 
names survive near each other, side by side with Gothic 
and Wendish customs. There is, indeed, in England 
very considerable evidence afforded by the ancient place- 
names that two of the great nations of the North in the 
fifth and sixth centuries the Goths and Vandals who 
played such an important part in the destruction of the 
Roman Empire and the occupation of large provinces 
elsewhere, took part in the invasion and settlement of 
this country. This evidence is confirmed by the sur- 
vival of customs among the English settlers, some of 
which have come down to our time, and for their 
remote origin may be traced to Goths, or to Vandals. 
Both these Northern nations were maritime people. 
The Baltic Sea was called in ancient time the Vendic 
Sea, after the Vandals, as the Adriatic Sea is called 
the Gulf of Venice after them to the present day. 
The conclusion, therefore, appears unavoidable that, 
under the general names of Saxons, Angles, and Jutes, 
some Goths and Vandals, as will be shown more fully in 
succeeding chapters, took a considerable part in the 
invasion and settlement of England. Later on, during 
the Viking Age, the Vikings of Denmark and Norway 
often acted in alliance with the Wendish Vikings of 
Jomberg, as shown by references in early Norse litera- 

The Jutes, Goths, and Northmen. 59 

ture, and the occurrence in close proximity, in various 
parts of England on or near the coast, of Wendish place- 
names and Scandinavian place-names, which mark the 
settlements of these allies. Not infrequently, also, near 
such places the survival of characteristic Norse and 
Wendish customs can be traced. 

There is evidence of the large immigration of settlers 
of various tribes from Scandinavia to be found in remains 
of their speech. The dialects which the Northmen intro- 
duced into England, both during the earlier settlements 
of Goths and Angles and the later settlements of Danes, 
certainly formed the basis from which some of the 
dialects spoken in many parts of England were formed. 
Skeat has pointed out that when Icelandic became a 
written language in the eleventh century, an interesting 
statement in regard to English and the language of the 
Northmen was made by Snorri Sturluson, the author 
of the Icelandic alphabet and its earliest literature. 
' Englishmen,' he says, ' write English with Latin letters 
such as represent their sounds correctly. Following their 
example, since we are of one language, although the one & 
may have changed greatly, or each of them to some 
extent, I have framed an alphabet for us Icelanders.' 
There is a statement also in the Saga of Gunlaugr Orms- 
tunga that there was the same tongue used at the time 
the Saga was written the eleventh century in England, 
Norway, and Denmark. 1 This was the age of William 
the Conqueror, who was desirous that his own son Richard 
should learn the Old Danish language, no doubt with 
some political or administrative object in view, and we 
are told that he sent him for this purpose to Bayeux, 
where the Old Northern speech still lingered, although 
it had died out at Rouen. 2 

As the Jutes who settled in England were neither Norse 
nor Danes, as known at a later period, they must, by the 

1 Skeat, W. W., 'Principles of English Etymology,' 455. 

2 Ellis, G., ' Early English Metrical Romances,' Introd., p. 6. 

60 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

evidence of the runic inscriptions found in Kent, have 
been either of the Anglian 1 or Gothic stock. In the time 
of Pytheas fourth century B.C. and in that of Ptolemy 
second century A.D. the Goths, as already mentioned, 
occupied a region on the east of the Baltic. Their name 
is lost there, but survives in Gotland Isle and Gothland 
in Sweden. Tradition ascribes the Baltic area as their 
original home, and in any case they must have been settled 
along its coasts at a very early period. The old name 
Uuitland for a part of the east coast of the Baltic reminds 
us of the Jutes, for Uuit is probably a modified form of 
Jute or Jewit, and in the Jutish parts of England, as in 
Hampshire, we meet with Uuit or Wit names, as Wihtland 
for the Isle of Wight. The identity of some of the Jutes 
with the Goths is shown by the similarity of the name, 
and its ancient occurrence on both sides of the Baltic 
Sea ; in the similarity of customs, as will be described 
later ; and in historical references, such as that of Asser, 
who, in telling us that King Alfred's mother was descended 
from the Goths and Jutes, practically identifies them 
as being of one race. In the survival of monuments 
with old Gothic runes in Kent we have corroborative 

Beddoe refers to the similarity of the place-names in 
many parts of England, and says : 2 ' The patronymical 
names and other place-names in Kent and other parts 
of England forbid us to imagine an exclusive Jutish 
nationality.' The evidence of Goths and Frisians in 
Kent, and of settlers of the same nationalities in many 
other parts of England, appears to afford a solution of 
the question who the -people called Jutes in Kent or in 
Hampshire really were i.e., mainly Goths or of Gothic 

The part which the nations of the Baltic took in the 
conquest and settlement of England has been under- 

1 Taylor, I., 'History of the Alphabet,' 210-215. 

2 Beddoe, J., ' Races in Britain,' 42. 

The Jutes, Goths, and Northmen. 6 r 

rated. With such a great centre of commerce and 
shipping as existed at Wisby, although smaller than it 
afterwards became, it is unreasonable to doubt the con- 
nection of the Goths with many of these maritime expe- 
ditions, if only as carriers. The time of the settlement 
of the Isle of Gotland is lost in antiquity. The only 
record of its remarkable history is the ' Gotlands lagarne,' 1 
which is thought to be a supplement to the ancient laws 
of the country. This is supposed to have been written 
about A.D. 1200, and preserves in the old Gotlandish 
language laws that are apparently of a much earlier 
date. The discovery of so many Roman coins in the 
island shows that its commercial history is older than the 
time of the English Conquest. Whatever it was at that 
time and relatively to most other ports it must have 
been great Wisby became in the tenth and eleventh 
centuries a place of almost fabulous wealth. As regards 
the ancient homelands of the Goths in Sweden, the 
evidence of communications with Anglo-Saxon England 
is direct. In the south of the Scandian peninsula is a 
province now called Carlscrona, whose ancient name 
was Blekinge, under which name it is mentioned by 
King Alfred in his ' Orosius.' Stephens tells us of runic 
stones that have been found in Bleking, and on the 
authority of Elias Fries of Upsala he states they are said 
to be in Anglo-Saxon. 2 W T hen we consider that there is 
historical evidence of the missionary labours of English- 
men among the heathen Goths of the South of Sweden, it 
will not appear surprising that inscriptions in Anglian 
runes should be found there. The church of Lund, the 
mother-church of that part of the country, was founded 
by Englishmen early in the eleventh century, according 
to Adam of Bremen. 3 Lund was the capital of this part 

1 du Chaillu, P. B., ' The Land of the Midnight Sun,' i. 304. 

2 Stephens, G., loc. cit., i. 359. 

3 Adamus Bremen, ' Hist. Eccles.,' lib. ii., chaps, xxix. and 

62 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

of the peninsula, a city of great extent, of great antiquity, 
and one which enjoyed a high prosperity as early as the 
ninth century. Blekinge is mentioned as Blecinga-eg, 
or the Isle of the Blekings, by King Alfred, repeating the 
description of Wulfstan of his voyage up the Baltic. 
' We had,' he says, 'first Blekinge, and Moen and Eowland, 
and Gothland on our larboard (baecbord), and these 
lands belong to Sweden ; and Wendland was all the way 
on our starboard as far as the mouth of the Vistula.' 1 
These on the larboard were, without doubt, homelands of 
some of the early people of the Jutish or Gothic race. 
There is other evidence of early communications between 
England and Scandinavia. At Skaang, in Sodermanland, 
Sweden, there is a runic inscription on a stone of peculiar 
interest, from its association with England. It has the 
English sign ("I) for the word and,. This, Stephens 
tells us, is distinctly English, and only English, in its 
origin, so that inscriptions having it show English 
influence of some kind. 2 In considering this he regards 
it as evidence of early literary communications between 
the English settlers and their Continental kindred. 
We should remember also that this Old English sign 
abounds in Domesday Book. Stephens says : ' The 
Saxon and German pagans got their writing-schools as 
well as their Christianity and culture of movements, 
direct and indirect, chiefly from England and Anglo- 
Keltic lands, whose missionaries carried their runes with 
them, partly for secret writing, and partly for use in 
Scandinavia.' It is the evidence of the runes that shows 
the Scandian origin of the Anglians who settled in 
Northern England. Stephens' last words on this subject 
are : ' I beg the reader carefully to ponder the following 
remarkable and interesting and decisive facts in the list 
showing the numerical result (of runic discoveries) in 
every class up to June, 1894. It is : in Scando-Anglia, 

1 King Alfred's ' Orosius,' edited by H. Sweet, p. 20. 

2 Stephens, G., loc. cit., iii. 24. 

The Jutes, Goths, and Northmen. 63 

10,423 runic remains ; in Germany, SaxcJny, and else- 
where, 19 as wanderers.' 1 

The Northmen of the Anglo-Saxon period were cer- 
tainly people of many tribes. The name included all 
the inhabitants of the Northern peninsula as well as the 
Danes. It was not confined in its meaning like the later 
name Norse. In Sweden there were the ancient provinces 
of Halland, Skane, Bleking, Smaland, Sodermanland, 
Nebrike, Vermland, Upland, Vestmanland, Angerman- 
land, Helsingland, Gestrickland, Delarna, Eastern and 
Western Gotland, and others. Vermland, which had 
been part of Norway, was added to Sweden after 860. 
In Norway there were the tribal provinces or districts 
of Nordrland, Halgoland, Raumerike, Heredaland, Hade- 
land, Rogaland, Raumsdel, Borgund, Viken, and 

People of these provinces or tribal districts were all 
Northmen, as understood by the early settlers in England, 
and in the parts of our country where Scandinavians 
made colonies some of these tribal names may still be 
traced. It is certain also that the inhabitants generally 
of the coast of Norway and the shore of the Baltic were 
called Lochlandach or Lakelanders, 2 and traces of them 
may perhaps be found in England under names derived 
from this word. ' Few and far,' says Stephens, writing 
of the tribes of Scandinavia, ' are the lights which grimmer 
over the clan lands of our forefathers. . . . We may 
learn a little more in time if we work hard and theorize 
less. But whatever we can now master as to the Old 
Northern language we have learnt from the monuments. 
These, therefore, we must respect at all hazards, what- 
ever systems may have to give way, even though the 
upshot should be that much of our boasted modern 
philology, with its iron laws and straight lines and regular 

1 Stephens, G. f ' The Runes, Whence they Came,' Preface, 
3 Stephens, G., ' Old Northern Runic Monuments,' iii. 10. 

64 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

police-ruled developments, is only a house built upon the 

The Northern dialects, as introduced into England 
from the fifth and tenth centuries, may have differed, 
in some respects, from the Icelandic or Old Northern 
tongue as written in the eleventh century. Hence 
the great value of the earliest runic inscriptions as 
evidence, so far as they go, of the earliest meanings of 
some words that afterwards were used in Old English. 
In considering this probable change, Stephens tells us 
that the only corruptors of dialects he knew were those 
' who improve Nature, by writing them not as they are, 
but according to their notions of what they ought to 
be i.e., in accordance with rules of grammar derived 
from other languages for instance, the peculiar and 
comparatively modern Icelandic, with which they may 
be acquainted.' 2 

As the name Northmen was a general one, which 
included the different tribal people of Scandinavia, so 
the name Eastmen appears to have also been a general 
name for the people of the Baltic region on the opposite 
shores to those of Sweden. With the Angles and Goths 
of the early period of the Anglo-Saxon settlement some 
people of the Norse race, afterwards so called, may well 
have been included. The earliest English coins found 
in Norway are of the period when the Norse began 
their Viking expeditions to the British shores. They 
comprise coins of Kewulf of Mercia, 796-819, Ceolwulf 
his son, 819-821, and Northumbrian coins of about 

From the results of the researches of many archae- 
ologists, historians, and philologists, both English and 
Scandinavian, we are led to the conclusion that the 
Northmen of various tribes and nations had a greater 
share in the settlement of England than has commonly 

1 Stephens, G., ' Old Northern Runic Monuments,' iii. 396. 

2 Ibid., iii. 2. 3 du Chaillu, ' Viking Age,' ii. 221. 

The Jutes, Goths, and -Northmen. 65 

been attributed to them. Stephens assigns them a very 
large share indeed, and his great work on the ' Old 
Northern Runic Monuments ' attests his vast research. 
He says : ' Anglic Britain was chiefly planted by North- 
men in the second and following centuries, and was half 
replanted by them in the ninth and tenth.' 1 Whatever 
may have been the date of their earliest settlements, 
Northmen were certainly among both the earlier and 
later ancestors of the Old English. 

1 Loc. cit., iii., Foreword. 



r I "*HE ancient Frisians are but poorly represented 
by their descendants on the coast of the North 
Sea at the present time. The greater part of 
Holland was at one time occupied by them, as the 
northern part still is. Their coast has undergone 
greater changes within the range of history than any 
other in Europe. An old map of the twelfth century 
shows that Texel and Vlieland, and the other islands 
now forming a crescent along the coast, were joined 
to the mainland. The river Ysel at that time passed 
into the sea through the narrow channel between 
Texel and the promontory of North Holland. The 
Vlie similarly had its outlet through a channel 
north of the present Vlieland. In the middle of the old 
northern province of Holland the Lake of Flevo was 
situated. This was an inland water of the same kind as 
the Frisian broads at the present time. As the result 
of a great flood in the autumn of 1170 the lowlands along 
the rivers began to disappear, and in the course of the 
next two centuries nearly a million acres of land had 
become submerged. By the middle of the fifteenth 
century there was left the Zuyder Zee of the present time, 
with the islands, to mark the great encroachment of the 
sea on the old Frisian country. Before the time when 
their history began the Frisians extended westward to 
the old Rhine, whose outlet is at Katwijk, and much 


The Frisians : Their Tribes and Allies. 67 

farther to the northward, where their descendants still 
occupy the North Frisian Islands and the opposite coast 
of Schleswig. They and the Goths of the Baltic coasts 
were the greatest maritime nations of Northern Europe 
in the early centuries of our era. The old Frisian settle- 
ments, indeed, extended into the Baltic, where they came 
into contact with the Goths, Danes, Wends, and other 
nations. This was the direction of their early trade, by 
which they were brought into commercial connection with 
the Eastern trade route. The Scandinavian ratio of the 
value of gold to silver i to 8 which prevailed in ancient 
Frisia in the payment of the gold wergelds of the district 
near the Weser in a silver equivalent, 1 appears to be 
satisfactory proof of this commercial intercourse. It 
was without doubt from the Frisian coast that many 
expeditions started for the coasts of Britain, that re- 
sulted in the conquest of the country and the settlement 
of new races of people in it. Much has been written 
about the Anglo-Saxon settlement, but little has been 
told of the part which the Frisians played in this great 
migration. Some English historians only tell us of their 
settlements on the Scotch coast in the Firth of Forth 
and around Dumfries at the head of the Solway Firth. 
The evidence is, however, abundant that the part they 
played in the settlement of England was hardly second 
to that of any race. They were probably included in 
the designation Saxon within the confederacy of the 
Saxon invaders, and as they were the chief maritime 
nation of North Germany at that time there can be no 
doubt that Frisian ships were used. 

The settlement of some Frisians on the east coast of 
Britain in the time of the Empire is probable from 
Ptolemy's reference to the Parisi in the Holderness 
district, and the Teutonic equivalence of this name, Fan si. 

Procopius also, the Greek historian of the sixth century, 2 

1 Seebohm, F., ' Tribal Custom in Anglo-Saxon Law,' 207. 

2 Procopius, ' De Jiell. Goth.,' lib. iv., 20. 


68 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

says that three very populous nations occupied Britain 
the Angles, the Britons, and the Frisians. Their migra- 
tions across the North Sea certainly began at an early 
date. By the middle of the sixth century there were 
scattered colonies of Angles and Frisians occupying 
districts of the east coast of Britain from the Tees to the 
Forth, and the kingdom of Bernicia was formed by Ida, 
the capital, Bamburgh, being placed on a headland not 
far from the Tweed. 1 The selection of such a site for 
the seat of government of a kingdom founded by a 
maritime people was characteristic. The Frisian country 
itself was a coast country, not extending far inland 
beyond easy access to and from the sea. It was natural, 
therefore, that the new settlements which such a people 
founded should be grouped so as to reproduce as much as 
possible facilities for communication similar to those to 
which they were accustomed. Their communications 
were kept up mainly by the sea, and the position of 
Bamburgh, as the seat of government for the settlers 
along the coast, points to this as well as to the site being 
chosen for defence. These were not the earliest of their 
race that came to Britain, and probably not the earliest 
settlers, for in the later Roman period we have a record 
of some colonies of Frisians and other German tribes 
introduced for military purposes. 

Procopius mentions the inhabitants of Britain under 
the names ' Angeloi, Phrissones, and those surnamed 
from the island Brittones.' He thus calls the same people 
Angles and Frisians, whom Welsh authors, writing about 
the same date, call Saxons. 

The Frisian occupancy of the coast of North Germany 
was probably continuous from North Holland to South 
Denmark, and there must be assumed to have been a 
fringe of them along the whole sea-board of Hanover 
and Holstein. 2 They were the neighbouring nation to the 

1 Skene, W. F., ' Celtic Scotland,' i. 151. 

2 Latham, R. G., ' The Germania of Tacitus,' p. 242. 

The Frisians: Their Tribes and Allies. 69 

Angles, the Frisians lying west and the Angles east. The 
approach of the two people towards identity of race or 
origin is probably near, but there is no proof of any Frisian 
calling himself an Angle or vice versa. Both may have been 
called by the same name by a third nation, or both may 
have been called Saxon. 1 This consideration is important 
in reference to the use of the names Angles and Saxons as 
those of allied peoples and not merely of tribes or nations. 

The Frisian people, both in Schleswig and in Holland, 
are an example of an ancient race in the last stage 
of gradual absorption by the more vigorous nations with 
which they are in close contact. Other races which 
were much concerned with the conquest and settlement 
of England as parts of confederacies have similarly 
become absorbed in the nationalities of their more 
vigorous neighbours, and their languages have entirely 
disappeared. Of this, the case of the Wends, who occupied 
the coast of Pomerania, is an example. The Old Saxons, 
also, were relatively greater than the Saxons of Germany 
at the present day, and their language has been absorbed 
in the German. One of the most remarkable disappear- 
ances of any ancient race is that of the Lombards or 
Longobards, who were neighbours of the Saxons. All 
that remains to remind us of them is the name Lom- 
bardy. The race and their language have entirely dis- 
appeared, and been absorbed by the Italian. A similar 
disappearance is that of the Burgundians. Their original 
home was in the East of Europe, in and near the Isle 
of Bornholm in the Baltic and on the adjacent coasts, 
but as a result of their southern migration the race has 
been absorbed, and the names Bornholm and Burgundy 
alone remain to tell us of their existence in North- 
Eastern Europe and in Eastern France. 

At the present time the North Frisian area, which is 
separated by a long stretch of coast from East Friesland, 
comprises the western part of Schleswig and the islands 
1 Latham, R. G., loc. cit., p. 241. 

7o Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

opposite. The North Frisian area comprised the parts 
about Husum, Bredsted, and Tondern, on the mainland of 
Schleswig, where the Frisians were distributed over some 
thirty-eight parishes, which, along with the inhabitants 
of the islands, gave a population in 1852 of about 30,000. 
In this northern province of Germany, as in Holland, 
the same process of absorption is going on, and more 
rapidly perhaps in Schleswig than in East Friesland. In 
these disappearing Frisians we may see the last remnants 
of a vigorous ancient nation, largely concerned in the 
conquest and settlement of England, and numerously 
represented among the ancestors of the English people. 

Several dialects of the Frisian language still survive, 
and a characteristic suffix for their place-names is the 
termination -um. This is the equivalent of the 
English -ham and the German -heim. In Friesland 
itself the places with names ending in -um are abun- 
dant. Within a few miles of Leeuwarden sixteen out of 
twenty-four places have this characteristic ending. 1 In 
Northumberland many place-names terminate in -ham, 
but this suffix is in almost all instances pronounced -um. 

Latham says that there are one or two names ending 
in this Frisian suffix in the Danish isles of Fyen and 
Sealand, and this may be a trace of former settlements 
on the Baltic. Their trading voyages certainly led them 
there, and they were so closely connected with the Goths 
and Angles in alliance, and probably in early commerce, 
that Frisian settlements on the Western Baltic coast 
probably existed. They were also in communication and 
in alliance, at least from time to time, with the Wends or 
Vandals of the south coast of the Baltic. Alliances, 
indeed, played a very important part in the earlier con- 
quest of England by the Anglo-Saxons, and in its later 
conquest by the Danes. In both of these conquests the 
Frisians took part. Some came in the former period 

1 Van Langenheuzen's Map, 1843, quoted by Latham, R. G., 
' Germania,' Notes, p. 119. 

The Frisians: Their Tribes and Allies. 71 

under the name of Angles or Saxons, in the latter under 
the name of Danes or Vikings. Our early chroniclers 
had more accurate traditions of who the Danes were than 
modern historians have fully recognised. Henry of 
Huntingdon, in the passage in which he mentions the 
impiety of the Anglo-Saxons some time after their con- 
version, says : ' The Almighty therefore let loose upon 
them the most barbarous of nations, the Danes and 
Goths, Norwegians and Swedes, Vandals and Frisians.' 1 
It will be noticed that he couples the Vandals with the 
Frisians, as if they were acting together in alliance. 

Among the ancient Frisian books which exist is one 
known as the ' Keran fon Hunesgena londe,' or Statutes 
of the Country of the Hunsings, the date of which is 
about A.D. 1252, but the origin of the statutes is of a far 
earlier period. There is also another old law-book in exist- 
ence, known as the ' Littera Brocmannorum,' or written 
law of the Brocmen.' 2 The chief part which remains of 
old Frisia is the country of the meres and broads of North 
Holland, but in assigning a locality to any ancient Frisian 
tribe, we must remember the great destruction of the 
land which has occurred within the range of history. 
The Brocmen certainly formed an old tribal division of 
the race, of sufficient importance to have laws of their 
own as distinct from their neighbours, and they, or some 
of their tribe, may have occupied part of East Friesland 
and probably some of the submerged country. Their 
country was also known as Brocmonnelond and Brock- 
merland. 3 The Frisian author Halbertsma tells us that 
the pagus of the Brocmen was in East Frisia. Among 
the Frisians there were certainly distinct tribes. Even 
as late as the twelfth century William of Malmesbury 
alludes to these ancient tribes in the expression, ' all 

1 Henry of Huntingdon's Chronicle, Bonn's ed., p. 148. 

2 Bosworth, Joseph, ' Origin of the English, Germanic, and 
Scandinavian Languages,' p. 61. 

3 Halbertsma, J. H., ' Lexicon Frisicum.' 

72 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

the Frisian nations.' 1 We may probably trace three of 
them, of which the Hunsings would be one, in the three 
different amounts of tribal wergelds or compensations 
for injuries that prevailed in the ancient Frisian territory 
westward of the river Weser. 2 

The close relationship between the Anglo-Saxon and 
Frisian languages has been shown by Halbertsma and by 
Siebs among Continental scholars, and by philologists 
in our own country. This philological evidence supplies 
additional proof of the large Frisian element in the 
Anglo-Saxon settlement, in the comparison of the Frisian 
with the Old English or Anglo-Saxon language. On this 
subject Sweet says that the treatment of the letter a 
is almost identical in the two languages. In Frisian 
we find mon and noma alternating with man and 
natna (name). We find the same exceptional o in of y 
nosi (nose) (O.E. nosu) and the same change of a 
into cz ; that in Frisian, which has no ce, is written e, 
as ik brec, bee, kreft, corresponding to the Old English 
brcec, bcec, and crceft. These changes, he says, do not 
occur in any of the other cognates, and could not, 
except by a most extraordinary coincidence, have been 
developed independently in English and in Frisian. 
They must therefore have already existed in Anglo- 
Frisian. 3 Frisian throws important light on the forma- 
tion of the peculiar English diphthongs a and ce. In 
the older Anglo-Saxon texts, including West Saxon, 
a is only diphthongised before r, and not before /, so that 
we have the typical forms aid and heard. In the oldest 
glossaries hard for heard is exceptional ; but in a few old 
Northumbrian fragments hard predominates. The Frisian 
language similarly agrees in preserving a before / in al, 
half, galga, etc., while before r it is written e, doubtless 

1 Malmesbury's Chronicle, book i., chap. iv. 

2 Seebohm, F., ' Tribal Custom in Anglo-Saxon Law,' 199. 

3 Sweet, H., ' Dialects and Prehistoric Forms of Old English,' 
Trans. Philol. Soc., 1875-1876, p. 562. 

The Frisians : Their Tribes and Allies. 73 

for <z, as herd for hcerd, the Anglo-Saxorr heard. The 
change of the word hard into hard is parallel to that of 
the change of bac into bcec. 1 The resemblances to be 
found between the language still spoken by the scattered 
remnants of the ancient Frisian nation and that of our 
Saxon forefathers are many, and leave no room for 
doubt of their very close connection. One remarkable 
word they had in common, and which has not been found 
in any other old Germanic language, is sunnstede for the 
solstice. The Frisian and Old English also evolved 
earlier than German their common term for equinox, 
Anglo-Saxon evenniht, Frisian evennaht. 

We can trace various tribes of ancient Frisians viz., 
the Hunsings, the Brocmen, the Huntanga, and the 
Chaucians or Hocings, and others. These people appear 
all to have been designated at times as Frisians, and at 
other times by their own special or tribal names. The 
Chaucians, however, were a populous race, and may be 
regarded in some respects as a separate nation in close 
connection with, and never in opposition to, the Frisians. 
They were seated in the country between the Weser and 
the Elbe. The name Cuxhaven at the mouth of the Elbe 
is one which was probably derived from the Chaucians, 
and has come down to us as that of a place situated in 
their old country. The Hunsings were the same people 
as the Hunni mentioned by Bede 2 as one of the tribes 
by which England was settled. The country they occupied 
was a district in the province of Groningen,in the North of 
Holland, where the river Hunse flows from the south 
past Groningen towards the sea. A part of this country 
is, or was within the last century, known by its old name 
as the ' District of Hunsing.' 3 The ' Hundings ' also 
are alluded to in the * Traveller's Song,' Hundingum 

1 Sweet, H., ' Dialects and Prehistoric Forms of Old English,' 
Trans. Philol. Soc., 1875-1876, p. 563. 

2 Bede, ' Hist. Eccles.,' v., chap. ix. 

3 Bosworth, J., loc. cit., p. 65. ; 

74 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

being mentioned as if the people were a separate tribe. 
The Phundusii, also mentioned by Ptolemy, were prob- 
ably the same people at an earlier date, although located 
by him further to the north. 1 Hunnaland and Friesland 
are mentioned among the countries the Norse Vikings 
ravaged. 2 The pagus of the Huntanga, apparently, was 
located between the River Hunte in Oldenburg and the 
province of Groningen. 3 The name Hun, Hilne, or 
Hunni is one which in the sense of giant prevails in the 
popular traditions of North Germany. Grimm 4 tells us 
that it is especially characteristic of the prehistoric 
traditions of Westphalia, and that it extends as far west- 
ward as the Groningen country and the river Drenth 
in Holland. Barrows and dolmens, known as giant hills 
and giant tombs, are also called in these parts of Europe 
hilnebedde and hunebedden, ' bed ' being commonly used 
for ' grave.' Another country of the Hunni has been 
identified by some Northern writers with the northern 
part of Jutland, where a few place-names that contain 
the word Hilne still survive. As the Frisians formerly 
extended much further north than their present limit 
in Schleswig, the occurrence of these names may be quite 
consistent with the later connection of the name with 
the Frisian Hunsings. It is quite certain that the name 
is a very ancient one, probably as old as that of Frisians 
themselves . 

From these circumstances and references we may see 
that the Hilne or Huni name was probably applied to 
some of the inhabitants of Schleswig, as weU as to some in 
East Friesland. In the eighth century we read of the 
boundaries of the Hune in the south part of Denmark. 5 
There is a reference also to the forest which separates 

1 Ptolemy's Map of Germany, reproduced in Elton's ' Origin 
of English History,' second ed. 

2 du Chaillu, ' Viking Age,' i. 503. 

3 Monumenta Germaniae, Script, iii. 38. 

* Grimm, J., ' Teutonic Mythology,' 523. 
5 Monumenta Germaniae, i. 34. 

The Frisians : Their Tribes and Allies. 75 

Hunaland 1 from Reidgotaland, the latter 'name having 
been identified as referring to Jutland. In the province 
of Drenthe in Holland, where the river Hunse has its 
source, there still exists a remnant of a more ancient 
population than the old Frisian. These people are of 
different physical characters from their neighbours. They 
are broad-headed, while the true Frisians are long-headed. 
They are brown in aspect, while the Frisians are fair, 
and they are supposed to be descendants of a remnant of 
the very ancient brown race of Europe who were left 
when their country was overrun at a remote period by 
people of the Gothic or Germanic stock. We have no 
knowledge of -the physical characters of the Hunsings or 
Hunni mentioned by Bede, but as these brown people 
of Holland who are to be found in Drenthe and Overijssel 
occupy the country which was in part occupied by the 
Hunsings, there may have been some connection between 

Among the tribes or allies of the Frisians the most 
important was the Chauci or Chaucians. Tacitus men- 
tions them as living on both sides of the Weser. 
Those settled between the Weser and the Elbe he called 
Chauci majores ; and those on the west of the Weser, but 
higher up the river, Chauci minor es. 2 His description 
of them is that of a considerable nation. He says that 
the land from Hessia was under the dominion of, and 
inhabited by, Chauci. He has left two accounts of them 
somewhat different, but that in his ' Germania ' is believed 
to have been written later than that in his ' Annals,' 
or ' History,' and it may well have been that before 
writing his later account he had had opportunities of 
learning more about them and correcting his previous 
statements. He says that the Chauci never excited wars 
nor harassed their neighbours, and that they wished to 
support their grandeur by justice. This description agrees 

1 Kemble, J. M., ' Saxons in England,' quoting Sogur, i. 495. 
3 Latham, R. G., ' The Germania of Tacitus,' Map. 

76 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

with the character of the Frisians, and may perhaps be 
taken to refer also to them. 1 The accounts which Tacitus 
gives of the German people between the Rhine and the 
Elbe are of more value than that of those beyond the 
Elbe, for in the former case he wrote from information 
collected from people who had actually travelled through 
the countries, which in the latter was probably not the 
case, as the countries were further removed from the 
Roman influence. 2 

The question may here suggest itself : What have these 
Chauci or Chaucians to do with the English settlement ? 
I see no reason to doubt that they had a considerable 
share in it. Kemble found near Stade, in the part of 
ancient Frisia occupied by the Chaucians, and also far 
up the Weser, certain mortuary urns of a kind that is 
rare or unknown in other parts of Germany, but known 
to occur in Suffolk, Warwickshire, Derbyshire, the Isle 
of Wight, and other parts of England, 3 and the Chaucian 
name apparently survives in many old English place- 

Ptolemy's account of these people agrees in regard to 
their locality with that of Tacitus. He says that they 
were contiguous to the Frisii, and, like them, extended 
along the coast, but also further inland. He tells us also 
that the Frisii lay in front of the Angrivarii, who, as we 
have seen, were a tribe of the Saxons, for these Angri- 
varii of the earlier centuries were the same as the 
Angarians or Engern people of Carlovingian time. 
Ptolemy says that the Chauci reached to the Elbe. 4 
The survival of such a name as Cuxhaven in their old 
country is significant, the first syllable Cux having come 
form Chauc. This etymology, which has generally been 
adopted, 5 is important in reference to the traces of the 

1 Bosworth, Joseph, loc. cit., p. 48. 

2 Latham, R. G., loc. cit., ' Prolegomena,' xv. 
o 3 Beddoe, J., ' Races in Britain,' p. 46. 

4 Ptolemy, ii. 2. 5 Latham, R. G., loc. cit., 242. 

The Frisians : Their Tribes and Allies. 77 

Chaucians which may be found in England. Here in 
an ancient Chaucian region a survival of the old tribal 
or national name exists in the form Cux. In various 
parts of England where Frisians settled we shall also 
find it. 

The name under which the Chaucians are mentioned 
in the Sagas is that of Hocings. In Beowulf we read of 
them under this name. Word for word, says Latham, 
this word Hoeing is held to be that of Chauci by all, or 
most, who have written on the subject. Hoeing, how- 
ever, with its suffix -ing, means not so much a Chaucus as 
of Chauch blood. 1 The identity of the names is estab- 
lished by the ancient sound of ch being equivalent to 
that of h. This identification will be of use in endeavour- 
ing to unravel the threads in the tangled skein of informa- 
tion which has come down to us relating to the people 
concerned in the English settlement. The Chauci as a 
nation have long since disappeared, and were probably 
absorbed by the Franks of Germany. Some of them, no 
doubt, migrated to England, where they were absorbed 
in the Old English race. If we look for traces of them in 
England through the names by which they were known 
in their Continental home, we shall discover many parts 
of the country in which small colonies of them probably 
settled. As regards their alternative name Hocings, 
philologists give us several examples of the equivalence 
of the early ch and h sounds in these tribal or national 
names. South of the Chauci another great tribe of 
German people known as the Chatti were situated, from 
which, according to German philologists, in which others 
concur, the name Hesse has been derived. The Hessians 
are the descendants of the ancient Chatti or Hatti. They 
are mentioned under the names Chattuarii, Attuarii, and 
Hetware. In the name Attuarii, as Latham has pointed 
out, the ch sound disappears altogether. The name 

1 ' Germania of Tacitus,' edited by R. G. Latham, 243. 

78 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

Hesse also, says Latham, word for word is Chatti. 1 The 
Old Frisian ch was equivalent to the Anglo-Saxon h. 2 
We may therefore accept the identity of the sounds 
chauc- and hoc- in the names Chauci and Hocings, and 
this will be of interest in reference to traces of them in 
England. At some time during the period of the growth 
of the Frank confederation the Chaucians assumed the 
name of Franks, and their name disappeared from 

Pliny's description of part of Frisia and the condition 
of some of its inhabitants may be overdrawn, but there 
is in it a sufficient element of truth to warrant the belief 
that foreign expeditions, with a view to settlements in 
a land more favoured by Nature, could not have been 
unpopular among them. Two or three days' sail would 
bring them to the coasts of Britain, where, if they could 
form colonies sufficiently strong to resist attacks, they 
could at least find a better subsistence, with more favour- 
able conditions of life than those Pliny describes. He 
says : ' In this spot the wretched natives occupying 
either the tops of hills or artificial mounds of turf raised 
out of the reach of the highest tides build their small 
cottages, which appear like sailing-vessels when the water 
covers the circumjacent ground, and like wrecks when it 
has retired. For fuel they use a kind of mud taken up 
by hand and dried rather in the wind than the sun, and 
with this earth they heat their food and warm their 
bodies, stiffened by the rigorous North. Their only 
drink is rain-water collected in ditches at the thresholds 
of their doors.' The reference to peat-digging, which is 
still extensively carried on in Friesland, the mounds on 
which their houses were built, and the appearance of the 
country, shows that this was a description of an eye- 
witness. The terp mounds on which the ancient habita- 

1 Latham, R. G., 'The English Language,' 5th ed., p. 242. 

2 Ibid., 93. Also Maetzner, E., 'English Grammar,' i. 

The Frisians : Their Tribes and Allies. 79 

tions in the meres of Old Frisia were constructed have been 
shown to be composed largely of deposits due to accumu- 
lations under ancient pile dwellings, and many of them 
have been removed for manure and agricultural pur- 
poses. 1 

As already mentioned, the original home of the ancestors 
of the Frisians, Jutes, and Danes appears to have been in GJ 
the Scandian peninsula, which Ptolemy, the geographer 
of the second century, understood to have been an 
island. He places the nations called the Phiresii, Guise, 
and Dauciones all within Scandia. The migration of the 
Phiresii south-westward has left its traces in certain 
parts of Jutland, and appears to have been such a very 
early one that it occurred before the invention of runes 
by their neighbours the Goths, for no fixed runic monu- 
ments have ever been found in any part of Old Frisia. 
The Daucones were the Dacians or Danes, and they 
migrated, apparently, after the invention of runes, for 
fixed monuments with runes are found in Denmark. As 
already pointed out, one of the strongest proofs of the 
Scandian connection of the Angles of Northumbria is 
that they took with them to England a knowledge of 
runic writing, and have left examples of their runic inscrip- 
tions on fixed stone monuments. Not so the Frisians, 
who, though allied with the Angles, were behind them in 
the knowledge of letters. The physical appearance of 
the Frisians at the present day bears witness to the 
Northern origin of their race. Beddoe says : ' They are 
an extremely fair and very comely people. I found the 
Frisians from the Zuyder Zee through Groningen (a 
Saxonised district) to beyond Ems, a taller, longer-faced, $ 
more universally blonde and light-eyed folk than the 
Saxons, the latter being often very hazel-eyed, even when 9 
their hair is light.' 2 

Among the indications that communication between 

1 Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., xxiii. 98-100. 

2 Beddoe, J., loc. cit., pp. 39, 40. 

8o Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

the early Saxon people and those of the same races from 
whom they sprang was not wanting is the story of the 
early missionary work of the Old English Christians. 
The Frisians were pagans long after the conversion of 
those of their race who were descended from the early 
Frisian settlers in England. The Frankish monks had 
endeavoured in vain to convert them, and failed, perhaps 
through difficulties with their language. The Anglo- 
Saxon missionaries, being more allied in race, met with 
some success. 1 William of Malmesbury tells us how 
their final conversion was brought about. He says : 
' The ancient Saxons and all the Frisian nations were 
converted to the faith of Christ through the exertions of 
King Charles,' 2 but we know that in the conversions 
which followed the conquests of Charlemagne the sword 
was the chief instrument. It was by far different means 
that some hundred and fifty years earlier the band of 
Anglo-Saxon missionaries, of whom Wilfrid was the first, 
began their j ourneys into Germany, impelled by Christian 
zeal, and it can hardly be doubted by the sentiment also 
of common racial descent. They turned their energies 
to the conversion of their Frisian and Saxon cousins to 
the faith which the English people had themselves so 
lately adopted. 

Wilfrid and Willibord, his pupil, Winfrith or Boniface, 
Leofwine, the converter of the Saxons, Willehad of 
Northumbria, and the brothers Willibald and Wunibald, 
are but names to the political historian of the Conti- 
nental nations from which the Anglo-Saxon race sprang. 
They stand out prominently, however, in the early eccle- 
siastical history of Northern Germany, where they are, 
even to the present day, as honoured as those of Augus- 
tine, Birinus, and Paulinus in England. 

From such a country as ancient Frisia was, emigration, 
as the population increased, was a necessity. The story 

1 Bosworth, J., loc. cit., p. 94. 

2 William of Malmesbury's Chronicle, book i., chap. iv. 

The Frisians: Their Tribes and Allies. 81 

of Hengist and the custom of the expulsion of a number 
of the young people of his country may have reasonably 
prevailed in Friesland. Whether they settled in England 
under the names Angles and Jutes, or under tribal names 
of their own, it is certain that large numbers of Frisians 
must have become English colonists under the Saxon 
name. The old chroniclers are, indeed, at a loss whether 
to make Hengist a Frisian or a Saxon. One of them 
says : 

' Ein hiet Engistus een Vriese een Sas 
Die vten lande verdruen was.' 1 

[One was named Engist a Frisian or a Saxon, who was driven 
away out of his land.] 

There is direct evidence of early communication be- 
tween ancient Frisia and England in the discovery in Fries- 
land and Holland of movable objects with inscriptions on 
them in early runic characters peculiar to England. At 
Harlingen, in Friesland, a bracteate was found which has 
on it large clear runes, the type of the A ( [sf ) being pro- 
vincial English, which Stephens assigns to the fifth 
century. He says it was doubtless struck in England, or 
by an English workman in Scandinavia. 2 In Holland an 
English runic coin has also been found. 3 

The establishment of Frisian colonies on the north- 
eastern coasts of England and the south-east of Scotland 
during the early centuries of our era, before the end of 
the Roman rule in Britain, is supported by circumstantial 
evidence so strong that it cannot be doubted. It will 
be summarised in the chapters on Northumbria. With 
the early Frisian colonists there must have been others 
of Anglian descent, among whom a knowledge of runic 
writing was known, as proved by inscriptions still existing. 

In all countries of which early records exist we find 

1 Maerlant, quoted by Bosworth, ' Origin of the English, 
German, and Scandinavian Languages,' p. 52. 

2 Stephens, G., ' Old Northern Runic Monuments,' ii. 555. 

3 Ibid., ii. 568. 


82 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

traces of the custom of giving to people the same names 
as those of the tribes and clans to which they belonged. 
Many instances may also be found of men, when they 
lived as foreigners among people of another race, being 
known by the name of their own nation. Some of these 
old tribal clan or national names have come down as 
surnames to modern times. During the period of the 
Anglo-Saxon settlement it could scarcely have been 
otherwise in our own country. Men must have been 
commonly designated by their tribal or clan names if 
they lived among neighbours of another tribe who were 
unacquainted with the names by which these men called 
themselves. Such names are descriptive of the indi- 
viduals to whom they were applied, and as in the early 
Anglo-Saxon period a tun or a ham was commonly named 
after that of the head of the family living in it, it is 
difficult to avoid the conclusion that many of the names 
of these early tuns and hams must be the same as the tribal 
and clan names of their first occupants. Personal names 
derived from those of tribes are older than those derived 
from countries or districts in which tribes settled. To call 
a man after the name of his tribe or clan in the time before 
the tribal wanderings of the German and Northern people 
had ceased was the most natural way of distinguishing 
him. The occurrence of so many names of people called 
Hun and Hune, or compounds of them, in Anglo-Saxon 
literature points to tribal people of that name having 
taken part in the settlement of England. The Hunsings 
and the people of the Huntanga tribe we can connect 
with the settlement, and with the Hunni mentioned by 
Bede. Many persons bearing Hun or Hune names are 
very frequently mentioned in Anglo-Saxon records 
e.g., Hunfrith fifteen times, and Hunred twelve times. 
Hunman and Huneman both occur. Huna, Hunes, 
Hune, Hungar, Hunbeorht, Hunni, and Hunding, are 
some of the forms of these personal names. Some of 
them are probably ancestral names repeated. There are 

The Frisians : Their Tribes and Allies. 83 

more than 150 known instances of designations of this 
kind. 1 Even if we suppose that some persons who bore 
them obtained them from some other origin than that of 
the tribal name or that of an ancestor, the number which 
in all probability was originally derived from the tribal 
names of the Hunsings or the Huntanga will still be large. 
The people of these tribes were Frisians, and their settle- 
ments in England were both early and late. The last 
of their ancient immigrations, or of people of the same 
descent, into England took place in the twelfth century, 
when, as a result of inundations, many were obliged to 
seek new homes. It was early in that century that 
Flemings settled in parts of South Wales, where they 
were absorbed among the English settlers, and their 
language became lost in the English speech, as did that 
of the settlers centuries earlier. 

The discovery of a large number of skulls at Bremen, 
of the same period as that of the Anglo-Saxon, has been 
referred to. Those intermediate in length were named 
Batavian or Frisian. Beddoe, in summarising the 
evidence of these ancient skulls in connection with the 
light they throw on the racial - characters of the Old 
English people, says that the Frisian or so-called 
Batavian skulls have characters that resemble those of 
the Anglo-Saxons. ' John Bull,' says Beddoe, ' is of the 
Batavian type,' 2 an opinion from so distinguished an 
anthropologist which is valuable evidence in support of 
the conclusion that there must have been a very large 
Frisian admixture in the Old English race. 

1 Birch, W. de Gray, ' Index Saxonicus,' and Searle, W. G., 
' Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum.' 

2 Haddon, A. C., ' The Study of Man,' 84, quoting Beddoe. 




THE name Wends was given by the old Teutonic 
nations of Germany to those Slavonic tribes who 
were located in the countries east of the Elbe and 
south of the Baltic Sea. It is the same as the older name 
used by Ptolemy, 1 who says that 'the Wenedae are estab- 
lished along the whole of the Wendish Gulf.' Tacitus also 
mentions the Venedi. There can, therefore, be no doubt 
that these people were seated on the coast of Mecklenburg 
and Pomerania before the time of the Anglo-Saxon settle- 
ment. That there were some differences in race between 
the Wends of various tribes is probable from the existence 
of such large tribes among them as the Wiltzi and Obo- 
driti, who in the time of Charlemagne formed opposite 
alliances, the former with the Saxons, the latter with the 
Franks. The Wends who still exist in Lower Saxony 
are of a dark complexion, and are of the same stock as 
the Sorbs or Serbs of Servia. They are Slavonic, but 
many tribes of Slavonic descent are fair in complexion. 
Procopius tells us that those Vandals who were allies 
of the ancient Goths were remarkable for their tall 
stature, pale complexion, and blonde hair. 2 It is there- 
fore by no means improbable that the ancient Slavic 

1 Morfill, ' Slavonic Literature/ 36, quoting Ptolemy. 

2 Procopius, ' Wars of the Vandals ' (Greek ed., 1607), book i., 
p. 92, and Greek-Latin ed., iii. 313. 


Rugians, Wends, and Tribal Slavonic Settlers. 85 

tribes of the Baltic coast were distinguished by differences 
in complexion. 

As the identification of Vandal or Wendish settlers 
with various parts of England is new, or almost so, it 
will be desirable to state the evidence of their connection 
with the origin of the Anglo-Saxon race more fully than 
would otherwise have been necessary. 

The Vandals are commonly thought to have been a 
nation of Teutonic descent like the Goths, but there is 
certain evidence that the later Vandals or Wends were 
Slavonic, and there is no reason to doubt that these later 
Vandals were descended from some of the earlier. 
Tacitus mentions the Vandals as a group of German 
nations, the name being used in a wide sense, as British 
is at the present time. The most important reason for 
considering the early Vandals to be Teutonic is that the 
names of their leaders are almost exclusively Teutonic, 
as Gonderic, Genseric, etc. 1 This reason would be valid 
if there were nothing else to set against it. Leaders of 
a more advanced race, however, have led the forces of 
less advanced allies in all ages, and the Goths were a 
more advanced race than the Vandals, whom they con- 
quered, and who subsequently became their firm allies. 
Among the collection of Anglo-Saxon relics in the 
British Museum are a number of Vandal ornaments 
from North Africa, placed there for comparison with 
those of the Anglo-Saxon period. These are apparently 
rough imitations of those of the same age found in 
Scandinavia and in England i.e., imitations of Gothic 

Of all the people in ancient Germania east of the Elbe 
whom Tacitus mentions as Germans, not a single Teutonic 
vestige remained in the time of Charlemagne. Poland 
and Silicia were parts of his Germania. When the 
Germans of Charlemagne and his successors conquered 
the country east of the Elbe there was neither trace nor 
1 Latham, R. G., ' Germania of Tacitus,' Epileg. Ixxxix. 

86 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

record of any earlier Teutonic occupation. 1 Such a 
previous occupancy rarely occurs, as Latham has pointed 
out, without leaving some traces of its existence by the 
survival here and there of descendants of the older 
occupants. In Germany, east of the Elbe, no earlier 
inhabitants than the Slavonic have been discovered, 
excepting those of a very remote prehistoric age. At the 
dawn of German history no traces are met with of 
enthralled people of Teutonic descent among the Slavs 
east of the Elbe, and there are no traditions of such 
earlier occupants, while the oldest place-names are all 
Slavonic. If there were Germans, strictly so-called, east 
of the river in the time of Tacitus i.e., long-headed 
tribes their assumed displacement by the Slavs between 
his time and that of Charlemagne would have been the 
greatest and most complete of any recorded in history. 2 
Ethnology and history, therefore, alike point to people of 
Sarmatian or Slavic descent i.e., brachycephalic tribes 
as the earliest inhabitants of Eastern Germany, and 
indicate some misunderstanding in this respect by the 
commentators of Tacitus. 3 In Eastern Germany place- 
names survive ending in -itz, so very common in Saxony ; 
in -zig, as Leipzig ; in -a, as Jena ; and in -dam, as Pots- 
dam. All these places were named by the Slavs. 4 

The statement of Bede that the Rugini or Rugians were 
among the nations from whom the English were known 
to have descended was contemporary evidence of his own 
time. The Rugi are also mentioned by Tacitus. 5 Their 
name apparently remains to this day in that of Riigen 
Island, situated off the coast which they occupied in the 
time of the Roman Empire. 

As Ptolemy tells us of the wenedae seated on this same 
Baltic coast, and as they were Sarmatians or Slavs, it 

1 Latham, R. G., loc. cit., Prolegomena, xxvii. 

2 Ibid., Prolegomena, xxvii. 3 Ibid., xxvi. 
4 Ripley, W. Z., ' Races of Europe,' 239. 

6 Germania, Sect, xliii. 

Wends, and Tribal Slavonic Settlers. 87 

is clear that the Rugians must have been of that race. 
Some of the nations mentioned by Tacitus were, he says, 
of non-Germanic origin. Riigen Island was the chief 
place of worship for the Wendish race, the chief centre 
of their religion. On the east side of the peninsula of 
Jasmund in Riigen are the white chalk cliffs of Stubben- 
kammer, and on the north side of the island is the pro- 
montory of Arcona, where in the twelfth century we read 
of the idol Svantovit, and the temple of this Wendish 
god.. No traces of Teutonic worship have ever been 
found in Riigen. They are all Slavonic. Saxo tells us 
of the worship of Svantovit at Arcona with the tributes 
brought there from all Slavonia. 1 

The probability of some very early settlers in Britain 
having been Wends, and consequently that there was 
a Slavic element in the origin of the Old English race, 
is shown in another way. The settlement of large 
bodies of Vandals in Britain by order of the Emperor 
Probus is a fact recorded in Roman history. The 
authority is Zosimus, 2 and this settlement is said to have 
taken place in the latter part of the third century of our 
era, after a great defeat of Vandals near the Lower Rhine. 
They were accompanied by a horde of Burgundians, 
and as they were apparently on the march in search of 
new homes, it probably suited them as well as it suited 
the Romans to be transported to Britain. Unless it 
can be shown that the Vandal name is to be understood 
to mean only certain tribes of Teutonic origin, this 
arbitrary settlement of Vandals in Britain is the earliest 
record of immigrants of Slavic origin. It is not possible 
to ascertain the parts of the country in which they 
settled, but as they were known to Roman writers by 
the names Vinidse and Venedi, it is possible that the 
Roman place-names in Britain Vindogladia in Dorset, 
Vindomis in Hampshire, and others may have been con- 

1 Saxo Grammaticus, translated by O. Elton, 393-395. 

2 Zosimus, i., c. 68. 

88 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

nected with their settlements. It is possible also that 
during the time between their arrival and that of the 
earliest Anglo-Saxon settlers some of their descendants 
may have maintained their race distinctions apart from 
the British people, as descendants of some of the Roman 
colonists apparently did in Kent. 

The defeat of the Vandals by Probus near the Rhine 
occurred in A.D. 277, 1 so that their settlement in Britain 
was not more than two centuries before the arrival of 
the Jutes and Saxons. As it is probable there were some 
so-called Saxons already settled on the eastern coast of 
England, with whom those of a later date coalesced, it is 
not impossible that some of the Vandal settlers in Britain 
in the time of Probus may have preserved their dis- 
tinction in race until the invasion of the Saxons, Angles, 
and Jutes began. 

The names in the Anglo-Saxon charters which appar- 
ently marked settlements of Rugians in England are 
Ruanbergh and Ruwanbeorg, Dorset ; Ruganbeorh and 
Ruwanbeorg, Somerset ; Ruwanbeorg and Rugan die, 
Wilts ; Rugebeorge, in Kent ; and Ruwangoringa, Hants. 2 
These will be referred to in later chapters. 

The chief Old English names which appear to refer 
to them in Domesday Book are Ruenore in Hampshire, 
Ruenhala and Ruenhale in Essex, Rugehala and Rugelie 
in Staffordshire, Rugutune in Norfolk, and Rugarthorp 
in Yorkshire. Close to Ruenore, in Hampshire, is Stub- 
bington, which may have been an imported name, as it 
resembles that of Stubnitz in the Isle of Riigen. 

In its historical aspect the Anglo-Saxon settlement 
may be regarded as part of that wider migration of nations 
and tribes from Eastern and Northern Europe into the 
provinces of the Roman Empire during its decadence. 
In its ethnological aspect it may be regarded as a final 
stage in the westward European migration of people of 

1 Hodgkin, T., ' Italy and her Invaders,' 217. 

2 Codex Dipl., Index. 

Rugians, Wends, and Tribal Slavonic Settlers. 89 

the Germanic stock. As the history and ethnology of 
the Franks in Western Germany afford us a notable 
example of the fusion of people of the Celtic with others 
of the Teutonic race, so the history and ethnology of 
Eastern Germany afford an equally striking example 
of the fusion of people of Teutonic and Slavonic origins. 
It began at a very early period in our era, and the present 
irregular ethnological frontier between Germans and 
Slavs shows that it is still slowly going on. The eastward 
migration of Germans in later centuries has absorbed the 
Wends. The descendants of the isolated Slavonic settlers 
near Utrecht and in other parts of the Rhine Valley 
have also long been absorbed. The ethnological evidence 
concerning the present inhabitants of these districts and 
the survival of some of their old place-names, however, 
supports the statement of the early chroniclers concerning 
the immigration of Slavs into what is now Holland. 

The part which the ancient Wends, including Rugians, 
Wilte, and other Slavonic people, took in the settlement 
of England was, in comparison with that of the Teutonic 
nations and tribes, small, but yet so considerable that it 
has left its results. During the period of the invasion 
and the longer period of the settlement, the southern 
coasts of the Baltic Sea were certainly occupied by 
Slavonic people. Ptolemy, writing, as he did, about the 
middle of the second century of our era, mentions the 
Baltic by the name Venedic Gulf, and the people on its 
shores as Venedi or Wenedae. He describes them as one 
of the great nations of Sarmatia, 1 the most ancient name 
of the countries occupied by Slavs, but which was re- 
placed by that of Slavonia. Pliny, in his notice of the 
Baltic Sea, has the following passage : ' People say that 
from this point round to the Vistula the whole country 
is inhabited by Sarmatians and Wends.' 2 Although he 

1 Bunbury, E. H., ' Hist, of Ancient Geography,' ii. 591. 

2 Pliny, ' Hist. Nat.,' iv., chap, xxvii., quoted by Elton, C. I. 
' Origins of Engl. Hist.,' 40. 

go Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

did not write from personal knowledge of the Wends, 
this passage is weighty evidence that they must have 
been located on the Baltic in his time. 

During the time of the Anglo-Saxon period the Slavs 
in the North of Europe extended as far westward as the 
Elbe and to places beyond it. On the east bank of that 
river were the Polabian Wends, and these were apparently 
a branch of the Wilte or Wiltzi. This name Wiltzi has 
been derived from the old Slavic word for wolf, wilk, 
plural wiltzi, and was given to this great tribe from their 
ferocious courage. The popular name Wolf mark still 
survives in North-East Germany, near the eastern limit 
of their territory. These people called themselves 
Welatibi, a name derived from welot, a giant, and were 
also known as the Haefeldan, or Men of Havel, from being 
seated near the river Havel, as mentioned by King 
Alfred. The inhabitants of the coast near Stralsund, 
who were called Rugini or Rugians, and who are men- 
tioned by Bede as one of the nations from whom the 
Anglo-Saxons of his time were known to have derived 
their origin, 1 must have been included within the general 
name of the Wends. As these Rugians must have been 
Wends, the statement of Bede is direct evidence that 
some of the people of England in his time were known 
to be of W^endish descent . This is supported by evidence 
of other kinds, such as the mention of settlements of 
people with Wendish or Vandal names in the Anglo- 
Saxon charters, the numerous names of places in England 
which have come down from a remote antiquity, and 
the identity of the oldest forms of such names with that 
of the people of this race. We read also that Edward, 
son of Edmund Ironside, fled after his father's death 
'ad regnum Rugorum, quod melius vocamus Russiam.' 2 
It is also supported by philological evidence. As a dis- 
tinguished American philologist says : ' The Anglo-Saxon 

1 Beda, ' Eccles. Hist.,' edited by J. A. Giles, book v., chap. ix. 

2 Cottonian Liber Custumarum, Liber Albus, vol. ii., pt. ii., 645. 

Rugians, Wends t and Tribal Slavonic Settlers. 91 

was such a language as might be supposed would result 
from a fusion of Old Saxon with smaller proportions of 
High German, Scandinavian, and even Celtic and 
Slavonic elements.' 1 The migration of the Wilte from 
the shores of the Baltic and the foundation of a colony 
in the country around Utrecht is certainly historical. 
Bede mentions it in connection with the mission of 
Wilbrord. He says : ' The Venerable Wilbrord went 
from Frisia to Rome, where the Pope gave him the name 
of Clement, and sent him back to his bishopric. Pepin 
gave him a place for his episcopal see in his famous 
castle, which, in the ancient language of those people, is 
called Wiltaburg i.e., the town of the Wilti but in the 
French tongue Utrecht.' 2 Venantius also tells us that 
the Wileti or Wiltzi, between A.D. 560-600, settled near 
the city of Utrecht, which from them was called Wilta- 
burg, and the surrounding country Wiltenia. 3 Such a 
migration would perhaps be made by land, and some of 
these Wilte may have gone further. The name of the 
first settlers in Wiltshire has been derived by some 
authors from a migration of Wilte from near Wiltaburg, 4 
and the name Wilsaetan appears to afford some corrobora- 
tion. It is certain that Wiltshire was becoming settled 
in the latter half of the sixth century, and such a migra- 
tion may either have come direct from the Baltic or the 
Elbe, or from the Wilte settlement in Holland. 

It must not be supposed that there is evidence of the 
settlement of all Wiltshire by people descended from the 
Wilte, but it is not improbable that some early settlers 
of this time were the original Wilsaetas. The Anglo- 
Saxon charters supply evidence of the existence in various 
parts of England, as will be referred to in later pages, of 

1 Marsh, G. P., ' Lectures on the English Language,' Second 
Series, p. 55. 

2 Beda, loc. cit., book v., chap. ii. 

3 Hampson, R. T., ' The Geography of King Alfred,' p. 41. 

* Schafarik, ' Slavonic Antiquities,' quoted by Morfill, W. R., 
' Slavonic Literature,' 3-35. 

92 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

people called Willa or Wilte. There were tribes in 
England named East Willa and West Willa ;* and such 
Anglo-Saxon names as W T illanesham ; 2 Wilburgeham, 
Cambridgeshire ; 3 Wilburge gemsero and Wilburge mere 
in Wilt shire; 4 Wilbur gewel in Kent; 5 Willa-byg in Lincoln- 
shire ; 6 Wilmanford, 7 Wilmanleahtun, 8 appear to have 
been derived from personal names connected with these 
people. I have not been able to discover that any other 
Continental tribe of the Anglo-Saxon period were so 
named, except this Wendish tribe, called by King Alfred 
the men of Havel, a name that apparently survived in 
the Domesday name Hauelingas in Essex. The \Vilte 
or Willa tribal name survived in England as a personal 
name, like the national name Scot, and is found in 
the thirteenth-century Hundred Rolls and other early 
records. In these rolls a large number oi persons so 
named are mentioned Wiltes occurs in seventeen entries, 
Wilt in eight, and Wilte in four entries. Willeman as 
a personal name is also mentioned. 9 ' The old Scando- 
Gothic personal name Wilia is well known. 10 

The great Wendish tribe which occupied the country 
next to that of the Danes along the west coast of the 
Baltic in the ninth century was the Obodriti, known 
also as the Bodritzer. From their proximity there arose 
an early connection between them and the Danes, or 
Northmen. In the middle of the ninth century we read 
of a place on the boundaries of the Northmen and Obo- 
drites, ' in confinibus Nordmannorum et Obodritorum.' 1] 
The probability of Wendish people of this tribe having 
settled in England among the Danes arises from their 
near proximity on the Baltic, their political connection 

1 Cart. Sax., edited by Birch, i 416. 

2 Codex Dipl., No. 931. 3 Ibid., No. 967. 
4 Ibid., Nos. 641 and 387. 5 Ibid., No. 282. 

6 Ibid., No. 953. 7 Ibid., No. 1205. 

8 Ibid. 9 Hund. Rolls, vol. ii., Index. 

10 Stephens, G., 'Old Northern Runic Monuments,' iii. 122. 

11 Monumenta Germanise, Scriptores ii. 677, A.D. 851. 

Rtigians, Wends, and Tribal Slavonic Settlers. 93 

in the time of Sweyn and Cnut, historical references to 
Obodrites in the service of Cnut in England, and the 
similarity of certain place-names in some parts of England 
colonized by Danes to others on the Continent of known 
Wendish or Slavonic origin. Obodriti is a Slavic name, 
and, according to Schafarik, the Slavic ethnologist, the 
name may be compared with Bodrica in the government 
of Witepsk, Bodrok, and the provincial name Bodrog in 
Southern Hungary, and others of a similar kind. In the 
Danish settled districts of England we find the Anglo- 
Saxon names Bodeskesham, Cambridgeshire ; Bodesham, 
now Bosham, Sussex ; Boddingc-weg, Dorset j 1 the 
Domesday names Bodebi, Lincolnshire ; Bodetone and 
Bodele, Yorkshire ; Bodeha, Herefordshire ; Bodeslege, 
Somerset ; Bodesha, Kent ; and others, 2 which may have 
been named after people of this tribe. 

The map of Europe at the present day exhibits evidence 
of the ancient migration of the Slavs. The Slavs in the 
country from Trient to Venice were known as Wendi, and 
hence the name Venice or the Wendian territory. 3 
Bohemia and Poland after the seventh century became 
organized States of Slavs on the upper parts of the Elbe 
and the Vistula. The Slavonic tribes on the frontier 
or march-land of Moravia formed the kingdom of Moravia 
in the ninth century. Other scattered tribes of Slavs 
formed the kingdom of Bulgaria about the end of the 
seventh century ; and westward of these, other tribes 
organized themselves into the kingdoms of Croatia, 
Dalmatia, and Servia. 4 In the North the ancient Slav 
tribes of Pomerania, Mecklenburg, Brandenburg, and 
those located on the banks of the Elbe, comprising the 
Polabians, the Obodrites, the Wiltzi, those known at one 
time as Rugini, the Lutitzes, and the Northern Sorabians 
or Serbs, became gradually absorbed among the Germans, 

1 Codex. Dipl., Index. 2 Domesday Book, Index. 

3 Menzel, ' History of Germany,' i. 242. 

4 Rambaud, A., ' History of Russia,' i. 23. 

94 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

who formed new States eastward of their ancient limits. 
These have long since become Teutonised, and their 
language has disappeared, but the Slavonic place - names 
still remain. 

What concerns us specially in connection with the 
settlement of England and the Vandals is that these 
people were Slavs, not Teutons or Germans, as is some- 
times stated. They are fully recognised as Slavs by 
the historian of the Gothic race, who tells us that Slavs 
differ from Vandals in name only. 1 It is important, also, 
to note that the Rugians mentioned by Bede were a 
Wendish tribe. Westward of the Elbe the Slavic Sorabians 
had certainly pushed their way, before they were finally 
checked by Charlemagne and his successors. The German 
annals of the date A.D. 7822 tell us that the Sorabians 
at that time were seated between the Elbe and the Saale, 
where place-names of Slavonic origin remain to this 

Those W T ends who were located on the Lower Elbe, 
near Liineburg and Hamburg, were known as Polabians, 
through having been seated on or near this river, from 
po, meaning 'on,' and laba, the Slavic name for the Elbe. 

The eastern corner of the former kingdom of Hanover, 
and especially that in the circuit of Liichow, which even 
to the present day is called Wendland, was a district 
west of the Elbe, where the Wends formed a colony, and 
where the Polabian variety of the Wendish language 
survived the longest. It did not disappear until about 
1700-1725, during the latter part of which period the 
ruler of this ancient Wendland was also King of England. 

During the later Saxon period in England the Wends 
of the Baltic coast had their chief seaport at Julin or 
Jomberg, close to the island called Wollin, in the delta of 
the Oder. Julin is mentioned by Adam of Bremen as 
the largest and most flourishing commercial city in Europe 

1 Magnus, J., 'Hist, de omn. Goth. Sueon. reg.,' ed. 1554, p. 15. 

2 Monumenta Germaniae, Ann. Einh., edited by Pertz, i. 163. 

Wends, and Tribal Slavonic Settlers. 95 

in the eleventh century, but it was destroyed in 1176 
by Valdemar, King of Denmark. 1 Its greatest rival was 
the Northern Gothic port of Wisby in the Isle of Gotland. 
Whether Jomberg surpassed Wisby as a commercial 
centre, which, notwithstanding the statement of Adam 
of Bremen, is doubtful, it is certain that these two 
ports were the chief ports respectively of the Wends and 
the Goths of the Baltic. Both of them, even during the 
Saxon period, had commercial relations with this country, 
or maritime connection of some sort, as shown by the 
number of Anglo-Saxon coins and ornaments with 
Anglian runes on them found either in Gotland or 

The connection of the Slav tribes of ancient Germany 
with the settlement of England is supported also by the 
survival in England of ancient customs which were 
widely spread in Slavonic countries, by the evidence of 
folk-lore, traces of Slav influence in the Anglo-Saxon 
language, and by some old place-names in England, 
especially those which point to Wends generally, and 
others referring to Rugians and to Wilte. The great 
wave of early Slavonic migration was arrested in Eastern 
Germany, but lesser waves derived from it were con- 
tinued westward, as shown by the isolated Slav colonies 
of ancient origin in Oldenburg, Hanover, and Holland. 
The same migratory movement in a lesser degree appears 
to have extended even into England, bringing into our 
country some Slavonic settlers, probably in alliance with 
Saxons, Angles, Goths, and other tribes, and some later 
on in alliance with Danes. The existence of separate 
large tribes among the Wends is probable evidence of 
racial differences, and the alternative names they had are 
probably those by which they were known to themselves 
and to their neighbours. The remnant at the present 
time of the dark-complexioned Wends of Saxony, who 
called themselves Sorbs, shows that there must have been 
1 Mallet, M., ' Northern Antiquities,' Bohn's ed., p. 139. 

96 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

some old Wendish tribe of similar complexion, from which 
they are descended. As the country anciently occupied 
by the Wiltzi included Brandenburg and the district 
around Berlin, it joined the limits of ancient Saxony on 
the west. There is evidence, arising from the survival 
of place-names in and near the old Wendish country, to 
show that these Wilte have left distinct traces of their 
existence in North-East Germany for example, Wilts- 
chau, Wilschkowitz, and Wiltsch are places in Silesia ; 
Wilze is a place near Posen ; Wilsen in Mecklenburg- 
Schwerin ; Wilsdorf near Dresden ; Wilzken in East 
Prussia ; and Wilsum in Hanover. 1 Similarly, names 
of the same kind which can be traced back to Saxon 
time survive in England. If the existence of these Wilte 
place-names in the old Wendish country of Germany is 
confirmatory evidence of the former existence in that 
part of Europe of a nation or tribe known as the Wiltzi 
or Wilte, the existence of similar names in England, 
dating from the Anglo-Saxon period, cannot be other 
than probable evidence of the settlement in England 
of some of these people, for no other tribe is known to 
have existed at that time which had a similar name. 
This tribal name has also survived, in other countries, 
such as Holland, in which the Wilte formed colonies. 
The Polabian Wends or Wilte were located on the right 
bank of the Elbe, where some ships for the Saxon inva- 
sion must have been fitted out. There were Saxons on 
the left bank and Wilte on the right. At a later period 
they were in close alliance, and unless there had been peace 
between them, it is not likely that a Saxon expedition to 
England would have been organized. 

Under these circumstances, if we had no evidence of 
Wilte or other Wends in England, it would be very 
difficult indeed to believe that some of them did not come 
among the Saxons. The general name of the Wends 
survives in many place-names in the old Wendish parts 
1 Rudolph, H., ' Orts Lexikon von Deutschland.' 

Rugians, Wends, and Tribal Slavonic Settlers. 97 

of Germany, such as Wendelau, Wendemark,- Wende- 
wisch, Wendhagen, and Wendorf. 1 

It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that the old 
Slavonic tribes not only comprised people of different 
tribal names, but of different ethnological characters, 
seeing that at the present time there are dark-corn- > 
plexioned Slavs and others as fair as Scandinavians. 
No record of the physical characters of the ancient 
Wends appears to have survived, but observations on 
the remnant of the race, who call themselves Sorbs, 
in Lower Saxony have been made by Beddoe. The 
Wendish peasants examined by him and recorded in 
his tables 2 showed the highest index of nigrescence of 
any observed by him in Germany. These observations 
have been confirmed by the results of the official ethno- 
logical survey of that country. 3 

The coast of the Baltic Sea as far east as the mouth of 
the Vistula, and beyond it, is remarkable for having 
been what may be called the birthplace of nations. 
Goths were seated east of the Vistula before the fall of 
the Roman Empire, and Vandals appear to have occupied 
a great area of country around the sources of the Vistula 
and the Oder. In the middle of the fifth century the 
Burgundians were seated in large numbers between the 
middle courses of these rivers, while the Slavic tribes 
known as Rugians were located on the Baltic coast on 
both sides of the Oder. The name Rugini or Rugians 
thus appears, at one time, to have been a comprehensive 
one, and to have included the tribes known later on as 

In the Sagas of the Norse Kings, Vindland is the name 
of the country of the Wends from Holstein to the east of 
Prussia, and as early as the middle of the tenth century 
we read of both Danish and Vindish Vikings as subjects 

1 Rudolph, H., loc. cit. 

2 Beddoe, J., ' Races of Britain,' 207. 

3 Ripley, W. Z., ' Races of Europe," Map. 


98 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

of, or in the service of, Hakon, King of Denmark. 1 In 
this century the Wends were sometimes allies and some- 
times enemies of the Danes and Norse. There is a 
reference to interpreters of the Wendish tongue in the 
Norse Sagas. 2 The Wends were sea-rovers, like their 
neighbours, and comprised the largest section of the 
ancient association or alliance known as the Jomberg 
Vikings. 3 An alliance was made between the Danes and 
the Wends by the marriage of Sweyn, King of Denmark, 
to Gunhild, daughter of Borislav, a King of the Wends. 
Cnut, King of England and Denmark, was actually King 
of ancient Wendland, and the force of huscarls he formed 
in England was partly composed of Jomberg sea-rovers 
who had been banished from their own country. The 
evidence of Wendish settlers with the Angles, Saxons, 
and Jutes in England rests, as far as the Rugians are 
concerned, on Bede's statement, and generally on the 
survival of customs, place-names, and folk-lore. It is 
certain that large colonies of Vandals were settled in 
Britain before the end of the Roman occupation, and 
some of them may have retained their race characters 
until the time of the Saxon settlement. It is certain, 
also, that there was an immigration in the time of Cnut. 
The evidence of a Wendish influence in the English race, 
arising from these successive settlements, extending 
from the Roman time to the later Anglo-Saxon period, 
cannot, therefore, be disregarded. 

The Anglo-Saxon charters 4 tell us of Wendlesbiri in 
Hertfordshire, Wendlescliff in Worcestershire, Waendles- 
cumb in Berkshire, and Wendlesore, now Windsor all 
apparently named from settlers called Wendel, after the 
name of their race. 

In such Old English place-names the tribal name 

1 ' The Heimskringla,' translated by Laing, edited by Ander- 
son, ii. 12. 2 Ibid., iv. 201. 

3 Memoires de la Societe Royale des Antiquaires du Nord, 
1850-1860, p. 422. 4 Codex Dipl., Nos. 826, 150, 1283, 816. 

Rugians, Wends, and Tribal Slavonic Settlers. 99 

lingers yet, as similar names linger in North-East Ger- 
many ; and in the names Wilts, Willi, Rugen, Rown, or 
Ruwan, and others, we may still, in all probability, trace 
the Wilte and Rugians Wendic tribes of the Saxon age. 
In the old Germanic records the Rugians are mentioned 
under similar names to those found in the Anglo-Saxon 
charters, Ruani and Rugiani. 1 

Some manorial customs, and especially that of sole 
inheritance by the youngest son, may be traced with 
more certainty to the old Slavic nations of Europe than 
to the Teutonic. Inheritance by the youngest son, or 
junior preference, was a custom so prevalent among the 
Slavs that there can be little doubt it must have been 
almost or quite the common custom of the race. The 
ancient right of the youngest survives here and there 
in parts of Germany in parts of Bavaria, for example 
but in no Teutonic country is the evidence to be 
found in ancient customs or in old records of the 
identification of this custom with the Teutonic race as 
it may be identified with the Slavic. In the old Wendish 
country around Lubeck the custom of inheritance by 
the youngest son long survived, or still does, and Lubeck 
was the city in which during the later Saxon age in 
England the commerce of the Wends began to be 

There , is evidence of another kind showing the con- 
nection of Wends with Danes or Northmen. At Sonde- 
vissing, in Tyrsting herrad, in the district of Scanderborg, 
there is a stone monument with a runic inscription 
stating tkat ' Tuva caused this barrow to be constructed. 
She was a daughter of Mistivi. She made it to her mother, 
who was the wife of Harald the Good, son of Gorm.' 2 
The inscription has been assigned to the end of the tenth 
century, and Worsaae says : ' We know that there 
existed at this period a Wendish Prince named Mistivi, 

1 Monumenta Germanise, iii. 461. 

2 Worsaae, J. J. A., ' Primaeval Antiquities of Denmark,' p. u8. 


ioo Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

who in the year 986 destroyed Hamburg, possibly the 
same as in the inscription.' This refers to a generation 
earlier than that of Cnut, to the time of Sweyn, who 
married the daughter of Borislav, King of the Wends. 
During the period of Danish rule in England there are 
several historical references to the connection of the 
Wends with England. In 1029, Eric, son of Hakon, was 
banished by Cnut. Hakon was doubly the King's 
nephew, being the son of his sister and the husband of 
his niece Gunhild, the daughter of another sister and of 
Wyrtgeorn, King of the Wends. 1 There was at this time 
an eminent Slavonic Prince who was closely connected 
with Cnut, and spent some time with him in England 
viz., Godescalc, son of Uto, the Wendish Prince of the 
Obodrites, whose exploits are recorded in old Slavonic 
history. The Obodrites were the Wendish people whose 
warlike deeds are still commemorated at Schwerin. 
Godescalc waged war against the Saxons of Holstein 
and Stormaria, but was taken prisoner. After his release 
he entered the service of Cnut, probably as an officer of 
the huscarls, and later on he married the King's daughter. 
There is another trace of the Wends in an English 
charter of A.D. 1026, which is witnessed by Earls Godwin, 
Hacon, Hrani, Sihtric, and Wrytesleof. The name of 
the last of these is apparently Slavonic. 2 There is also a 
charter of Cnut, dated 1033, by which he granted to 
Bouige, his huscarl, land at Horton in Dorset. 3 Saxo, the 
early chronicler of the Danes, tells us that Cnut's Wendish 
kingdom was called Sembia, and it was in the Wendish 
war under Cnut that Godwin, the Anglo-Saxon earl, rose 
to distinction. As Wendland was actually part of Cnut's 
continental dominions, 4 the migration into England of 
Wendish people during his reign is easily accounted for. 

1 Freeman, E. A., ' Hist, of the Norman Conquest,' i. 475. 

2 Freeman, E. A., loc. cit., i. 650. 

3 Codex Dipl., No. 1318. 

4 Freeman, E. A., loc. cit., i. 504, Note. 

Rugians, Wends, and Tribal Slavonic Settlers. 101 

There is additional evidence of the intercourse of the 
Wendish people of Pomerania with the people of Anglo- 
Saxon England in the objects that have been found. 
The gold ring which was found at Coslin, on the Pomer- 
anian coast, in 1839, Stephens says was the first instance 
of the discovery of a golden bracteate and Northern runes 
on German soil. 1 The inscription is in provincial English 
runes, the rune ( ^ ), yo, a slight variation of ( | ), being 
decisive in this respect, for, as Stephens says, it has only 
been found in England. The ring must be a very early 
one, for it contains the heathen symbols for Woden and 
also for the Holy Triskele (Y)- Stephens states that it 
cannot well be later than the fifth century, and that it 
had been worn by a warrior ' who had been in England, 
or had gotten it thence by barter.' The style is that 
of six centuries earlier than the eleventh or twelfth 
centuries, when the Germans came to Pomerania. The 
well-preserved characters on the ring point to its loss at 
an early date after its manufacture, and thus to early 
communication of some kind between England and 
Pomerania. It may have been the much-prized, rare 
ornament of a Wendish chief, brought or sent from 
England. In any case we know that the Wends, who 
had no knowledge of runes, must have prized ornaments 
such as this, whose construction was beyond their skill, 
for the relics of Vandal ornaments we possess from other 
countries where Vandals settled are clearly in many 
respects rough imitations of those of the ancient Goths. 2 
With this English golden finger-ring there were also two 
Roman golden coins, one of Theodosius the Great 
(379-395), and the other of Leo I. (457-474), thus fixing 
the probable date of the ring as the fifth century. At 
that time the Goths were settling down in Kent, with some 
Wends, probably, near to them. They can be traced in 
both Essex and Sussex. The coast of the Baltic, it should 
also be remembered, was not only Wendish in the parts 
1 Stephens, G., loc. cit., ii. 600. 2 Collection, British Museum. 

IO2 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

nearest to the Elbe, but also Gothic in those beyond 
the Vistula. The discovery of this ring in old Vandal 
territory with the Roman coins, and especially with the 
very early English runic characters upon it, assists in 
proving that the early Goths who settled in Kent were of 
the same stock as those who overran so large a part of 
Europe during the decline of the Roman Empire. In 
considering this, it should also be remembered that 
inscribed stones discovered at Sandwich, which are 
marked with very early runes, and are ascribed to the 
same early period, still exist in Kent. 1 

The evidence we possess relating to the connection of 
ancient Wendland with both the earlier and later Anglo- 
Saxons thus points to a continued intercourse between 
that country and our own. It is known to have been very 
considerable in the time of Cnut, who was the King or 
overlord of the Baltic Wendland. A large discovery of 
coins was made at Althofthen on the Obra, in the province 
of Posen, not far from Brandenburg, in 1872. From sixty 
to seventy Anglo-Saxon coins of yEthelred and Cnut, and an 
Irish one of Sithric, were found in this hoard. These Anglo- 
Saxon coins bear the mint marks of Cambridge, London, 
Canterbury, Shaftesbury, Cricklade, Oxford, Stamford, 
Winchester, York, and other places twenty in all. 2 

The local traces of Wendish settlers in various English 
counties will be stated when considering the evidence of 
tribal settlers in different parts of England . Among these 
local traces are customs and folk-lore, which were of 
great vitality among these people of Wendland. On this 
subject Magnus, the historian of the Goths and Vandals, 
gives us positive information. He says : ' For, as 
Albertus Crantzius reports of Vandalia, " great is the 
ove men bear to their ancestors' traditions." ' 3 

1 Stephens, G., loc. cit., ii. 542. 
z Warne, C., ' Ancient Dorset,' p. 320. 
* Magnus, O., ' Hist. omn. Goth.,' quoting Albertus Crantzius, 
lib. ix., chap, xxxvii. 



ONE of the facts concerning the colour of the 
hair and eyes of the people in different counties 
of England at the present time, brought to light 
by scientific observations, is that there is a higher 
percentage of people of a mixed brown type living 
in Hertfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Wiltshire, and 
Dorset, than in most other counties. Except those in 
Cornwall and on the old Celtic borders, the inhabi- 
tants of these counties are the darkest. This is usually 
explained on the supposition that in the process of the 
Saxon settlement a British population was allowed 
to remain in these parts of England, which in the 
course of centuries became mixed with the inhabitants 
of Anglo-Saxon descent, and consequently the present 
population is more marked than those of pure descent 
by brown, hazel, or black eyes, with brown (chestnut), 
dark-brown, or black hair. 1 The counties of Hertford 
and Buckingham have people as dark as Wales. All 
investigation goes to show that this brunette outcrop 
is a reality. Beddoe found that the area in which there 
is a larger percentage of brown people in England extends 
from the river Lea to the Warwickshire Avon. In dealing 
with the circumstances of the settlement, these ethno- 
logical facts must receive consideration. The survival 

1 Ripley, W. Z., ' The Races of Europe,' p. 323, and Had- 
don, A. C., ' The Study of Man,' pp. 38, 39. 


IO4 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

of a British population is a possible explanation, and the 
one which appears to be the most natural. As there 
are some difficulties in this conclusion, the question 
arises, Is there any other way in which the origin of 
these mixed brown people, surrounded by others of a 
somewhat fairer complexion, can be explained ? An 
alternative explanation is that people of a darker race 
may have come with the Angles, Saxons, or Danes, and 
have settled largely in these parts of the country. There 
is circumstantial evidence that people of a brown or 
dark complexion did come into England during the time 
of both the Saxon and the Danish settlements, and this 
may now be summarised. 

First, we have the evidence that Wends were among 
the settlers either during the early period or later in 
alliance with the Danes. The Wends, specifically so 
called by the Germans, included some tribes much 
darker than the Saxons and Angles, as the remnant 
of the race still called Wends living on the border of 
Saxony and Prussia at the present time shows. They 
are the darkest people in Northern Germany, according 
to the official census. From 26 to 29 per cent, of the 
children of the Wendish district of Lusatia, south of 
Dresden, were shown by this census to be brunettes, 
notwithstanding the admixture of race with the much 
fairer people of Teutonic descent which has been going 
on along this borderland since the dawn of history. 
All the Slav nations are not dark. Some are as fair as 
the Scandinavians, while others, such as the Wends and 
the Czechs of Bohemia, are dark. 

The Wendish place-names in Buckinghamshire and on 
its borders help to show that some people of this race 
probably settled in that county. Huntingdon tells us 
that during the later Saxon period they formed part of 
the Scandian hosts. 1 They were in alliance with the 
Norwegians, Danes, Swedes, Goths, and Frisians, or, in 
1 Henry of Huntingdon's Chronicle, Bonn's ed., p. 148. 

Our Darker Forefathers. 105 

any case, people of these races were acting together in 
the Danish expeditions against England. It is likely, 
therefore, that when permanent settlements were formed 
adjoining townships would be occupied by people of this 
alliance. This consideration helps us to identify 
Wendlesbury in Hertfordshire. 1 Wendover and its 
neighbourhood in Buckinghamshire, the Anglo-Saxon 
Wendofra, 2 and Windsor, anciently Wendlesore, 3 close to 
the southern border of that county, were probably named 
after settlers who were Wends. 

If British people were left, as suggested, like an eddy 
between the main lines of the Anglo-Saxon advance east 
and west of these counties, would it not be very surprising 
that the advancing Saxons should make no use of the exist- 
ing Roman roads the Watling Street, Ikenield Street, 
and Akeman Street which passed through parts of these 
shires, while the Ermine Street also went through Hert- 
fordshire ? To suppose that invaders and subsequent 
settlers would have forsaken the excellent roads which 
the Romans had made, and in their advance would have 
passed through the more difficult country east and west 
of them, thus leaving undisturbed a British population, 
is most unlikely. 

Secondly, these counties are not specially marked by the 
survival of Celtic place-names, nor by a dialect containing 
words of Celtic origin. In Anglo-Saxon times there was, 
however, a place named Wealabroc, in Buckinghamshire. 

Thirdly, it should be remembered that the western 
border of Buckinghamshire was at one time the western 
frontier of the Danelaw, which comprised fifteen counties 
known as Fiftonshire, until after the Norman Conquest, 
and that Danish law survived for more than a century 
after the Conquest east of this frontier. 4 This fact points 

1 Codex Dipl., 826. 

2 Dipl. Angl. JEvi Sax., by B. Thorpe, 527. 

3 Codex Dipl., 816. 

4 Cottonian Liber Custumarium in Liber Albus, ii. 625. 

io6 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

to a population largely Scandian. There is, in addition, 
evidence that points to Norwegians of a brunette appear- 
ance as another source whence brown-complexioned people 
may have come into England. On the south-east coast of 
Norway, and here and there on the coast farther north, a 
population is met with which differs from the usual 
Norwegian type, and this has been referred by anthro- 
pologists to a very ancient settlement there of the pre- 
historic brown race that survives in the highlands of 
Central Europe, and is known as the brown Alpine race. 1 
This race is believed to have extended before the dawn 
of history much further northwards in Germany. The 
brown people of Norway are well seen in Joderen, where 
Arbo found the blonde and really dark-haired people 
about equally represented. The Norwegian brunettes 
differ from the typical blondes of that country in two 
other particulars. First, they are broad-headed, while 
the blondes, which comprise the bulk of the nation, are 
long-headed ; and not only are the broader-headed people 
of these coast-districts darker as a whole, but in them 
the broad-headed individuals tend to be darker than the 
other type, as Arbo has clearly shown. 2 Secondly, the 
broadest-headed people of these localities in Norway 
incline to shortness of stature below that of the typical 

From Huntingdon's statement concerning Vandals as 
Danish allies and these considerations, there appears to 
be evidence to account for the greater percentage of 
brunettes, or the greater tendency to the brunette type, 
that prevails in Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire over 
the adjoining counties, without necessarily concluding 
that such an ethnological phenomenon can only have 
been caused by a remnant of the British population. 
It is, indeed, an unlikely district for Celtic people to 
have been left in large numbers. On the contrary, in 

1 Ripley, W. Z., loc. cit., p. 206, and Map, ibid., quoting Arbo. 

2 Ibid., p. 208. 

Our Darker Forefathers. 107 

view of its excellent communications, 'it is a country 
where the conquest by the early settlers might be 
expected to have been most thorough. Whether the 
Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire brunettes are partly 
due to the settlement of Wends and Norwegians of the 
dark type, as now suggested, or to some other cause, the 
British theory as a complete explanation, in view of the 
facts, appears improbable. The chief lines of the Anglo- 
Saxon advance during the early settlement were the 
navigable rivers and the Rorhan roads. The Scandian 
advances into the country during their conquests and 
later settlements must have been along the same lines of 
communication. On one occasion, at least, we read of 
the Danish host presumably using the Ikenield way, on 
the march from East Anglia into Dorset. 1 

This consideration of the probable origin of the great 
proportion of brunettes in two of the .south midland 
counties of England leads us to that of colour-names as 
surnames and place-names, which may probably have 
been derived from their original settlers. For example, 
there is the common name Brown. This has been 
derived from the Anglo-Saxon brun, signifying brown. 
It is not reasonable to doubt that when our forefathers 
called a man Brun or Brown, they gave him this name 
as descriptive of his brown complexion. The proba- 
bility that the brunettes were common is supported by 
the frequent references to persons named Brun in Anglo- 
Saxon literature. Brun was a name not confined to 
England in the Anglo-Saxon and later periods. On the 
contrary, we find that it was a common name in ancient 
Germany. 2 The typical place-name Bruninga-feld occurs 
in a charter of ^Ethelstan dated A.D. 938, ' in loco qui 
Bruninga-feld dicitur.' 3 Brunesham, Hants, is men- 
tioned in a charter of Edward the Elder about A.D. goo. 4 

1 Asser's ' Life of Alfred,' Bohn's ed., 263. 

2 Monumenta Germaniae, edited by Pertz, Indices. 

3 Dipl. Angl. yvi Sax., p. 186. * Ibid., 146. 

io8 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

Brunesford is another suggestive name. 1 Brunman is 
mentioned as a personal name in Anglo-Saxon records 
of the eleventh century, and examples of the name 
Bruning are somewhat numerous in documents of the 
same period. 2 At the present time old place-names, of 
which the word Braun forms the chief part, such as 
Braunschweig or Brunswick, are common in Germany. 3 
The custom of calling people by colour - names from 
their personal appearance, or places after them, was 
clearly not peculiar to our own country. It is probable 
that the name Brunswick was derived from the brown 
complexion of its original inhabitants. The map pub- 
lished by Ripley, based on the official ethnological survey 
of Germany, shows that parts of the country near Bruns- 
wick have a higher percentage of brunettes than the 
districts further north. Beddoe also made observations 
on a number of Brunswick peasantry, and records some 
remarkable facts relating to the proportion of brunettes 
among those who came under his observation. 4 

In view of this, and the evidence relating to the use 
of the Anglo-Saxon word brun in English place-names, 
we are not, I think, justified in deciding that all English 
names which begin with Brun, modernized into Burn 
in many cases by the well-known shifting of the r sound, 
have been derived from brun, a bourn or stream, rather 
than from brun, brown. Such names as Bruninga-feld 5 
and Brunesham point to the opposite conclusion, that 
Brun in such names refers to people, probably so named 
from their complexions. If a large proportion of the 
settlers in the counties of Buckingham and Hertford 
were of a brown complexion, it is clear that they would 
have been less likely to have been called Brun or Brown 

1 Codex Dipl., Index. 

2 Searle, W. G., ' Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum.' 

3 Rudolph, H., ' Orts Lexikon von Deutschland.' 

4 Beddoe, J., ' Races in Britain,' 207-211. 

5 Dipl. Angl. JEvi Sax., 186. 

Our Darker Forefathers. 109 

by their neighbours than brunettes would in other 
counties, where such a complexion may have been rarer, 
and consequently more likely to have attracted the 
notice of the people around them. It is not probable 
that people who were originally' designated by the colour- 
names Brown, Black, Gray, or the like, gave themselves 
these names. They most likely received them from 

The evidence concerning brown people in England 
during the Anglo-Saxon period which can be derived from 
the place-name Brun is supplemented by that supplied 
in at least some of the old place-names beginning 
with dun and duning. Dun is an Old English word 
denoting a colour partaking of brown and black, and 
where it occurs at the beginning of words in such a com- 
bination as Duningland, 1 it is possible that it refers to 
brown people or their children, rather than to the Anglo- 
Celtic word dun, a hill or fortified place. 

As regards the ancient brown race or races of North 
Europe, there can be no doubt of their existence in the 
south-east of Norway and in the east of Friesland. 2 
There can be no doubt about the important influence 
which the old Wendish race has had in the north-eastern 
parts of Germany in transmitting to their descendants 
a more brunette complexion than prevails among the 
people of Hanover, Holstein, and Westphalia, of more 
pure Teutonic descent. We cannot reasonably doubt 
that, in view of such a survival of brown people as we 
find at the present time in the provinces of North Holland, 
Drenthe and Overijssel, which form the hinterland of 
the ancient Frisian country, numerous brunettes must 
have come into England among the Frisians. It would 
be as unreasonable to doubt this as it would to think 
that during the Norwegian immigration into England 
all the brown people of Norway were precluded from 

1 Codex Dipl., No. 283. 

2 Reclus, E., ' Nouvelle Geographic Universelle,' iv. 252. 

no Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

leaving their country because they were brunettes, or that 
the Wends, who undoubtedly settled in England in 
considerable numbers, were none of them of a brunette 

The survival of some people with broad heads and of 
a brown type in parts of Drenthe, Guelderland, and 
Overijssel appears unmistakable. 1 They present a re- 
markable contrast in appearance to their Frisian neigh- 
bours, who are of a different complexion in regard to 
hair and skin, and are specially characterized as long- 

It was in Gelderland that ancient Thiel was situated, 
and the men of Thiel and those of Brune were apparently 
recognised as different people from the real Frisians, for 
in the later Anglo-Saxon laws relating to the sojourn of 
strangers within the City of London it is stated that 
' the men of the Emperor may lodge within the city 
wherever they please, except those of Tiesle and of 

The evidence concerning the origin of the broad-headed 
Slavonic nations connects them with the broad-headed 
and still older Alpine brown race of Central Europe. 
The most generally accepted theory among anthro- 
pologists as to the physical relationship of the Slavs is 
that they were always, as the majority of them are 
to-day, of the same stock as the broad-headed Alpine 
race. 3 This old race has sometimes been called the Celtic, 
but it is perhaps more accurate to say that it is the very 
ancient stock from which the old Celtic race of the British 
Bronze Age was an offshoot. This curious circumstance, 
consequently, comes before us in considering the Anglo- 
Saxon settlement of England. If the brunette character 
of the people of any part of England at the present time 
is due to a survival of the race characters of the Celts of 

1 Reclus, E., loc. cit., iv. 252. 

2 Liber Albus, ii. 63, and ii. 531. 

3 Ripley, W. Z., loc. cit., 355. 

Our Darker Forefathers. 1 1 1 


the British Bronze Age, and if this same character has 
been caused partly by people of a darker complexion and 
broad heads settling as immigrants among the fair- 
haired and long-headed Teutons in other parts of England, 
this racial character in both cases can be traced along 
different lines to the same distant source. 

The consideration of the evidence that people of 
brunette complexions were among the Anglo-Saxon 
settlers in England leads on to that of people of a still 
darker hue, the dark, black, or brown-black settlers. 
Probably there must have been some of these among 
the Anglo-Saxons, for we meet with the personal names 
Blacman, Blaecman, Blakernan, Blacaman, Blac'sunu, 
Blsecca, and Blacheman, in various documents of the 
period. 1 Blcecca was an ealdorman of Lindsey who 
was converted by Paulinus ; Blsecman was the son of 
Ealric or Edric, a descendant of Ida, ancestor of Ealhred, 
King of Bernicia, and so on. 2 The same kind of evidence 
is met with among the oldest place-names. Blacmanne- 
bergh is mentioned in an Anglo-Saxon charter ; 3 Blache- 
manestone was the name of a place in Dorset, 4 and 
Blachemenestone that of a place in Kent. 5 Blacheshale 
and Blachenhale are Domesday names of places in 
Somerset, and Blachingelei occurs in the Domesday 
record of Surrey. The name Blachemene occurs in the 
Hertfordshire survey, and Blachene in Lincoln. Among 
the earliest names of the same kind in the charters 
we find Blacanden in Hants and Blacandon in Dorset. 
The places called Blachemanestone in Dorset and 
Blachemenestone in Kent were on or quite close to the 
coast, a circumstance which points to the settlers having 
come to these places by water rather than to a survival 
of black people of the old Celtic race having been left 
in them. 

1 Searle, W. G., loc, cit. 2 Ibid. 

3 Codex DipL, No. 730. * Domesday Book, i. 84 b. 

5 Ibid. 

1 1 2 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

Among old place-names of the same kind in various 
counties, some of which are met with in later, but still old, 
records, we find Blakeney in Gloucestershire ; Blakeney 
in Norfolk ; Blakenham in Suffolk ; Blakemere, 1 an ancient 
hamlet, and Blakesware, near Ware in Hertfordshire. 
This Hertford name is worthy of note in reference to 
what has been said concerning the brunettes in that 
county at the present time. Another circumstance 
connected with these names which it is desirable to re- 
member is the absence of evidence to show that the Old 
English ever called any of the darker-complexioned 
Britons brown men or black men. Their name for them 
was Wealas. So far as I am aware, not a single instance 
occurs in which the Welsh are mentioned in any Anglo- 
Saxon document as black or brown people ; on the con- 
trary, the Welsh annals mention black Vikings on the 
coast, as if they were men of unusual personal appear- 
ance. 2 

There is another old word used by the Anglo-Saxons 
to denote black or brown-black the word sweart. The 
personal names Suart and Sueart may have been derived 
from this word, and may have originally denoted people 
of a dark-brown or black complexion. Some names of 
this kind are mentioned in the Domesday record of 
Buckinghamshire and Lincolnshire. These may be of 
Scandinavian origin, for the ekename or nickname 
Svarti is found in the Northern Sagas. 3 Halfden the 
Black was the name of a King of Norway who died in 
863. The so-called black men of the Anglo-Saxon period 
probably included some of the darker Wendish people 
among them, immigrants or descendants of people of the 
same race as the ancestors of the Sorbs of Lausatia on the 

1 Chauncy, Sir H., ' Historical Antiquities of Hertford- 
shire/ 265. 

2 Annales Cambriae, A.D. 987. 

3 ' Corpus Poeticum Boreale,' by Vigfusson and York Powell, 

Our Darker Forefathers. 113 

borders of Saxony and Prussia at the present day. Some 
of the darker Wends may well have been among the Black 
Vikings referred to in the Irish annals, 1 as well as in those 
of Wales, 2 and may have been the people who have left 
the Anglo-Saxon name Blacmanne-berghe, which occurs 
in one of the charters, 3 Blachemenestone on the Kentish 
coast, and Blachemanstone on the Dorset coast. As 
late as the time of the Domesday Survey we meet with 
records of people apparently named after their dark 
complexions. In Buckinghamshire, Blacheman, Suar- 
tinus, and others are mentioned ; in Sussex, one named 
Blac ; in Suffolk, Blakemannus and Suartingus ; and 
others at Lincoln. The invasion of the coast of the 
British Isles by Vikings of a dark or black complexion 
rests on historical evidence which is too circumstantial 
to admit of doubt. In the Irish annals the Black Vikings 
are called Dubh-Ghenti, or Black Gentiles. 4 These Black 
Gentiles on some occasions fought against other plunderers 
of the Irish coasts known as the Fair Gentiles, who can 
hardly have been others than the fair Danes or North- 
men. In the year 851 the Black Gentiles came to Ath- 
cliath 5 i.e., Dublin. In 852 we are told that eight ships 
of the Finn-Ghenti arrived and fought against the Dubh- 
Ghenti for three days, and that the Dubh-Ghenti were 
victorious. The Black Vikings appear at this time to 
have had a settlement in or close to Dublin, and during 
the ninth century were much in evidence on the Irish 
coast. In 877 a great battle was fought at Lock-Cuan 
between them and the Fair Gentiles, in which Albann* 
Chief of the Black Gentiles, fell. 6 He may well have 
been a chieftain of the race of the Northern Sorbs of the 
Mecklenburg coast. 

There is still another way in which men of black hair 

1 Chronicum Scotorum, edited by W. M. Hennessy, 151, 167. 

2 Annales Cambriae, A.D. 987. 3 Codex Dipl., No. 730. 
* Chronicum Scotorum, p. 151. 5 Ibid. 

16 Ibid., 167. 


ii4 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

or complexions may have come into England viz., as 
thralls among the Norse invaders. In his translation 
of ' Orosius,' King Alfred inserts the account which 
Othere, the Norse mariner, gave him of the tribute in 
skins, eiderdown, whalebone, and ropes made from whale 
and seal skins, which the Northern Fins, now called 
Lapps, paid to the Northmen. Their descendants are 
among the darkest people of Europe, and as they were 
thralls, some of them may have accompanied their lords. 
The Danes and Norse, having the general race character- 
istics of tall, fair men, must have been sharply distin- 
guished in appearance from Vikings, such as those 
of Jomborg, for many of these were probably of a dark 
complexion. There is an interesting record of the descent 
of dark sea-rovers on the coast of North Wales in the 
' Annales Cambriae,' under the year 987, which tells us 
that Gothrit, son of Harald, with black men, devastated 
Anglesea, and captured two thousand men. Another 
entry in the same record tells us that Meredut redeemed 
the captives from the black men. This account in the 
Welsh annals receives some confirmation in the Sagas of 
the Norse Kings, one of which tells us that Olav Tryg- 
vesson was for three years, 982-985, King in Vindland 
i.e., W T endland where he resided with his Queen, to 
whom he was much attached ; but on her death, whose 
loss he greatly felt, he had no more pleasure in Vindland. 
He therefore provided himself with ships and went on a 
Viking expedition, first plundering Friesland and the 
coast all the way to Flanders. Thence he sailed to 
Northumberland, plundered its coast and those of Scot- 
land, Man, Cumberland, and Bretland i.e., Wales 
during the years 985-988, calling himself a Russian under 
the name of Ode. 1 From these two separate accounts 
there can be but little doubt, notwithstanding the 
differences in the names, of the descent on the coast of 

1 ' The Heimskringla,' translated by S. Laing, edited by Ander- 
son, ii. no, in. 

Our Darker Forefathers. 115 

North Wales at this time of dark sea-rovers under a 

Scandinavian leader, and it is difficult to see who they 
were if not dark-complexioned Wends or other allies of 
the Norsemen. It is possible some of these dark Vikings 
may have been allies or mercenaries from the South of 
Europe, where the Norse made conquests. 

As regards the evidence concerning black-haired settlers 
in England at a still earlier date, there is the story of 
the two Anglian priests named the Black and Fair 
Hewald, who, following the example of Willibord among 
the Frisians, went into Saxony as missionaries, and on 
coming to a village were admitted to the house of the 
head man, who promised to protect them, and send them 
on to the ealdorman of the district. They devoted 
themselves to prayer and religious observances, which were 
misunderstood by the pagan rustics, who apparently 
were afraid of magical arts. At any rate, these strange 
rites, so novel to them, aroused suspicion among the 
people, who thought that if these Angles were allowed 
to meet the ealdorman they might draw him away from 
their gods, and before long draw away the whole province 
from the observances of their forefathers. So they slew 
both the Black and Fair Hewald, whose names in sub- 
sequent Christian time were, and still are, held in high 
honour in Westphalia. 1 It is a touching story, and one 
that tells us more than the devotion, inspired by Christian 
zeal to risk their lives, which these missionaries showed 
for the conversion of men of their own race ; for, as their 
names indicate, they bore in their different complexions 
evidence of the existence of the fair and dark people 
among the Anglo-Saxon stock. 

As already mentioned, the name Brunswick appears 
to be one of significance, and the Wendish names in that 
part of Germany, Wendeburg, Wendhausen, and Wenden, 
may be compared with the Buckinghamshire Domesday 
names Wendovre, Weneslai, and Wandene, and with 
1 Bright, W., ' Early English Church History,' p. 384. 


n6 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

Wenriga or Wenrige in Hertfordshire. The probable 
connection of the Wends some tribes of whom, such as 
the Sorbs, are known to have been dark with parts of 
Germany near Brunswick, and with parts of Herts and 
Bucks, is shown by these names. Domesday Book 
tells us of huscarls in Buckinghamshire, and of people 
who bore such names as Suarting, Suiert, Suen, Suert, 
and Suiuard, among its land-holders, and it is difficult 
to avoid the conclusion that such names refer to people 
of dark complexions. Among the lahmens of Lincoln, 
a very Danish town, there were also apparently some 
so-called Danes of a dark complexion, for Domesday 
Book mentions Suartin, son of Gribold ; Suardine, son of 
Hardenut ; and Suartine Sortsbrand, son of Ulf. 

In view of the facts pointing to settlements of Wends 
and dark-haired people in the counties of Hertford and 
Buckingham, the survival of the custom of junior in- 
heritance at Cheshunt and Hadham in Herts is of interest. 
In cases of intestacy the land in the eastern part of 
Cheshunt, 1 or * below bank,' which is by far the greater 
part of the parish, descends to the youngest son by 
ancient custom, and that custom, traced to its most 
probable home, leads us to Eastern Germany, and to the 
old Slavic tribes which once occupied it, as will be fully 
considered in a subsequent chapter. 

From the evidence mentioned, the impression left on 
the mind is that our Old English forefathers could not 
have been men of three ancient nations only, Jutes, 
Saxons, and Angles. These names, in reference to the 
conquest and colonization of England, were but general 
names for tribal people in alliance, generally the name 
of the largest section of such allies. They were no doubt 
convenient names, but cannot be regarded as ethnological 
designations. This has become apparent from the ski 
and other remains found in Anglo-Saxon burial-places. 
The shapes and special characteristics of these skulls, 
1 Bone, J. W., Notes and Queries, Seventh Series, ix. 206. 

Our Darker Forefathers. 117 

whether from the so-called Anglian districts or Saxon 
parts of England, present such marked contrasts that 
anthropologists are unable to ascribe them all to one race 
of people. A minority of those found in ancient ceme- 
teries in Sussex, Wiltshire, and the Eastern Counties, 
present such typical differences from the majority in each 
district as to leave no doubt that they represent a variety 
of race or people descended from a fusion of races. The 
easiest explanation of this is, of course, to turn to the 
ancient Briton, and generally the remote Briton of the 
Bronze Age known as the Round Barrow man. Where 
in early cemeteries Saxon or Anglian skulls have been 
found presenting characteristics which are clearly not 
of the Teutonic type, the early British inhabitant of the 
Bronze Age has usually been called in as an ancestor. The 
typical old Teutonic skull is dolichocephalic, the skull of 
the British people of the Bronze Age in brachycephalic. 
The inference that there was a fusion of race between the 
Saxons and Angles and people descending from men of 
the Bronze Age is easily drawn. There is, however, one 
difficulty. The Britons of the Bronze Age lived about 
500 B.C., a date which may fairly be taken to represent 
the time of the Round Barrow men. The Angles and 
Saxons are usually said to have come here not earlier 
than about 500 A.D. There are, therefore, a thousand 
years between the two periods, and in that interval was 
the period of the Roman rule, during which men of almost 
every Roman province served with the legions in Britain, 
and in many recorded cases some of them settled here, and 
presumably left descendants. In view of this racial fusion 
which must have gone on, it is difficult to believe that the 
Romano-Briton of the early Anglo-Saxon period pos- 
sessed the same skull characteristics as the much more 
remote man of the Bronze Age, who may not have been 
his ancestor at all. Moreover, the Welsh also, who may 
be supposed to be descended from this later British stock, 
are not broad-headed. 

n8 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

From what has been said of the presence of broad- 
headed people of a brunette type in parts of Norway, 
among the much more numerous long-headed people of 
a fair complexion who formed the bulk of the Norwegian 
nation, it will be seen that the facts point to an early 
broad-headed brown race, some of whom settled on the 
Norwegian coast, the long-headed fair race of the typical 
Norse variety having perhaps subsequently conquered 
them. In any case, we find evidence sufficient to justify 
the inference that probably the early broad-headed 
people were brown. The same result is obtained by the 
study of the broad-headed people of Central Europe at 
the present day, the descendants presumably of the old 
Alpine brown race. The same evidence is afforded by 
the remnant of the Wends, whose skulls are broad, and 
whose complexions are more or less brown at the present 
day, notwithstanding their fusion with the Germans. 
We have thus existing in Norway and parts of Germany 
at the present time people whose ethnological char- 
acteristics appear to agree with those of a section of the 
Anglo-Saxon people in England. It does not, of course, 
admit of proof that the broad-headed skulls, which occur 
in a small minority in Anglo-Saxon cemeteries, were the 
skulls of people of a brunette complexion. Similarly, we 
are unable to prove that the people who are called Brun, 
Brunman, or Bruning, in Saxon charters or other docu- 
ments were broad-headed ; but in view of the ethnological 
survival to the present day in various parts of North 
Europe, from which our Anglo-Saxon forefathers came, 
of broad-headed people of the brunette type, we can 
point in England to the fact that broad skulls are found 
in Anglo-Saxon graves, and to the historical fact that 
there were brown people in England during the Anglo- 
Saxon period, and there the evidence must be left. It 
may, however, be borne in mind that as brown passes 
into dark brown or black, the literary evidence con- 
cerning brown Anglo-Saxons is strengthened by that 

Our Darker Forefathers. 119 

relating to the black men, or to those designated by the 
old brown-black word sweart, and in some cases, perhaps, 
even by the old word dun. 

The evidence of brown people of the Wendish race may, 
however, be carried further by the comparison of sur- 
viving names in North-East Germany with similar sur- 
viving names in England. Those of Wendlesbury, 
Wandsworth (Wendelesworth), Windsor (Wendlesore), 
find their parallels in names in the old Wendish country 
of Mecklenburg, where similar names are to be found 
such as Wanden, the name of a province and place on 
the border of ancient Wendland, and similar names in 
Brunswick, to which some of the Wends probably migrated. 
The name Wendland also survives in Hanover, where a 
remnant of the Wendish language died out only two 
centuries ago. In these names we discern a connection 
of the places with the Wends, who are at the present time 
the darkest people of Northern Germany. They were 
Slavs, whose line of migration in some far-distant era 
was from the country around the sources of the river 
Oder, down the wide valley of that river in Silesia to the 
Baltic coast of Mecklenburg and Pomerania. 1 This 
migration is marked at the present time by a greater 
percentage of people of the brunette type 2 in this district 
than prevails on its eastern or western sides, where 
fusion with other fairer-coloured races has been going 
on since the dawn of history. Whereas the country east 
and west of the valley of the Oder was found by the 
German Ethnological Survey to contain from 5 to 10 per 
cent, of brunettes among the present population, the 
country which marks the migration of the ancient Wends 
to the Mecklenburg coast contained n to 15 per cent. 
From this evidence and that of the complexion of the 
Wends of Saxony at the present time we are warranted 
in considering the ancient Wends to have been brunettes, 
or to have comprised tribes who were. It is on account of 
1 Ripley, W. Z., loc. cit., p. 244. 2 Ibid. 

I2O Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

this historic migration, says Ripley, that Saxony, Bran- 
denburg, and Mecklenburg are less purely Teutonic 
to-day in respect to pigmentation than they once were. 1 
Not only is there a greater percentage of brunettes 
in these parts of Germany than is shown in the purely 
Teutonic parts of that country, but the whole East of 
Germany contains a population which is broader-headed, 
shading off imperceptibly into countries where pure 
Slavic languages are in daily use. The connection with 
our own country, in its subsequent consequences, of this 
great migration of people having broad heads and dark 
complexions through Silesia into Mecklenburg is one of 
the most interesting considerations indirectly concerned 
with the Anglo-Saxon race. 

1 Ripley, W. Z., loc. cit., p. 245. 



r I ^HE settlement of Danes in England, which began 
before Bede's time, went on apparently more or 
less continuously after the eighth century. They 
are mentioned by the name Dene in early Anglo-Saxon 
records and in the 'Traveller's Song,' and by various 
names, such as Dacians, Daucones, and Scyldings in 
other ancient writings. Some of them were also known 
by names derived from the islands they inhabited or 
their Scandinavian provinces, such as Skanians from 
the province of Skane. 

One of the earliest traces of the Danish name in England 
is Denisesburne, mentioned by Bede, apparently a place 
in Northumberland. Another early name of the same 
kind is Denceswyrth in Berkshire, 1 in a Saxon charter 
about A.D. 811. The Anglo-Saxon names Denesig, now 
Dengey, in Essex, 2 Denetun or Denton in Kent, and 
Densige, appear to have been derived from those of 
individuals or families who were Danes, while the name 
Dentuninga, now Dentun, in Northamptonshire, appar- 
ently denotes a kindred of the same race. The Domesday 
Hundred name Danais, or Daneis, in Hertfordshire, is 
also apparently derived from the same people. 

1 Chron. Mon. de Abingdon, i. 24. 

2 Dipl. Angl. by B. Thorpe, xxxix. 


122 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

Two English woodlands bore old Danish names viz., 
Danes Wood, now Dean Forest, in Gloucestershire, and 
part of the Forest of Essex, which was called in Danish 
literature ' Daneskoven,' or the Danish Forest. 1 Some 
of the tribal names of the Danes are known viz., South 
Dene, North Dene, East Dene, and West Dene. Another 
branch of the nation is called by the name Gar Dene, 
or Gar Danes. The poem of Beowulf begins with a 
reference to them : 

' What we of Gar Danes 

In yore days 
Of people Kings, 

How the jEthelings 

Power advanced 
Of Scyld-Scefing 

To the hosts of enemies 
To many tribes.' 

Who these Gar Danes were cannot be with certainty 
determined. There is a trace of them to be found in 
England, as will be stated later on, and they are sup- 
posed to have derived their name from their distinctive 
weapon, the spear. There were Scandinavian people 
settled on the south and east coasts of the Baltic among 
the Slavs and Eastmen who were known by the name 
of Gardar. 2 In the tenth and eleventh centuries these 
colonial settlers in Russia were strong enough to main- 
tain a Scandinavian kingdom, also called Gardar, 3 or 
Gardarike, the name being derived from the many 
castles and strongholds (gardar), probably earthworks, 
which they made for defence. The migrations of Scan- 
dinavians certainly began long before the English Con- 
quest, and their settlements on the east coast of the Baltic 
point to the probability of some Eastmen having been 
among the allies of the Danes, and perhaps of the Goths, 
in their invasions of England. Old Scandian colonies 

1 Worsaae, ]. ]., 'Danes and Norwegians in England,' 14. 

2 Cleasby and Vigfusson, ' Icelandic Dictionary,' Preface. 

3 Ibid., and Rydberg, Viktor, ' Teutonic Mythol.,' 24. 

Danes and other Tribes from Baltic Coast. 123 

have been traced in Courland and Livonia by the dis- 
covery of sepulchres similar to those of the Iron Age in 
Scandinavia. In Esthonia, also, the names of places 
and of the islands off the coast point to such settlements 
Nargo, Rogo, Odinsholm, Nucko, Worms, Dago, and 
Runo. The old Danish empire extended over all the 
countries bordering on the Skagerac, and hence Dane 
became synonymous in English with Scandinavian, and 
the old Norrena language was called the Donsk, or 
Danish, tongue. The later Danish empire of Cnut com- 
prised part of Mecklenburg as well as the Cinibric Cher- 
sonese. 1 He was thus King of the Wends as well as of 
the Danes. During the time of their supremacy in the 
Baltic, Danes were the natural leaders of any confedera- 
tion of the Baltic tribes in warlike expeditions for con- 
quests or foreign settlements, as the Goths and Angles 
were before them. Skane, Halland, and Blekinge, now 
provinces of Sweden, formed part of the kingdom of 
Denmark for 800 years until 1658, when they were united 
to Sweden. 2 From what has already been said con- 
cerning the lands in which the Angles lived before they 
came to England, it will be seen that the probability of 
some Danes having come into England with them is 
great. Bede affirms as a positive fact that some of the 
English in his time were descended from Danes, and the 
early place-names confirm his statement. They were a 
colonizing race, and it is probable that the Scandinavian 
settlements in the North- West of Russia began as early 
as the eighth century, which was that in which Bede 

The greater Denmark from which the early settlers 
came was that which was known to King Alfred. When 
sailing into the Baltic, Othere, the Scandinavian mariner, 
told the King that he had Denmark on his left, and 
Zealand and many islands on his right. This was the 

1 Seebohm, F., ' Tribal Custom in Anglo-Saxon Law,' 340. 

2 Otte, E. C., ' Denmark and Iceland,' p. 69. 

124 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

kingdom whose capital was Lund in Skane, in the south- 
east of what is now Sweden, and it must have been from 
that country that many of those settlers came who have 
left their traces in some old Danish place-names that 
still cling to their English homes, such as the Domesday 
Seen and Scan names, which are only found in England 
in the Danish settled districts. Others, such as the old 
places named Lund in Lincolnshire and the East Riding, 
are apparently derived from their former homes in Skane. 
As already stated, Dan and Angul are mentioned by 
Saxo, the twelfth-century Danish historian, as the 
mythological ancestors of the Danes, and of these he 
tells us that Angul gave his name to the Anglians. 1 In 
this tradition we may see the probability of some very 
close connection in their origin between the Anglian and 
Danish races. Although Zealand had become the centre 
of the Danish monarchy when Saxo wrote in the twelfth 
century, yet Skane still formed an important part of it, 
and the Skanians are very frequently mentioned by him. 
In the twelfth century there were no doubt many more 
historical runic inscriptions existing within the limits 
of the ancient Danish kingdom than the few hundreds 
which still remain, for the Danes were certainly acquainted 
with runes. 

Denmark was long divided into three States or king- 
doms, and we find three principal monuments connected 
with the election custom of their Kings viz., at Lund 
in Skane, Lethra in Zealand, and Viburg in Jutland. 2 It 
has been said that the Anglo-Saxon settlers were people 
of various tribes speaking a common language. This 
was no doubt the case to a very large extent, but as 
Skandians are proved to have been among the Jutish and 
Anglian settlers by the evidence of runic inscriptions, and 
as the names for many objects, persons, and tribes in 
the Old Norrena or Donsk tongue are different from 

1 Saxo Grammaticus, translated by O. Elton, book L, 15. 

2 Mallet, M., ' Northern Antiquities,' edited by Percy, p. 116. 

Danes and other Tribes from Baltic Coast. 125 

their names in the old Germanic languages, it would, 
perhaps, be more accurate to say that the dialects of 
the settlers were mutually intelligible. The many 
synonymous words which came into use in Old English 
are proof that the dialects of different tribes were blended 
into that speech. The old Donsk tongue was the language 
of Northern England, and it, or something very like it, 
must have been the speech of the Northern Angles. It 
must have been the dominant language used on the coasts 
of the Baltic, and we may therefore look to allies of the 
early Anglian settlers in England, and of the later Danish 
ones, for traces of other immigrants from the Baltic 

The earliest example of the language of the Old English^ 
or one of the earliest, is the Saga and poem known as the 
' Beowulf.' Its scenery and personages are Danish, 1 and 
by Danish we must understand that early kingdom whose 
seat was in what is now Sweden. Marsh says : ' The 
whole poem belongs, both in form and essence, to the 
Scandinavian, not to the Germanic School of Art. The 
substance of " Beowulf," either as a Saga or as a poem, 
came over, I believe, with some of the conquerors, and 
its existence in Anglo-Saxon literature I consider one of 
the many proofs of an infusion of the Scandinavian 
element in the immigration.' This poem in its written 
form is of about the eighth century. 

The extent to which the dialects of the old Northern 
language were spoken in England during the Anglo-Saxon 
period has probably been under-estimated. Wherever 
there were Northern settlers, some dialect of the Northern 
speech must have been used, and evidence will be shown 
in succeeding chapters of its use in other parts of England 
than the Northern and Eastern Counties. To how great 
an extent this was the language of the Northern Counties 
in the early part of the tenth century may be estimated 

1 Marsh, G. P., ' Origin and History of the English Language,' 

126 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

from the statement in the Egils Saga that in the reign 
of .ZEthelstan almost every family of note in Northern 
England was Danish on the father's or mother's side. 1 

In the account of the early history of the Danes which 
Saxo gives us, we read of the part which other nations 
of the Baltic coasts took in the war between them and the 
Swedes. There were Kurlanders, Esthonians, Livonians, 
and Slavs, 2 from the eastern or southern coasts of the 
Baltic Sea engaged in that war, and it is by such alliances 
rendered probable that in expeditions against England 
the Danes or Northmen also had Eastmen of these 
maritime nations acting with them. If alliances could 
exist in the later Anglo-Saxon period, there is no reason 
why they might not have existed during the time when 
the Danes were fighting for new homes and largely 
settling in England, or that some of these Baltic allied 
people may not have settled in England with them under 
the Danish name. Under that name Fins also may 
have come among other so-called Danes, and there is 
evidence that a few of them did come. Finland, the 
most northern of the Baltic countries, inhabited by people 
allied to, or perhaps even descended in part from, the 
old Gothic and Scandinavian stock, has been through the 
range of history, and still is, more advanced in the arts 
of civilization than its Slavic neighbours, and its geo- 
graphical position in ancient time brought it into com- 
mercial intercourse with Scandinavia and Denmark. 

There are reasons for believing that the Finnic race 
occupied part of the Northern peninsula at an early 
period in the history of Scandinavia. At a remote time, 
which tradition places at the beginning of the Iron Age 
in that country, but which may have been much earlier, 
the country was overrun by people of a different race 
from its aboriginal inhabitants i.e., by tribes of similar 
racial characters to those of the early Gothic or Teutonic 

1 Cleasby and Vigfusson, loc. cit., Preface. 

2 Saxo Grammaticus. 

Danes and other Tribes from Baltic Coast. 127 

stock. These newcomers are supposed to have driven 
the aborigines, who are believed to have been of Ugrian 
descent, northwards, where a remnant still exists, and 
are known as Lapps. These were, however, in ancient 
time also called Fins, and the name Finmark as the 
boundary of their country has come down to our time. 
The Fins of the Baltic, the inhabitants of the present 
Finland, are, however, now a different race from the 
so-called Northern Finns or the Lapps, and although they 
have affinity in language, 1 they were known as distinct 
in the time of King Alfred. 

The Fins of Finland are for the most part blonde, 
and a longer-headed race than the Slavs, like the long- 
headed Letts and Lithuanians, and, like them, are of 
mixed descent. They are apparently, from all the 
evidence available concerning them, an offshoot from the 
same trunk as the Teutons, 2 or at least of the Aryan 

The Fins, who called themselves Quains, 3 are the same 
people as the Cwsens, which was their native name men- 
tioned by King Alfred. In his ' Orosius ' Alfred mentions 
both Fins and Scride Fins or Lapps, and describes the 
locality of each race. After mentioning the country of the 
Swedes and the Esthonian arm of the sea, he says : ' To the 
north over the waste is Cwenland, and to the north-west 
are the Scride Finns, and to the west the Northmen.' 4 In 
the Anglo-Saxon times some of the Cwsens or Fins 
occupied part of the Scandinavian peninsula as far south 
as Helsingland, on the east of Sweden, opposite to Fin- 
land, where the name Helsingfors probably denotes some 
ancient connection with Helsingland. As the Lapps were 
called Skidfinnen by the Norse, and are still called Fins 
by them, some confusion has arisen in the use of this 

1 Sweet, H., ' History of Language,' 113. 

2 Ripley, W. Z., ' Races of Europe,' 365. 

3 Latham, R. G., ' Ger mania of Tacitus,' xv. 

* King Alfred's ' Orosius,' edited by Bosworth, 38, 39. 

128 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

name. As applied to natives of Finland it is not a 
native name. We may, however, look for traces of them 
in England under the name Cwe"n or Quen, as well as 
Fin, as we may of the Wends under their Northern name 
of Vinthr. If any. Fins took part in the colonization of 
England, it must necessarily have been as members of 
a body of settlers under another name, probably with 
Swedes or Danes. As the true Fins have a connection 
with the Teutons in race, some of them may have been 
included in the Anglian or Danish hosts, and without 
the alliance or friendship of these nations, who at different 
times were masters of the Danish islands, it is not likely 
that any of them would have left the Baltic. It is in 
some of those parts of England which were occupied by 
Danes that traces of Fins, Lechs, and other Eastmen 
from the Baltic are found, where they may well have 
settled as Danish allies. 

Among European nations generally the skull is orthog- 
nathous i.e., the plane of the face traced downwards 
forms an angle more or less approaching a right angle 
with the plane of the base of the skull. Among some 
of the tribes of Russia, of Ugrian or Mongol descent, 
prognathous skulls i.e., with this angle less than a 
right angle, and consequently with the lower and upper 
jaw-bones projecting forwards may be observed, and 
to a less extent the same ethnological characteristic is 
met with among some of the Russian races of mixed 
descent, whose ancestors presumably were at one time 
nearer neighbours to the Mongol tribes. This charac- 
teristic of prominent jaw-bones is of some importance 
in considering the evidence of the migration of the 
Mongols and their admixture with other races, seeing 
that examples of prognathous skulls have been found 
in Britain, and a decided tendency to prognathism may 
still occasionally be observed in individuals of Northern 
European races. 

The Esthonians of the Baltic coast south of the Gulf of 

Danes and other Tribes from Baltic Coast. 129 

Finland are a people more or less allied -to the Fins on 
its northern shore. De Quatrefages, who examined 
some skulls of Esthonians, discovered that one in three 
under his observation showed a well-marked prognathism . 
He says : ' Orthognathism being considered one of the 
attributes of the white race, the existence of a prog- 
nathism very frequent and very pronounced appears to 
me difficult to understand.' He goes on to say : ' It 
becomes easy if we admit that it (prognathism) was, if 
not general, at least very frequent in the race, which was 
the first people of Western Europe, and that it is still 
represented among us by their more or less mixed 
descendants.' 1 In order to explain the phenomena of 
the prognathous skull, he thus supposes the characteristic 
to be a most ancient one, and to have descended to indi- 
viduals of the present European races from some very 
remote Mongol ancestors. These characters are still 
represented by certain Mongol tribes in Russia, who at 
a very early period may have extended further west- 
ward, or have been among the remote ancestors of the 
Esthonians and Fins, whose language at the present time 
is allied to the Ugrian. 

This may be interesting to the ethnologist, but the 
ordinary reader may reasonably ask what it has to do with 
the Anglo-Saxon settlement. Eight skulls out of twelve 
from West Saxon graves were found by Horton-Smith 2 
to be orthognathous, one was mesognathous, and the 
other three were on the border of meso- and prognathism. 
Horton - Smith found himself in a difficulty in being 
unable to see where the prognathous tendency could have 
come from. He rightly said that prognathism could not 
have been due to admixture of Saxons with the de- 
scendants of Celts of the round barrow type, seeing that 
these broad-headed Celtic people were almost orthog- 

1 De Quatrefages, ' Sur cranes d'Esthoniens,' Bulletins de la 
Society d'Anthropologie de Paris, ii. serie, tome i. 

2 Horton-Smith, R. J., Journal Anthrop. Inst., xxvi. 87. 


130 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

nathous, and that the difficulty remained no nearer 
solution, inasmuch as there were no prognathous races 
in Britain at that time. Anglo-Saxon or Danish settlers 
with these facial characteristics may, however, have 
come in as individuals, partly of Finnish and partly of 
Ugrian descent. The Esthonians are closely allied to 
the Fins, and prognathism has been found to be a char- 
acteristic of some of their skulls. In dealing with this 
subject, we have only to consider it so far as it may be 
concerned with the question of the settlement of England, 
and that question is : Did the Fins, Esthonians, or other 
Eastmen take any part in that settlement ? A well- 
marked tendency to prognathism is also exhibited by 
certain skulls from Anglo-Saxon graves at Winklebury, 
Dorset, as described by Beddoe, as well as in those 
described by Horton-Smith. Beddoe says that the 
Saxon skulls found at Winklebury are, on the whole, more 
prognathous than the Romano-British skulls found in 
the same neighbourhood. The same prognathous char- 
acteristic may be observed rarely even now among 
English people individually, and these individual peculi- 
arities must have been caused by some racial fusion. It 
may have been due to some ancestor in recent centuries 
marrying a prognathous Asiatic, or it may be a race- 
characteristic of a very remote ancestor, which, as is 
well known, often shows itself after many generations. 

The existence of a physical character such as this in 
some of the Anglo-Saxon people cannot be passed by. 
On this subject Beddoe says : ' There are in my lists more 
than 40 persons who are noted as prognathous. Of these, 
29 are English, 5 Welsh, and u Irish.' 1 This refers to indi- 
viduals who actually came under his observations. He 
mentions also three skulls from the Phoenix Park tumuli, 
of which two are figured in the ' Crania Britannica,' and 
others from the bed of the Nore at Borris, figured in 
Laing and Huxley's ' Prehistoric Remains of Caithness, ' 
which show the tendency to prognathism to be of remote 
1 Beddoe, J., ' Races of Britain,' p. 10. 

Danes and other Tribes from Baltic Coast. 1 3 1 


date. These ancient examples, however, among the 
prehistoric people of Ireland and Caithness can scarcely 
account for the tendency to prognathism shown by the 
skulls from West Saxon graves. That characteristic 
would be more likely to have been brought into some 
parts of England, at least by settlers from Baltic lands 
in near proximity to prognathous people, than to have 
been derived from remote prehistoric people who may be 
traced in Ireland or Caithness. Great indeed must have 
been the time which separated the Anglo-Saxon period 
from the remote era when people of Mongol descent may 
possibly have inhabited parts of Western Europe. 

That the Esthonians or Eastmen and Fins had some 
connection with the Anglo-Saxons appears probable from 
other circumstances, such as the similarity of the objects 
found in Livonia with those of the Anglo-Saxon period 
in England, and from a resemblance of certain inci- 
dents in Esthonian folklore to those found in Kent. 
Wagner also mentions the Ogishelm i.e., the Helmet of 
Terror, the name being derived from the King of the 
Ocean. The front of this helmet was adorned with a 
boar's head, which yawned open-mouthed at the enemy. 
The Anglo-Saxons and Esthonians of the Baltic alike 
wore helmets of this sort. 1 

In considering the probability that there were some 
Fins among other Northern settlers, we must remember 
their ancient names, Cwens or Quens. There are some 
Old English place-names which have been apparently 
derived from this source, such as Quenintone and Quenin- 
tune, in separate hundreds in Gloucestershire. Both are 
mentioned in Domesday Book. Cwuenstane, also, is 
mentioned among the boundaries of Selsea, in Sussex, in 
a charter dated A.D. 975.2 Quintone or Quenton, in 
Northamptonshire, occurs twice in Domesday Book, 
and other places of the same name are recorded in 

1 Wagner, W., ' Asgard and the Gods,' translated by Anson, 242. 
3 Cart. Sax., iii. 193. 


132 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

Wiltshire and Warwickshire. Quenfell in Westmore- 
land, Queningburgh in Leicestershire, and Quenhull in 
Worcestershire, are met with in later records. 1 Ingulf 
in his chronicle mentions a place called Finset, and similar 
names, such as Finborough and Finningham, occur in 
the eastern counties. Still earlier references to Finset 
and Finbeorh occur in the Saxon charters, the former 
in Northamptonshire, the latter in Wiltshire. 2 

As regards the more general name Eastmen, there are 
some very old names which apparently denote settlements 
of them. The ' regione Eastregena,' also called Eosterge 
i.e., the present hundred of Eastry in Kent is men- 
tioned in a Saxon charter. In the same county there are 
other Domesday names apparently referring to Eastmen . 

There is another aspect from which the probability of 
settlers from the east coast of the Baltic having been 
among the later colonists of England may be considered. 
Nestor, the historian of the early Slavs of Russia, tells 
us that the Swedes (Russ or Varangians), having become 
the dominant class on the eastern shores of the Baltic, 
were invited by the Slavonians about A.D. 862 to settle 
in Russia, in order to put an end to the internal strife in 
that country, a movement which led to the first founda- 
tion of the Russian State. 3 Nestor died about 1115, and 
wrote, consequently, comparatively near the date he 
mentions. Many Swedish inscribed runic stones tell of 
warriors ' who fell in battles in the East ;' and in the 
interior of Russia, western coins have been found in 
barrows over chiefs, among which are Anglo-Saxon 
coins, part very likely of the Danegeld, 4 which the Anglo- 
Saxons paid, and which fell to the share of Danish allies 
from the east coasts of the Baltic. 

It appears from Nithard that there was a consider- 
able infusion of the Slavonic element among the English 

1 Cal. Inq., Post-mortem, Edward III. 

2 Codex Dipl., Nos. 66 and 468. 

3 Metcalfe, F., ' The Englishman and the Scandinavian,' 
p. 197, quoting Nestor. * Ibid.. 202. 

Danes and other Tribes from Baltic Coast. 133 

inferior tenants called lats ; and Othere, the Norse 
mariner, informed King Alfred that the majority of 
gafol-geldas, or tenants paying some kind of rent, among 
the Northmen in his days were Lapps of the so-called 
Finnish race. 1 Having this evidence in view, it seems 
very unreasonable to doubt that some of them were 
introduced into England among the Northmen who were 
their lords. 

In considering the evidence which may point to the 
settlement in England of some people of other tribes 
ethnologically allied to the Fins from the eastern coasts of 
the Baltic, we must not forget that the Livonians of the 
Gulf of Riga are a race partly of Teutonic extraction. 
Livonia is south of Esthonia, and near the Livs are the 
Letts and Lithuanians, who also are not pure Slavs. 
That the Livonians are of Teutonic affinity or descent 
receives support from the head-shape of the race at 
the present day. They are long-headed, as all purely 
Teutonic races are, their cephalic index ranging from 
77-8 to 79.2 There was an early settlement of Teutons 
on this part of the east coast of the Baltic, and their early 
civilization must have resembled that of the tribes which 
sent colonists to England and became the founders of 
the Anglo-Saxon race. Among the collection of Anglo- 
Saxon relics in the British Museum there are similar 
objects found in Livonia, placed among the English collec- 
tion for comparison, and consisting of axe- and spear- 
heads, buckles, chains for the neck, and other personal 
ornaments, which resemble those of the Anglo-Saxon 
period. Anglo-Saxon coins, in date from A.D. 991 to 
1036, were found with these objects, 3 thus proving some 
intercourse between England and Livonia. The south 
part of Livonia is within the area of Lettish territory. 
The Lettish language is spoken in Courland, and there 

1 Robertson, E. W., ' Scotland under her Early Kings,' i. 257, 
quoting Nithard, ' Hist.,' i. 4, A.D. 843. 

2 Ripley, W. Z., loc. cit., p. 340. 

3 Bahr, J. C., ' Die Graber der Liven.' 

134 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

are some Letts within Prussia at Koenigsberg. 1 From 
their race connection, some Livonians, Letts or Lechs, 
and other Eastmen, may well have come to England with 
Fins among the Angles, Jutes, or the later Danes. There 
can be no doubt, from the Anglo-Saxon coins found, of 
communication between England and their country. 
In numerous instances people from Scotland were called 
Scot by Englishmen among whom they lived, others were 
called Waring from the Waring tribe, and Fleming from 
the Flemings. Similarly, the persons called Lyfing, 
Livingus, and Leving, in the Anglo-Saxon records 2 
may very likely have obtained their names from the 
ancient Livs or Livonians, a name as old as Anglo- 
Saxon times. 

The place-names supply a few traces of Lechs, under 
which names Livonians, some of whom still speak 
Lettish, may have been included. These Lech names 
occur in only a few parts of England, and these where 
Danes and other tribal people from the Baltic settled. 
That some representatives of the Lechs and other tribes 
of the Baltic near them may have settled in England is 
not improbable. The records of St. Edmund's Abbey 
certainly tell us of an invasion of Britain by tribes from 
the Vistula, 3 and the Anglo - Saxon Chronicle tells us 
of an invasion in the year 1064 of Rythrenan, probably 
ancestors of the Ruthenians of Russia, into the country 
around Northampton. 4 

In Domesday Book there is a record of a man named 
Fin holding land at Cetendone in Buckinghamshire. 
Over his name the word ' dan' is written, apparently 
for explanation in the usual way that he was a so-called 
Dane. During the later Saxon period all the immigrants 
into England from Baltic countries probably came under 

1 Sweet, H., Philological Soc. Trans., 1877-1879, p. 47. 

2 Codex Dipl., No. 956, and Searle, W. G., ' Onomasticon Anglo- 

3 ' Memorials of St. Edmund's Abbey,' edited by T. Arnold, 
Index, and ii. 113. 

* Anglo-Saxon Chron., MS., Cott. Tib., book iv. 

Danes and other Tribes from Baltic Coast. 135 

the Danish name, and some of them may have been 
descendants ol Baltic colonists of Danish origin. 

It is difficult, therefore, to avoid the conclusion that 
the tendency to prognathism which certainly existed 
among some of the early Anglo-Saxons came into this 
country through people of a more or less mixed race from 
the Baltic coasts. The remarks of Beddoe on the Shet- 
landers 1 are of interest in connection with this subject. 
He describes them ' as probably the fairest people of the 
British Isles. Black hair, however, does occur, and not 
very unfrequently. It is usually found in persons of a 
decidedly Ugrian aspect and melancholic temperament. 
The same type may be found at Wick. These people may 
be relics of the Ugrian thralls of the Norse invaders, or 
possibly descendants of some primitive Ugrian tribe.' 
Having in view the traces of Fins, which have been 
stated, the question may be asked, Is it not probable that 
there were settlements here and there of Fins among 
our Old English forefathers? They were an ancient 
maritime race, as they are at present. They were closely 
connected with Sweden, and were at one time partly 
located in it. Their country did not cease to be Swedish 
until about a century ago. The ancient nations of the 
Baltic were all in maritime communication. Their 
increasing populations must have made new settlements 
or emigration as much a necessity in ancient times as 
in modern. The fitting out of expeditions against the 
British coasts by the Angles and Goths of the earlier 
period, and the Danes of the later, must have been known 
all along the Baltic coasts. Would it not have been sur- 
prising if, amidst such maritime activity and pressure 
of population urging them on, some Fins, Helsings, and 
other Swedes, had not joined in these expeditions ? 

The parallelism arises between the Anglo-Saxon settle- 
ment in England and the greater Anglo-Saxon settle- 
ment that has gone on, and is going on, in the United 
States. There was a settlement of Fins among the 
1 Beddoe, J., loc. cit., 239. 

136 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

Swedish settlers in America and another of Dutch people 
near the river Delaware in Pennsylvania in the seven- 
teenth century. 1 These settlers were soon absorbed 
among the English-speaking colonists and their dis- 
tinctive ethnological characters lost. So it must have 
been in England, the dialects of the tribal settlers from 
the Baltic and their ethnological characters became in 
a few generations absorbed in the Old English. 

The Fins have left the name by which they were called 
by the Frisians, Saxons, and other Germans, in some Fin 
place-names in England, which are mentioned in Anglo- 
Saxon charters and other early records. Whether 
these places were so -called after individual settlers 
called by the tribal name or after a community, 
the significance is the same. They have also left their 
own name, by which they were known to the Goths, 
Norse, and Danes who spoke the Old Northern language 
the name Cwsen in a number of English place-names 
which have a similar significance, but with this difference : 
where we find a place mentioned apparently as the 
abode of a Fin or Fins we may look for Saxon or German 
neighbours, and where Cwsen or Quen occurs as an 
equivalent, we may look for neighbours who were 

It should be remembered that King Alfred, in describing 
the voyage up the Baltic, gives some account of the 
Esthonians and their customs, thus leading us to suppose 
he must have thought this information would be of 
interest to his countrymen. 

The ancient nations known as the Eastmen, on the 
east of the Baltic Sea and south of the Gulf of Finland 
i.e., the Esthonians, Livonians, Lechs, and Lithuanians 
were, without doubt, partly allied in race to those other 
old nations and tribes from which the bulk of the settlers 
in England came. Their ethnological characteristics of 
the present day, their dialects or language, and their 

1 Winsor, Justin, ' History of America,' iv. 452, 496, etc., 
and State Papers, Colonial Series, 1677-1680, p. 623. 

Danes and other Tribes from Baltic Coast. 137 

folk-lore, all point to such a connection. As among all 
pagan Teutonic tribes, water-worship existed among the 
Eastmen, and still survives in these Baltic countries. 
In Livonia there is a holy rivulet whose source is in a 
sacred grove, within whose bounds no one dares to cut 
a tree. 1 Traces of water-worship also survive among the 
Lechs. 2 The heathen reverence for wells and fountains 
was one of the most persistent of Anglo-Saxon super- 
stitions. As it could not be abolished, it was modified 
by the dedication of wells to Christian saints, and the 
existence of holy wells in all parts of England at the 
present time is evidence of the ancient reverence for 
them. The most remarkable custom, however, which the 
ancient Livonians had in common with the Scandina- 
vians and Germans was a kind of pagan infant baptism, 
by which water was poured on the head of a new-born 
child and a name was at the same time given him. 3 

Some other remarkable customs which the Old English 
had in x common with Fins and Esthonians were those con- 
nected with midsummer. It is scarcely possible for us 
to realize the full extent to which customs connected 
with the summer solstice prevailed among our tribal 
forefathers. Their vitality caused them to survive in 
England for more than a thousand years. The mid- 
summer fires were lighted in many parts of our country, 
as they were in numerous districts in Northern Europe. 
The customs connected with the solstice must have been 
most strongly adhered to, if they had not indeed origi- 
nated, in Northern lands. In the North of Britain, as 
in Finland, Esthonia, and the greater part of Sweden and 
Norway, the evening gloam of midsummer passes into 
the morning dawn and there is no real night. 

It is from the Fins and Esthonians that we derive one 
of the most interesting of midsummer legends : 

* Wanna Issi had two servants, Koit and Ammarik, 
and he gave them a torch which Koit should light every 

1 Grimm, J., ' Teutonic Mythology,' ii. 598. 2 Ibid. 

3 Mallet, M., lo:. cit., ed. 1847, p. 206. 

138 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

morning and Ammarik should extinguish every evening. 
In order to reward their faithful services, he told them 
they might be man and wife, but they asked Wanna Issi 
that he would allow them to remain for ever bride and 
bridegroom. Wanna Issi assented, and henceforth Koit 
handed the torch every evening to Ammarik, and Ammarik 
took it and extinguished it. Only during four weeks in 
the summer they remain together at midnight. Koit 
hands his dying torch to Ammarik, but Ammarik does 
not let it die ; she lights it again with her breath. Then 
their hands are stretched out, and their lips meet, and 
the blush on the face of Ammarik colours the midnight 
sky.' 1 The interest of the legend is increased by the 
meaning of the names. Wanna Issi in Esthonian means 
the Old Father, Koit means the dawn, and Ammarik means 
the gloaming, in the language of the common people. 2 

The names Eastmen or Esterlings occur in early records 
as names referring in a general way to people coming into 
England from the East. The name Osgotbi, 3 which is 
mentioned in two Saxon charters as the name of a place 
in Lincolnshire, now Osgodby, is more definite. The 
name Osgotecrosse is mentioned in the Hundred Rolls 
of Yorkshire. 4 The name Osmington, or Osmenton, as 
that of an old place in Dorset, is mentioned in a Saxon 
charter and in Domesday Book. The Osgothi could 
scarcely be other than the Eastern Goths i.e., the 
Goths on the eastern coast of Sweden, or east of the 
Vistula, or some people of that race. The purest 
remnant of the old Gothic stock are the Dalecarlians, 
sometimes called the Swedish Highlanders, who inhabit 
the secluded district that stretches westwards from the 
Silian Lake to the mountains of Norway. They have 
preserved comparatively unchanged the manners and 
customs of their Gothic forefathers, and, as Bosworth 
has pointed out, a peculiarity of the old Gothic language 

1 Max Mii Her, ' Chips from a German Workshop,' iv. 191, 
quoting Grimm, etc. 2 Ibid. 

3 Codex Dipl., Nos. 906 and 964. 4 H. R., i. 129. 

Danes and other Tribes from Baltic Coast. 139 

viz., the aspiration of the letters / and w. By this they 
bear witness in their tongue to the present day of their 
descent, for these peculiarities are an infallible charac- 
teristic of the Mceso-Gothic, Anglo-Saxon, and Icelandic 
languages. 1 The Anglo-Saxon people must have derived 
this peculiarity from a Northern source, for Bosworth 
tells us that the Danes and Germans cannot pronounce 
these aspirated letters. 

The history of the Goths and Swedes in the Scandi- 
navian peninsula shows that the latter became the pre- 
dominant race in the ninth century, and subsequently 
the two nations were gradually blended into one. During 
the period when England received so many settlers from 
the North, we must look for traces of Goths and Swedes 
under their own tribal or national names. One of these 
was the tribe known as the Helsingi, whose homeland 
was the east coast of the Baltic, opposite to Finland, and, 
as the name Helsingfors shows, must have been con- 
nected with the Fins. They were also known as the 
Heslengi, 2 and under the name Helsings are mentioned 
in the 'Traveller's Tale' in connection with Wade and 
his boat, a mythical hero, like Weland the Smith. As a 
Northern nation their name must have been familiar to 
the Old English. One of the peculiarities of the old 
dialect of the Gothic people of Dalecarlia that has sur- 
vived is the transposition of syllables, as jasel for selja, 
and lata for tala. 3 The transposition of consonant sounds, 
as in Helsingi and Heslengi, is well known. The sur- 
vival of the name of this ancient tribe in those of Hel- 
singborg on the west coast of Sweden, Helsingfors on 
the coast of Finland, and Helsinore, or Elsinore, on the 
coast of Zealand, points to the probability of their having 
been a maritime people, and as such likely to have taken 
part in maritime expeditions. In England such names 

1 Bosworth, J., ' Origin of the English, German, and Scan- 
dinavian Languages,' 159, 160. 

2 Magnus, O., ' Hist, of Goths, Swedes, and Vandals,' ed. 1658, 
p. ii. 3 Bosworth, J., loc. ciL 

140 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

as Helsington, near Kendal, and others may possibly 
refer to settlements of them. 

It is in that part of Scandinavia which was the old 
country of the Helsings that commemorative stone 
monuments abounded when O. Magnus wrote his history 
of the Goths and Swedes. He says that ' these pillars 
are found among the Heslengi in greater quantity than 
elsewhere in the North,' and that ' obelisks of high stones 
are seen nowhere more frequently than in the public 
highways among the Ostrogoths, the Vestrogoths, and 
the Sweons or Swedes.' 1 Some of the runic inscriptions 
on the stone monuments still existing in Sweden in which 
England is mentioned are of great interest. They tell 
us of men ' who died in England,' of a worthy young 
man ' who went to England,' and of others who set out 
for the same country, that being all, apparently, that was 
known of them after they left their native districts. 
In one case we read of a memorial set up by his children 
to an English settler : ' To their father, Feiri, who re- 
sided westward in England.' 2 In another, to one who 
had died in England, and ' Urai his brother set up this 
stone to his memory.' 3 The inscriptions mentioned 
prove that Swedes must certainly be included among 
English colonists and among the forefathers of the Old 
English race. Such Anglo-Saxon names as Suanescamp, 
Kent ; Swanesig, Berks ; Swanetun, Norfolk ; Swonleah, 
Hants ; and Swonleah, Oxfordshire, are probably traces 
of them. 4 In searching for traces of Swedes in England 
we must look for them in proximity to Goths, Norse, or 
Danes, with whom they probably migrated, and look for 
traces of their names under the names Svear, Sweon, 
Swein, and perhaps Swin. The latter name appears in 
the Orkney and Shetland dialect to be a corruption of 

1 Magnus, O., loc. cit. 

2 Memoires de la Socieie Royale des Antiquaires du Nord, 
1845-1849, p. 333. 

3 Ibid. 

* Codex Dipl., Nos. 38, 1276, 785, 556, and 775. 

Danes and other Tribes from Baltic Coast. 141 

Swein. 1 In addition, Stephens tells us *of the words 
suin, suain, and suen being used. 2 

There was another ancient Baltic nation that may well 
have sent emigrants to England, the Burgundians of 
Bornholm and the country near the Vistula. They were 
closely allied in race to the Northern Goths. The 
island of Bornholm, called Burgunda-ea 3 by Wulfstan in 
the time of King Alfred, was named after them. They 
were a tall, blonde people, 4 and we know that there is 
historical evidence of the Emperor Probus having trans- 
ported a great number of them from the Continent to 
Britain. Some of these may have been among the 
ancestors of the English race, as well as others who may 
have come in with the Angles, Jutes, or Danes. 

We read in the old chronicles of Danes and Northmen, 
but there are few references to Swedes. They must, 
however, have been among the Danish forces, and were 
probably included under the names of Danes or North- 
men. The rare mention of the Swedish name points 
either to the relative weaker state of the Swedes at the 
period of the settlement of England, or to their expan- 
sion on the east side of the Baltic. At that time the 
Northern Goths were the more important race, but later 
on the Swedish tribes advanced in power, and the Goths 
in the Scandian peninsula declined in relative importance. 
The more study we give to the Anglo-Saxon settlement, 
the more clearly we see evidence of a greater part having 
been taken in that settlement by Baltic races than has 
been commonly ascribed to them. The oldest settlement 
was not all German. Even the poem of Beowulf, one 
of the oldest examples of Anglo-Saxon literature, the 
scene of which is largely in Sweden, bears witness to 
this, for its substance must have come over with the 
conquerors, and its existence in Old English literature 

1 Tudor, J. R., ' The Orkneys and Shetlands,',p. 344. 

2 Loc. cit., i. 24. 

3 Alfred's ' Geography of Europe,' p. 55. 

4 Ripley, W. Z., loc. cit., p. 144. 

142 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

is one of the many proofs of an early infusion of the 
Scandinavian element in the immigration. 1 

The old provinces of what is now Sweden, which 
extended along the Baltic coast or lay near the entrance 
of that sea, were Vestergotland, Halland (opposite to the 
Danish Isles), Skane, Blekinge, Smaland, Ostergotland, 
Sodermanland, Upland (which contained the city of 
Upsala), Gestrikland, Helsingland, and Angermanland. 
Names of places derived from the names of some of these 
old provinces or tribal districts are certainly to be found 
in England. There is also the old boundary-name near 
Lake Wetter, formerly called the Wedermark. This 
was the country of some of the Eastern Goths called 
Wederas, and their name apparently survived in England 
in those of the Anglo-Saxon names Wederingsete, 2 in 
Suffolk, Vedringmuth in Sussex, and others. The 
settlement of people who took their name from the head 
of a family named after his tribe may perhaps be in- 
ferred from the ninth-century place-name Bleccingdenn 3 
in Kent, which closely resembles that of the old province 
of Blekinge in part of Scandinavian Gothland. 

Stephens draws attention to the name Salua in a 
Northern inscription, which word he interprets as of the 
Sals, or of the Salemen, a clan or tribe of Northern 
people. 4 As an instance of the connection of these 
people with England he refers to the district of the 
Saelings in Essex. The personal name Saleman is 
found in the Hundred Rolls, and may be traced from 
the Anglo-Saxon period downwards. The name reminds 
us of the Danish Isle of Sealand, and of a number of 
old Sele and Sale names in our own country, such as 
the Domesday name Salemanesberie or Salmonesberie. 
There was also in Gloucestershire a hundred at the time 
of the Domesday Survey named Salemannesberie- 
Hundred, apparently after the same place as that called 

1 Marsh, G. P., loc. cit., p. 101. 2 Codex Dipl., Nos. 904, 932. 

3 Dipl. Angl., edited by Thorpe, Index. 

4 Stephens, G., loc. cit., ii. 697. 

Danes and other Tribes from Baltic Coast. 143 

Sulmonnesburg on the upper course of the Windrush in 
a charter of Off a dated 779. * The four Danish islands 
Sialand, Mon, Falster, and Laland, at one time are said 
to have formed a separate kingdom called Withesleth, 
over which the mythical Dan was the first King, who 
by tradition was one of the three sons of a King of 
Svethia or Sweden. 2 The inhabitants of these islands 
were probably all known by separate tribal names, 
derived from the names of the islands, and some of them 
may perhaps be traced in England. 

If we had no records of settlements in the United 
States during the last three centuries, the names of some 
of the settlements alone would tell us of the countries 
and places from which some of the colonists probably 
came. Of such are the old names New Sweden and 
New Netherland, and the existing names New York, 
New Orleans, Montpelier, New London, Boston, New 
Hampshire, Andover, Gloucester, Hampton, Bristol, 
New Milford, Newcastle, Barnstaple, Norwich, Belfast, 
Plymouth, Beverley, Lancaster, and many others. 
Some of these names at least were given to the 
settlements by the earliest colonists to keep fresh 
in their memories the countries and places they had 
left. Similarly, nearly a thousand years earlier, some 
Scandinavian and other settlers in England from the 
Baltic coasts appear to have called some of their new 
homes Lund, Upsale, Rugenore, Gilling, Rye, Dover, 
Grinsted, Linby, Risberga, Eldsberga, Billing, and others, 
after places in Denmark or other countries on the Baltic 
they had left. Human nature in regard to the memory 
of the fatherland has been much the same in all ages of 
the world. In the history of our own race the descendants 
of the Old English have in this respect shown evidence 
of a sentiment common to themselves and their remote 
Scandinavian forefathers. 

1 Cart. Sax., i. 320. , 

2 Chron. Erici reg. ap. Langeb., quoted by Latham, 'Germania,' 



WE must now consider a subject of great impor- 
tance to this inquiry. The customs by which 
lands and tenements in various parts of 
England are inherited in some way different from the 
general law of primogeniture are many and various. 
None of these have arisen through any legal enact- 
ment, but have all come down from a remote antiquity, 
and are of prescriptive origin. Their existence in some 
manors and boroughs can be traced back to the 
Anglo-Saxon period. In addition to these exceptional 
rules of succession which are so marked in many 
separate places, there are other customs that differ 
from the general law which either have, or had, by long 
usage all the force of law over great districts. Some 
old manors were so extensive as to have been large 
areas, including many parishes. Since the sixteenth 
century, however, the manorial system, as it came down 
from the Old English and later periods, has been passing 
away, and what remains of it marks only its extreme 
decay. For the purpose of our present inquiry it is of little 
importance whether a local custom is still in operation, or 
in a state of decay, or has entirely gone, provided that 
it can unmistakably be traced in a particular locality. 
As the settlers in England came from Continental 
countries, the comparison of customs prevailing in 


Customs of Inheritance. 145 

England with those that are known to have existed in 
the lands from which they migrated is important, for 
it is only reasonable to suppose that tribal settlers 
brought with them to England their old rules of family 
inheritance, whatever they may have been. These 
ancient laws of inheritance enable us to trace, with 
some degree of certainty, the settlement of people of 
different tribes or races in various parts of our country. 
It is certain that old customs, especially those of inherit- 
ance, were very persistent, and are exemplified by the 
survival until the present day of many ancient manorial 
usages. Various customs of inheritance on the Conti- 
nent can be traced back to the most ancient legal codes 
which arose out of the primitive folk-laws, and some of 
these still exist. In only two of them % is a distinction 
made between movable and immovable property viz., in 
the Thuringian law and in the Salic law. Some of the early 
Thuringians were located on the lower Elbe, 1 near some 
of the Angles, and in the Thuringian law land was in- 
herited only by males of the male stem, while personalty 
went first to sons, and failing these, to daughters. In the 
Salic law sons preceded daughters in succession, and 
daughters were excluded from succession to land, although 
they shared with sons in movables. 2 Among the Angles 
and the Saxons on the Continent male inheritance was 
the rule. Among the Goths and Frisians daughters 
appear from an early period to have shared the inherit- 
ance with the sons. 

The early writer on the laws and customs of England, 
Henry de Bracton, who lived in the thirteenth century, 
tells us that England in his day differed from other 
countries in regard to the following of old customs. He 
says : ' Whereas in almost all countries they use laws 
and written right, England alone uses within her boun- 

1 Droysen, G., ' Allgemeiner Historische Handatlas.' 

2 Lodge, H. C., ' Essays in Anglo-Saxon Law,' p. 137, quoting 
' Lex Salica,' 59. 


146 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

daries unwritten right and custom. In England, indeed, 
right is derived from what is unwritten, which usage 
has approved.' He continues : ' There are also in England 
several and diverse customs according to the diversity 
of places, for the English have many things by custom 
which they have not by (written) law, as in divers 
counties, cities and boroughs, and vills, where it will 
always have to be inquired what is the custom of the 
place, and in what manner they who allege the custom 
observe the custom.' 1 

Another and still earlier legal author, Glanville, who 
wrote in the time of Henry II., tells us in his chapter on 
inheritance that primogeniture was the rule of common 
law. In reference to the land of a ' free socman,' how- 
ever, he tells us that it has to be ascertained whether 
the land was partible by ancient custom. If so, the 
sons take equally, saving that the first-born has the chief 
dwelling-house on the terms of making recompense in 
value to the others. If the land is not partible, then, 
according to the custom of some, the first-born shall 
have the whole inheritance ; according to the custom of 
others, however, the last-born is heir. 2 

If a man owning houses or tenements within the city 
of Gloucester at the present time dies intestate, his 
youngest son, and not the eldest, succeeds to the property. 
This is a remarkable survival, and a similar custom for- 
merly prevailed, or still does, in Leeds, Derby, Leicester, 
Nottingham, Stafford, and Stamford. 3 It prevailed not 
only in these boroughs, but in many manors in various 
counties, especially in Sussex, Suffolk, Surrey, Essex, 
Norfolk, Middlesex, and in a special part of Somerset. 
It still exists, or has been shown to have existed, also, to 

1 Bracton, H. de, ' De legibus et consuetudinibus Angliae,' 
edited by Twiss, i. 45. 

2 Glanville, R. de, 'Tract, de leg. et cons. reg. Angl.,' Ivii., 
and Pollock, F., ' Land Laws,' Appendix, 214, 215. 

3 Elton, C. I., ' Gavelkind,' Index ; Ibid., ' Origins of English 
History,' 184. 

Customs of Inheritance. 147 

a less extent, on some few manors in Hampshire, Notting- 
hamshire, Lincolnshire, Huntingdonshire, Hertfordshire, 
Northamptonshire, Oxfordshire, Kent, Devon, Cornwall, 
Rutland, Herefordshire, Berkshire, Shropshire, and Mon- 
mouthshire. In Sussex it prevailed on 140 manors, 
chiefly in the Rape of Lewes, where the custom was almost 
an exclusive one. This junior right or inheritance of the 
youngest son, or borough-English, as it has been com- 
monly called, also prevailed in parts of Glamorganshire, 
where its occurrence will be considered in connection 
with the settlement of the English on the Welsh border. 
There is no trace of any similar custom under which the 
youngest son is the sole heir in the ancient laws of Wales. 
It is certain that this custom could not have arisen 
spontaneously in so many places and districts widely 
separated from each other. It has probably come from 
some general race custom, and has been preserved in the 
localities where it has survived by the attachment of 
the people to the usages of their ancestors. Nothing is 
more remarkable in the history of mankind than the 
attachment of people of all races to the customs which 
have been handed down to them from their forefathers. 
That junior right was preserved in the boroughs and 
manors in which it survived through all the period of 
the Middle Ages, when the tendency was one ever growing 
stronger in favour of primogeniture, is remarkable testi- 
mony to its vitality, and the attachment to it of those 
who lived under it. If we can thus trace it, as we may, 
as far back as the Old English period, when people 
certainly were as tenacious of their ancient customs as 
their descendants were, it is reasonable to conclude that 
those who lived under it in the Saxon period also inherited 
it from some earlier forefathers. The custom of junior 
right is no more likely to have been invented here and 
there in certain early boroughs and manors of Saxon 
England than of Mediaeval England. We must look for 
its origin in the Continental homes of our oldest English 

10 2 

148 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

forefathers. Some of the evidence which shows that the 
Anglo-Saxons had forefathers of many different tribes 
has already been brought forward, and the survival on 
our manors of so many different examples of ancient 
customary inheritance points to the same conclusion. 
On the Continent we find that junior right existed in 
various degrees, ranging from the descent of the whole 
inheritance to merely articles of household furniture, in 
Picardy, Artois and Hainault, in Ponthieu and Vivier, 
in the districts round Arras, Douai, Amiens, Lille and 
Cassel, and in the neighbourhood of St. Omer. It has 
also been noted at Grimberghe in Brabant. 1 

Similar customs prevailed in a part of Friesland, the 
most notable of which was the ' Jus Theelacticum,' or 
custom of the Theel lands, doles, or allottable lands in 
East Friesland, not far from the mouth of the Ems. 
There an inherited allotment was indivisible ; on the 
death of the father it passed intact to the youngest son, 
and on his death without issue it fell into the posses- 
sion of the whole community. 2 This was an exception to 
the more general Frisian plan by which the inheritance was 
divided. Similar customs which are not superseded by 
the civil code existed in Westphalia and parts of the Rhine 
provinces, and also in the Department of Herford near 
Minden, where, so strong is the hold of the custom, that 
until quite recently no elder child ever demanded his legal 
obligatory share, and the children acquiesced in the suc- 
cession of the youngest. 3 The same custom also prevailed 
in Silesia and parts of Bavaria, where the newer laws of 
inheritance failed to break down the time-honoured suc- 
cession of the youngest, the rights being preserved by a 
secret settlement or by the force of opinion. Similar 
customs prevailed in the forest of Odinwald and in the 
thinly-populated district to the north of Lake Constance. 

1 Elton, C. I., ' Origins of English History,' p. 190, note, 
quoting references. 
a Ibid., 191. 3 Ibid., 192. 

Customs of Inheritance. 149 

Many examples may be found in Suabia, in the Orisons, 
in Elsass, and other Teutonic or partly Teutonic countries, 
where old customs of this kind still influence the feelings 
of the peasantry, although they have ceased to be legally 
binding. 1 

The youngest son has his privilege, also, in the island 
of Bornholm, and a similar right has been observed in 
the territory of the old Republic of Liibeck, 2 a district 
where a Slavonic people formerly lived. Junior right also 
prevails in Saxe-Altenburg, which has an agricultural 
population of Slavonic extraction. 3 

It may be noted from this list of localities that the 
custom in Germany, North-Eastern France, and Belgium, 
survives in separated districts rather than in whole terri- 
tories, and it is not to be necessarily understood that it 
survives in all places in the districts named. In Germany 
also it should be noted that it survives where Slavonic 
influence has been felt, such as in Oldenburg, Saxe-Alten- 
burg, parts of Bavaria, and in Silesia. The same custom 
survives in parts of Pomerania, mingled in other places 
with primogeniture. 4 

Pomerania was Slavonic, Oldenburg had an intrusive 
Slav settlement, and Saxe-Altenburg and parts of Bavaria 
have in a similiar way had Slav immigrants, or preserved 
a remnant of the older race from which the Slavs probably 
descended. The custom of junior right is clearly not a 
Germanic institution. It prevails in parts of Germany 
indeed, but it can be traced to no old German code of laws 
or general custom, as far as I have been able to discover. 
On the contrary, Tacitus tells us that equal division among 
the sons was the custom of succession among the ancient 
Germans. Germany was undoubtedly in the early cen- 
turies of our era much influenced by the hordes of Slavs 

1 Elton, C. I., loc. cit., p. 193. 

2 Ibid., p. 193. 

3 Hall, H., Notes and Queries, Seventh Series, ix. 449. 

* Ripley, W. Z., ' Races of Europe,' 248, quoting Baring-Gould. 

1 50 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

on its eastern borders, and received many intrusive 
colonies of that race. There is evidence to show that 
junior right spread through the parts of Germany where 
it prevailed, owing to the migrations of the Slavs, or people 
of mixed Slavic and Teutonic descent. No instances of 
this custom occur in Scandinavia, and at the same time 
no instances can be adduced of Slav settlements in 
that peninsula. The custom of junior right is found in 
the early Russian code, by which the inheritance of the 
father appears to have passed to males in preference to 
females, and the youngest son was always to take the 
paternal house. 

This early Russian code of laws, known as " The 
Rousskaia Pravda of Yaroslav," which is preserved in 
the Chronicle of Novgorod, shows that the early Slavs 
had much the same institutions, such as trial by ordeal 
and by wager of battle, compensations for injuries, etc., 
as prevailed among other European nations at the same 
time. 1 Primogeniture is alien to the spirit of Slavonic 
institutions. 2 It was first introduced into Russian law by 
Peter the Great, but, having been found unworkable, was 
abolished by the Empress Anne. It was so far restored 
by the Emperor Nicholas in 1830 that a father was then 
aUowed to make his eldest son his heir if he chose to do so. 3 
The Slavs are essentially agriculturists, and the tendency 
of the race is in the direction of co-operation. The 
primary element of organization in Russia the village 
community, or mir, 4 under which the youngest son has a 
preference is a survival of the old tenure of village com- 
munities that at one time must have been widely pre- 
valent in Europe. When first we meet with the Slavs 
in history, we find them living in communities. Having 
all these facts in mind, we may reasonably look eastward 
of Germany for the origin of the custom by which the 

1 Morfill, W. R., .' Slavonic Literature,' p. 84. 

2 Morfill, W. R., ' Russia,' p. 192. 3 Ibid. 284. 
* Ibid., 350. 

Customs of Inheritance. 1 5 i 

youngest son inherits. Nowhere else in Europe, except 
among the Slavs, can it be traced, so far as is known, in 
an early code of laws. It can indeed be traced still further 
eastward among the Mongols of Asia, but it is unneces- 
sary to follow it so far, for it is possible that it may have 
been derived by the Slavs from the earlier broad-headed 
Alpine race, of which they were probably an offshoot. 

If we turn now to our own country, and consider such a 
case as that of the manor of Merdon in Hampshire, although 
the name of the village has for many centuries been 
changed to Hursley, we find that inheritance by the 
youngest son is still a living custom among the copyholders,' 
and this on a manor with a name identical in part with that 
of the primitive mir, which may be only an accidental co- 
incidence. In Sussex, where of all the English counties 
junior right most largely survives, mer, as part of place 
names, is also most largely represented. Some of them in 
their old forms are Keymer, Angermer, Stanmer, Falmer, 
Jonsmere, Cuckmere, Bormer, Burgemere, Udimer, and 
Ringmer, and they will be again referred to. These names 
may be considered for what they are worth side by side 
with the existence of junior right in Sussex ; they may be a 
coincidence, and no undue stress should be laid upon them. 
That mer or mir is, however, the name of a primitive 
agricultural community appears from the survival of the 
name in Russia, and it is certain that such communities 
came into England from Continental lands during the 
English settlement. All our available evidence, there- 
fore, points to Eastern Germany, to old Slavic lands, and 
German territories which were influenced by Slavs, as the 
source or sources of English junior right. It was appar- 
ently a custom that, when once ingrained into the life of a 
tribe, would remain under more settled conditions of agri- 
cultural life, and be passed on from age to age and from 
country to country. 

Turning now to the custom of primogeniture, it will 
help us in our inquiry if we bear in mind that the eldest 

152 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

son was nearly always preferred in the common law of 
Scotland, 1 and the Scotch along the east and south-east 
coasts are largely descended from Anglians and Norse. 
The eldest son had a preference by the common custom of 
inheritance in the Isle of Man, which was peopled by Norse 
colonists ; and there, by the common law of the island, 
the eldest daughter, in default of brothers, succeeded to 
the inheritance. 2 Similarly, over a great part of Cumber- 
land, which was colonized by the Norse, in default of sons 
the eldest daughter succeeded to the paternal estate. 3 
Primogeniture was the rural custom of Normandy before 
the conquest of England. Bede tells us that in his time 
the eldest son had some preference or birthright in 
Northumbria, 4 and, considering that Northumbria was 
occupied by Anglians, Frisians, and Norwegians, this is 
not surprising, for all these instances of rustic primo- 
geniture point to Norway and the Scandian land as one 
of its homes. The Normans of Normandy originally 
came from these northern lands, and the Manx and 
Cumberland men came from Norway, where the custom of 
preferring the eldest daughter in default of sons 6 is an 
ancient one of the country. The evidence of south- 
eastern Scotland also points to Norway and the earlier 
Anglian lands, as does that additional evidence derived 
from isolated districts or manors in England in which, in 
default of sons, the eldest daughter succeeds to the 
paternal estate. The evidence of this eldest daughter 
custom is so strong that we shall probably be right in 
locating a Norwegian settlement in places where it prevails 
or has prevailed. It existed in Surrey at Chertsey, 
Beaumond, Farnham, Worplesdon, and Pirbright ; in 
Buckinghamshire at West Wycombe ; in Berkshire at 

1 Cecil, Evelyn, ' Primogeniture,' p. 61, quoting Erskine, 
' Inst.,' book iii., 8, 6. 

2 Ibid., pp. 66, 67. 

3 Elton, C. I., ' The Law of Copyholds,' p. 134. 

4 Beda, ' Life of St. Benedict,' s. n. 

5 du Chaillu, P. B., ' Land of the Midnight Sun,' ii. 289, 290. 

Customs of Inheritance. 153 

Bray ; in Hertfordshire at Cashiobury and St. Stephens ; 
in Northamptonshire at Middleton Cheney ; in Hereford- 
shire at Marden ;* and in the great manor and hundred of 
Crondal in Hampshire, 2 close to the border of Surrey. 

After the Norman Conquest, as is well known, under the 
Norman influence and the growth of feudalism, primo- 
geniture overpowered the other customary rights of succes- 
sion, and became the general law of the country ; but 
before that time there existed, as these surviving instances 
show, a rustic primogeniture of remote origin, which, like 
the custom of Normandy, can be traced to Norway 

This succession by the eldest daughter in default of sons 
is a remarkable usage, and may be a survival in an altered 
form of an archaic rule, by which inheritances passed 
through the female in preference to the male line. 
S. Baring-Gould 3 has drawn attention to a custom that 
prevails in parts of the Black Forest, where land always 
descends through a female hand. It goes to the eldest 
daughter, and if there be no daughters, to the sister or the 
sister's daughter. The Black Forest is within the parts 
of Central Europe where descendants of the broad-headed 
Alpine race may be traced, and if this custom is pre- 
historic, which is extremely likely, its origin must prob- 
ably be ascribed to that race. There are, however, in 
Norway traces of a broad-headed brown race, distinct 
from the Lapps, the existence of whom has been already 
mentioned, and they have been described by Ripley as 
probably of the Alpine stock. It is quite conceivable that 
this eldest daughter custom in Norway may have been 
derived from these older Norwegian people and preserved 
in its present form in parts of that country. 

After the Norman Conquest the strict rule of Norman 
feudal primogeniture was deliberately applied by the 

1 Elton, C. I., ' The Law of Copyholds,' p. 134. 

2 Baigent, F. J., ' The Hundred and Manor of Crondall,' p. 163. 

3 Baring-Gould, S., ' Germany, Past and Present, p. 69. 

154 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

Norman Kings wherever possible, not only to English 
military fiefs, but to agricultural holdings of all kinds. 
The urban customs of the French portions of Hereford and 
Nottingham appear to have been altered in this way. 
The rural primogeniture of Normandy and Picardy, how- 
ever, long remained in an exceptionally vigorous form, 
which may, perhaps, have been due to the Scandinavian 
origin of the Normans, and to the vitality of their ancient 
customs among the people. It is certain also that this 
rustic primogeniture has survived over a wide area of 
Cumberland, of which the continued existence of the right 
of the eldest daughter, in default of sons, is sufficient proof. 
That this part of the custom, which is one of the marks 
that distinguishes it from the feudal primogeniture, sur- 
vived at all in England is proof of its vitality, and evidence 
that it must have come with the Norse people of Cumber- 
land from Norway, where it prevails to the present day, 
and, so far as known, nowhere else in Northern Europe, 
except in similar ancient Norwegian colonies. It was a 
custom in parts of Saxon England, and helps us to trace 
the origin of the English people of these districts. Its 
absence elsewhere in England, where Norse settlements 
from other evidence can be shown to have existed, may 
be due to the rigour by which the newer primogeniture of 
the feudal type was enforced. 

The earliest reference to the custom of dividing the in- 
heritance among the sons which prevailed among the 
ancient German tribes is that of Tacitus. After the fall 
of the Roman Empire, the earliest reference, so far as 
known, is that of the time of Clothair, and is contained in 
his code of laws. It confirms the several customs of 
inheritance which at that time prevailed. 1 The date of 
this is about A.D. 560, which shows that at this time the 
customs of succession had become various. Between the 
time of Tacitus and that of this king the people of 
Germany must have become considerably changed, for 

1 Monumenta Germanise, Legum, tome i., edited by Pertz. 

Customs of Inheritance. 155 

Teutonic tribes had left it and pushed orl to the South 
and West, while Slavonic tribes had migrated into it from 
the East. In one instance a whole nation had come the 
Slavic Czechs who had in the fifth century driven out 
their predecessors, the Teutonic Marcomanni, 1 from 
Bohemia, as these had previously driven out the old 
Celtic Boii. The old name Boii, however, remained, and 
became the German designation for a new race. The 
Wilte had probably come into Frisia, and had settled 
around Utrecht 2 and in other districts in the Rhine valley. 
Migrations of Saxons and other races had also occurred. 

The ancient custom of inheritance generally prevailing 
in Frisia was one under which all the children alike in- 
herited. It is so described in a work on Frisian juris- 
prudence written in the sixteenth century. 3 In Holland 
at the present day we may look almost in vain for large 
landowners, for under the Dutch law all children share 
their father's possessions. 4 Among the Frisians there 
were some communities, however, probably of mixed 
descent, who had apparently the custom of junior right 
already mentioned. 

It may reasonably be conceded that where the Frisians 
settled in England they would be likely to take with them 
their own mode of inheritance. Similarly, we cannot 
doubt that those tribes which had a custom of junior right 
would continue it in the new land. One settlement may 
have had one custom, and the next another; but when, 
as was in some instances the case, a number of old settled 
villages became parts of one great lordship or manor, and 
a general custom for the whole manor or lordship was 
adopted, it may well have been a compromise between the 
two older customs, and in this way a system of partible 

1 Morfill, W. R., ' Slavonic Literature,' 34. 

2 Beda, ' Eccles. Hist.,' book v., chap. ii. 

3 De Haau Hettema, ' Jurisprudentia friesca,' Jahrh., ii., 
100 if. 

4 Meldrum, D. S., ' Holland and the Hollanders,' 26-28. 

156 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

inheritance, with preference to the youngest son in regard 
to the homestead, may have arisen. 

Tacitus told his Roman readers that the Germans knew 
nothing of testament or the power of bequeathing property 
by will, but he said they had rules of intestate succes- 
sion. The property set free by a man's death did not pass 
to any body of persons who stood in different degrees of 
relationship to the dead man, but the kinsmen were called 
to the inheritance class by class. 1 First the sons, if there 
were any ; failing them, the brothers ; and failing them, 
the uncles, divided the inheritance between them. This 
is the same custom that we find prevailed on manors in 
various parts of England. Partible inheritance in English 
custom was subject in different places to many variations 
in detail. In Kent it was mixed up with a preference for 
the youngest son, who by the Kentish custom claimed the 
paternal house, apparently by making compensation to his 
brothers. This corresponded to the custom of one part 
of Frisia. 2 

The three several systems of inheritance the succes- 
sion of the youngest to the whole estate ; the succession 
of the eldest ; and the partible custom by which all shared 
alike, whether sons only, or sons and daughters stand 
out, however, as three well-marked ancient systems. Can 
we trace them to their primitive sources ? Junior right, 
as far as the Teutonic nations are concerned, apparently 
came from the East, and rustic or primitive primogeniture 
from the North ; but the question remains, From what 
source did the Germanic people derive their custom of 
partible inheritance ? It prevailed among the Romans 
and the Greeks, but it is not at all probable that any 
custom of Germany beyond the pale of the Roman Empire 
could have been derived from the Empire and have been 
adopted by the German people. Bearing in mind that 

1 Pollock and Maitland, ' History of English Law,' ii. 248, 
quoting ' Ger mania,' chap. xx. 

2 Robertson, E. W., ' Scotland under her Early Kings,' ii. 266. 

Customs of Inheritance. 157 

there was an ancient trade route between the Baltic and 
Greece by which Scandinavia was brought into commercial 
intercourse with the south-east of Europe, and the prob- 
able origin of the Old Northern runic letters from characters 
of the ancient Greek alphabet, it is possible that the 
Northern Teutons learnt this custom from the Greeks, as 
they did the basis for their runes. It is probable that the 
very earliest Teutonic home was the Scandian peninsula, 
and that for centuries there was a steady flow of fair- 
complexioned, long-headed people from Scandinavia into 
Germany. This migration began at an early period, 
before, indeed, the Northern runes were invented, as is 
shown by the absence of runic inscriptions on fixed objects 
in Germany. It is unlikely, therefore, that the custom 
of partible inheritance among Germanic people was 
derived from the Greeks. The custom of dividing the 
inheritance is one which may easily have arisen spon- 
taneously from its fairness. 

We search in vain for any ancient exclusive examples of 
junior succession on a large scale among the purely Teu- 
tonic nations. In Germany partible inheritance prevailed 
among both nobles and peasants, and even as late as the 
Middle Ages asserted its ancient right over primogeniture. 
The partible tendency in Germany resulted in the Middle 
Ages in a division of the principalities, which has left its 
mark on that country to the present day. As generations 
went on, Saxony was split up into Saxe-Weimar, Saxe- 
Eisenach, Saxe-Gotha, Saxe-Meiningen, Saxe-Coburg, 
Saxe-Romhild, Saxe-Eisenberg, Saxe-Saalfeld, Saxe-Hild- 
burghausen, etc. Hesse, similarly, was divided into 
Hesse-Cassel, Hesse-Darmstadt, Hesse-Rheinfels, and 
Hesse-Marburg. Other parts of the country exhibit 
similar examples of subdivision, the Reusses being, per- 
haps, the smallest into which principalities were divided. 1 
Primogeniture was adopted in Germany to save the 
princely families from extinction. The custom of parting 
1 Cecil, Evelyn, ' Primogeniture,' pp. 120, 121. 

158 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

the father's property was clearly based on a sense of 
justice to all the children alike. Its primitive form was 
probably that in which the sons and daughters all had 
their shares. This was the custom of Frisia, and appar- 
ently that of the Northern Goths, for we find that some 
of their descendants at the present time in Sweden have 
the custom, and cling tenaciously to it. In Dalecarlia, 
where the people are of the purest Gothic descent, land 
is divided equally among all the children, 1 and conse- 
quently the divisions have in some cases become very 
small. A farmer in Dalecarlia at the present time occa- 
sionally has 300 parcels of land over a district four miles 
square. 2 In Gotaland, also, the land is partible, and in 
case of sale the relatives have the first right of purchase. 3 
It is not difficult to understand how among a warlike 
people like the Saxons, or even the Goths themselves 
after they had left their Northern home, a modification 
of the partible inheritance custom of their ancestors might 
have been found necessary, and so that which in more 
ancient and perhaps more peaceful times had been 
shared by both males and females was limited under dif- 
ferent conditions of life to male children only. This was 
the custom of the Germans as described by Tacitus. 
Male inheritance was the custom of the Saxons, 4 and in 
the custom of gavelkind, by which daughters shared only 
in default of sons, it was, and is still, the custom in Kent, 
which was settled by Goths and Frisians. 

In the laws of the Visigoths land is stated to be heredi- 
tary property, and there is special reference to its division 
among co-heirs. 5 The rule of this code was equal division 
among sons and daughters alike. 6 Just beyond the 
present border of Goteborg, on the south-eastern frontier 
of Norway, the river Glommen flows into the sea, and on 

1 du Chaillu, P. B., loc. cit., ii. 255. 

2 Baring-Gould, S., loc. cit., 84. 

3 du Chaillu, P. B., loc. cit., ii. 336. 

4 Vide ' luris Provinci alis quod speculum Saxonum vulgo 
nuncipatur Samosci,' 1502. 5 Lex Visigothum, viii. 

6 Cecil, Evelyn, ' Primogeniture,' p. 153. 

Customs of Inheritance. 1 59 

an island near the mouth of this river* a remarkable 
inscription in Gothic runes was discovered on a stone 
weighing many tons. 1 The size and weight of the stone 
are sufficient to prove that this inscription was no wan- 
derer. It could not have been carried from place to place 
or from country to country, as a ring or brooch with runic 
characters might have been. The inscription is in pure 
Gothic, such as Bishop Ulphilas wrote for the Moeso-Goths 
who migrated from the north and settled near the mouth 
of the Danube. This inscription is not perfect, but what 
remains has been translated as follows : 

' Three daughters shared . . . Wodarid st. 
They the heiresses share the heritage.' 

The daughters of the Gothic race still share the heritage 
in Dalecarlia, in Frisia, and, after the sons, they still 
share it by ancient custom in Kent and other parts of 
England. They did not share it in Norway, nor in Old 
Saxony, nor among the Angles, nor in the tribes of Ger- 
many closely connected with them. Among the Conti- 
nental Angle tribes the distinct feature of succession which 
can be most strongly traced is that of male inheritance. 
This is found in the laws of the Angles and Warings that 
were sanctioned by Charlemagne. Similarly, among the 
Continental Saxons the rule of inheritance gave the pre- 
ference to descendants of males over those of females as 
far as the fifth generation. 2 

In England there is a reference to the descent of land 
being limited to male succession in a charter dated 
A.D. 963, relating to a lease, for three lives, of land at 
Cotheridge in Worcestershire. In this it is expressly 
stipulated that the land is to descend on the spear hand. 3 
Still further back the Anglian custom of limiting the suc- 
cession to males must have prevailed in parts of Mercia, 
for in A.D. 784 Off a made a grant of land in which the 

1 Vigfusson, G., and York Powell, R, ' Corpus Poeticum 
Boreale,' i. 573. 

2 Lappenberg, J. M., ' England under the Saxon Kings.' ii. 120. 

3 Cart. Sax., iii. 339. 

160 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

succession is limited to the male line. 1 The only places 
in the Midland counties where we can trace old customs of 
inheritance that give a reversion to females after males 
are those that were comprised within the Soke of Rothley 
in Leicestershire, 2 and Leicestershire apparently had some 
Gothic or Frisian settlers. The Mercian customs gene- 
rally show a marked difference from the Kentish custom, 
and that which can be traced in parts of the South- 
western counties. 

The customs of rustic primogeniture, ultimogeniture, or 
succession by the youngest, and partible inheritance, all 
of them with some variations in detail, remain as witnesses 
before us of the three chief schemes under which the land 
of England in Anglo-Saxon time passed from the fathers 
to their successors ; and the three systems can be traced 
to different parts of the Continent from which Angles, 
Saxons, and Jutes or Goths came. Of these, the partible 
custom was the widest spread in Germany, and probably 
in England and Scandinavia ; rustic primogeniture in the 
North of England and Norway ; and junior right on many 
English manors and scattered districts on the Continent, 
but on the east of the Elbe it prevailed as a custom over 
great territories. 

The general absence of testamentary power among the 
Germanic tribes was long continued by their descendants 
who settled in England. It was not until a comparatively 
recent time that persons who held estates as manorial 
tenants, known as copyholders, could by their wills 
bequeath their lands and tenements to whom they wished. 
By the custom of many manors, however, they could de- 
vise their holdings by a process of surrendering them into 
the hands of the lord in his court. Those manors and 
boroughs, consequently, whose tenants and burgesses had 
the absolute right of bequeathing their estates without 
reference to their lords and their courts possessed a 
valuable privilege, which had come down from the remote 
time of the Anglo-Saxon period. This power was ex- 

1 Codex Dipl., Introd., xxxiii. 2 Arch&ologia, xlvii. 97. 

Customs of Inheritance. 1 6 1 

tended to all copyholders by the Statute of Wills passed 
in the reign of Henry VIII. 1 That such an Act was neces- 
sary in the sixteenth century shows what an exceptional 
privilege among the lower class of tenants the old cus- 
tomary right, where it prevailed, really was ; and as it did 
not prevail among the ancient German tribes, its origin 
may perhaps be traced to settlers of Northern descent. 

From the circumstance that the custom of dividing the 
father's lands prevailed among the socmen of the Danish 
districts in England during the later Saxon period, we 
may conclude that partible inheritance was a custom of 
Denmark. The two leading features of socage holdings 
were : (i) That it was certain both in tenure and the 
services due from the holder ; (2) it was held by custom 
of the manor. 2 Socmen were thus freemen, and they are 
chiefly mentioned in Domesday Book in districts within 
the Danelaw. As Scandinavian settlements, however, 
can be traced in counties west of the great Danish districts 
in England, so many socmen or freemen of this kind are 
mentioned in Domesday Book outside the Danelaw in the 
central and western counties. It appears to be certain 
that much of the land which was held by socage tenure 
remained partible until some time after the Conquest. 3 
The preference in the partition of land, according to the 
Norwegian custom, which the eldest son enjoyed has 
already been pointed out. A similar preference appears 
to have existed largely on the socage lands that were by 
custom divided in England, so that the change by which 
the eldest son became the sole heir, instead of the first of 
them, crept in by degrees, probably in imitation of feudal 
tenure, the owners of socage lands choosing rather to 
deprive their younger sons of their customary share than 
that the elder should not be in a position to keep up the 
family influence or dignity. 4 

1 Elton, C. I., and Mackay, H. J. H., ' Law of Copyholds,' 83. 

2 Vinogradoff, P., ' Villainage,' 197. 

3 Glanville, R. de, loc. cit., Ivii., chap. i. 

4 Elton, C. I., 'Gavelkind,' 17. 




WITH the origin of any nation its early institutions 
must necessarily have been closely connected. 
Some of the most interesting traces of Anglo- 
Saxon life may be followed as far back as the time of the 
settlement. The changes which time has brought about in 
the early institutions that came into England with our 
tribal forefathers make it difficult to form an accurate 
estimate of them from the knowledge we have of the 
organization that prevailed during the later part of the Old 
English period. The later part of the period is historic, 
the earlier is prehistoric. We know that much which was 
concerned with the organization of settlers by families, 
with their local government and the administration of 
law, did survive from the earlier to the later period, but 
much must have been changed or modified. The earliest 
dialects show important variations from the language 
of the time of the last Saxon King. Similarly, we can 
trace developments by studying the various collections 
or codes of Anglo-Saxon law that have come down to us. 
The earliest are those of ^Ethelbert, King of Kent, about 
the beginning of the seventh century, and these are 
archaic compared with those of the later period. During 
the Saxon Age progress was going on, although but slowly. 
The dialects of the tribes became the language of a 
nation, the territorial organizations of counties and hun- 


Family Settlements and Early Organization. 163 

dreds were developed out of the tribal districts and the 
local organizations of the kindred or maegth. The laws 
developed so as to be better adapted to the increasing 
population and the new areas which were becoming 
gradually occupied. The courts by which they were 
administered grew in importance, and the general laws 
and customs of the areas that afterwards formed the 
later shires became more fully recognised. The collec- 
tive responsibility of the kindred passed into the col- 
lective responsibility of the hundred, and changes in the 
territorial jurisdiction were probably in many cases 
made. Yet, with all these and other changes, there 
survived one great underlying principle which was a 
characteristic of the Anglo-Saxons in their tribal state 
the principle of local self-government. This can be traced 
to the German and Scandian fatherlands of the settlers, 
and was brought to English soil by our earliest tribal 
ancestors. The Anglo-Saxon people were of two classes 
viz., those who were freemen, and took part in the 
government of their districts, and those who were not 
freemen, for whom their lords were answerable. As 
regards the freemen, the principle of local government 
appears in its origin to have been closely connected with 
the organization of people of the same kin. In early 
Anglo-Saxon institutions prominence is given to the 
kindred or maegth. People within the recognised degree 
of kinship were necessarily bound together as an organized 
body by their collective responsibility, that they all 
should be law-abiding. This kindred organization is the 
most natural to any people in a tribal state. It was 
certainly brought into England by the tribal Anglo- 
Saxons, but it was no doubt here previously among the 
Britons, since it survived among the Welsh in a special 
form for many centuries. The tribal] people at the 
time of their settlement were organized locally, so that 
the kindred as a body were liable for the good behaviour 
of every member of that body, and, on the other hand, 

II 2 

164 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

they defended each other against injury by others out- 
side their organization. If one of their number had 
injury done him, the fine payable by another msegth or 
body of kindred was shared by them. They paid the 
fines or wergelds, and they received them. From this 
it follows that the family tie was the basis of all govern- 
ment, and the early settlements must have been com- 
munities of people of the same kindred. If the kindred 
had been much scattered they could not have retained 
their organization. These bodies of kinsmen united 
together formed a larger political unit of some kind. 
Thus, by a comparison with what is known to have ex- 
isted among the German tribes in the early centuries of 
our era, and what can be traced to a remote period among 
the Scandian tribes, we can understand the early organi- 
zation which settlers from these countries brought into 
England. As an American writer 1 has said : ' We can 
now trace the slender thread of political and legal thought, 
so familiar to our ancestors, through the wild lawlessness 
of the heptarchy and the confusion of feudalism, and can 
follow it safely and firmly back until it leads us out 
upon the wide plains of Northern Germany, and attaches 
itself at last to the primitive popular assembly, parlia- 
ment, law-court, and army all in one.' In our study of 
the English settlement it is this local administration of 
the law by the freemen of any district which comes 
prominently before us in the earliest assemblies or courts 
which we can trace, and in the organization of the later 
Hundred Court. This principle of local justice, which 
survived so long in England in a modified form, not- 
withstanding many political changes, has left the names 
of its courts in the names of some of the extinct hundreds, 
and surviving evidence of its legal power in the sites and 
names of its places of execution. Gallows and gibbet 
names are found on our Ordnance maps, and there are 
many others, which are known locally, still attached 

1 Adams, Henry, ' The Anglo-Saxon Courts of Law.' ' Essays 
in Anglo-Saxon Law,' Boston, 1876, p. i. 

Family Settlements and Early Organization. 165 

to sites where the most severe penalties of the law were 
carried out. The survival of many Continental tribal 
and clan names in all the Anglo-Saxon States, side 
by side with different manorial customary laws, is 
evidence of a great commingling in England of Conti- 
nental tribal immigrants. The tribal traditions lived 
long on English soil. The early Kings were styled Kings 
of people and not of territories. As new tribal States 
were formed in England, the ealdormen, who were their 
viceroys, took their titles from their tribes and not from 
their States, such as the Ealdorman of the Sumersaetas, 
the Hecanas, the Wilsaetas, etc. After the conversion 
of the people to Christianity grants by early Kings of 
the power of administering justice in their territories to 
Abbots and other great men i.e., seignorial jurisdiction 
certainly were made. The early charters of the Abbeys 
of Peterborough, Glastonbury, and others, show that in 
whatever words the power may have been conferred, it 
was a reality. It is this early delegation of judicial 
authority which imparts so great an interest to some of 
the sites which were the meeting-places of old courts, 
or some of the ancient places of execution. Cnut, in his 
laws, reaffirms the legal authority which the King has 
over all men in Wessex, unless, he adds, ' he will more 
amply honour anyone and concede to him this worship.' 
It was in regard to the freemen only that the administra- 
tion of the law was closely connected with the organiza- 
tion of the kindred. If an unfree man was accused of 
any crime, the oaths of his brothers, uncles, and cousins 
were not acceptable as evidence of his innocence, for 
by remote tribal custom, which prevailed for centuries 
after the early Anglo-Saxon settlement, such relatives had 
not the privileges of a free kindred. If a man was made 
a freeman he was still by tribal custom without kindred 
to answer for him, and the lord had to do this until after 
several generations his descendants had become a kindred. 1 

1 Laws of Wihtraed, 8, and Seebohm, R, ' Tribal Custom in 
Anglo-Saxon Law,' 46. 

1 66 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

The unfree man could clear himself of the crime im- 
puted to him by the ordeal, of which there were several 
kinds, such as the trial by red-hot iron and by boiling 
water, which after the conversion of the Old English people 
to Christianity were carried out in the churches as a 
religious sendee. 1 For the ordeal by hot water a fire was 
kindled under a caldron in a remote part of the church. 
At a certain depth below the surface of the water a stone 
or a piece of iron was placed. Strangers were excluded, 
and the accused was attended only by twelve friends. 
The priest said or sang the Litany, and at its conclusion 
a deputy from each side was sent to ascertain the heat 
of the water. On their declaration that the water was 
boiling, the accused plunged his naked arm into the 
caldron and brought out the stone or iron. The priest 
instantly wrapped the arm in a linen cloth and fastened 
it with the seal of the Church. At the expiration of three 
days, the fate of the accused was decided according to 
the appearance of the scalded arm. If the appearance 
of the arm was decidedly bad, the unfortunate man was 
led away to execution. 

For the ordeal by hot iron the same precautions were 
observed in regard to the number of attendants, and the 
Mass appears to have been celebrated. As soon as it 
began a bar of iron of the weight of one or three pounds, 
according to the nature of the accusation, was laid upon 
the coals. At the last Collect it was taken off and placed 
upon a pillar. The accused instantly took it up with his 
hand, made three steps on the lines previously marked 
out to nine feet in length, and threw it down. The 
treatment of the } burn and the indications of guilt 
or innocence were the same as in the trial by hot 
water. 2 Such customs as these, modified by Christian 
usage, could only have had their origin among people 
in an archaic tribal condition. 

1 Lingard, J., ' History of the Anglo-Saxon Church,' ii. 135. 

2 Ibid., ii. 136. 

Family Settlements and Early Organization. 167 

It was from such a trial that a freeman accused of any 
crime could be saved by his kinsmen acting as his com- 
purgators or oath-helpers, and taking oath that they 
believed him to be innocent. There can thus be no doubt 
that the principle underlying the structure of tribal 
society was that of blood relationship among the free 
tribesmen. 1 This was the basis of the old customary 
laws introduced by the early Anglo-Saxons. They 
brought their tribal law with them, being yet in a tribal 
state. The earliest local settlements we can trace are 
those of families, and these were very often called by the 
name of their head, by which the family and descendants 
were commonly known. Among the early Anglo-Saxon 
tribes every freeman had two maegths that of his 
father or paternal kin, and that of his mother or maternal 
kin. These groups, entirely distinct before his birth, 
united in his person, and both had with him rights and 
duties of kindred, but in different degrees. 2 Those only 
were of kin and belonging to the maegth who had common 
blood originating from lawful marriage. In considering 
the rights and duties of a man's kindred, we can, there- 
fore, see that marriages must in almost all cases have been 
limited to families or groups of kinsmen living at no great 
distance apart. The degrees of relationship within which 
the duties and rights of kindred were confined consti- 
tuted what was called the sippe, which can be clearly 
traced in Germany, and of which some traces are still 
existing in England at the present day. This archaic 
institution is one of the most curious survivals of the 
Teutonic race. It survived in England in the law of 
cousinship, and traces of it may probably still be found 
in some place-names. Bracton, who wrote in the thir- 
teenth century, tells us of the law of succession in his time. 
He says : ' Of kinship and of relationship some are 

1 Seebohm, F., ' Tribal Custom in Wales,' 54. 

2 Young, Ernest, ' The Anglo-Saxon Family Law.' Essays in 
Anglo-Saxon Law,' 125. 

1 68 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

upwards and others are downwards, and others are 
travers or sidewards. Ancestors succeed on failure of 
those below them. The computation does not go beyond 
the sixth grade or degree i.e., great-great-grandfather's 
great-grandfather, because such a computation would be 
beyond the memory of mankind.' 1 

The early German method of reckoning the degrees of 
side-relationships is described in documentary evidence 
of the thirteenth century, 2 but comes down from a much 
earlier time. It is explained by reference to the joints 
of the human body from the head to the tips of the 
fingers. There are thus to be observed seven joints in 
the human frame viz., those of (i) the neck, (z) the 
shoulders, (3) the elbow, (4) the wrist, and (5, 6, and 7) the 
joints of the ringers. Then we read : ' Now mark where 
the sippe begins and where it ends. In the head it is 
ordered that man and wife do stand who have come 
together in lawful wedlock. In the joint of the neck 
stand the children, born of the same father and mother. 
Half-brothers and sisters may not stand in the neck, 
but descend to the next. Full brothers' and sisters' 
children stand in the joint where the shoulder and arm 
come together. This is the first quarter of the sippe 
which is reckoned to the maegen, brothers' and sisters' 
children. In the elbow stands the next ; in the wrist the 
third ; in the first joint of the middle finger the fourth ; in 
the next joint the fifth ; in the third joint of the middle 
finger the sixth ; in the seventh stands a nail, and therefore 
ends here the sippe, and this is called the nail mage.' 

All this is important in considering the influence of the 
maegth or kindred in connection with the English settle- 
ment and Old English life. The name constantly comes 
before us in records of the period. We read of the 

1 Bracton, H. de, ' De legibus et consuetudinibus Angliae,' 

i- 553- 

3 Young, Ernest, loc. cit., quoting ' The Sachsenspiegel,' I. 3, 
par. 3. 

Family Settlements and Early Organization. 169 

Maegasetas of Herefordshire and Gloucestershire, and 
the maegth name, the g sound having passed into y, 
probably appears in many Old English place-names. 
Nor is the end of the sippe wanting among our ancient 
topographical names. The nail, as the name for the 
limit of kindred, perhaps, still survives in those of Nails- 
worth, Nailsea, and the stream called Nailbourn in Kent. 
In a charter relating to land at Salwarpe in Worcester- 
shire in 817 the Naelesbroc is mentioned as a boun- 
dary stream. 1 These names are only curious survivals 
or dim shadows at the present day, but they were full of 
life and meaning to our Old English forefathers. 

When a man committed a crime in Wessex, as we learn 
from the laws of King Alfred, two-thirds of the wergeld 
or fine had to be paid by his father's maegth, and one- 
third by his mother's maegth. 2 As the individual mem- 
bers of the maegth became powerful and wealthy, a 
tendency appeared on the part of the rich to discard 
their poorer kin. Thus, a freeman need not pay the 
wergeld of a slave or of one who had forfeited his freedom. 3 
Moreover, as time went on, the tendency to weaken the 
tie of kinship was encouraged by the State, which had 
much to fear from the independence of powerful families, 
and whose peace was endangered by the continuance of 
the old system of private vengeance, 4 which was one of 
the old obligations of kinsmen if the wergeld was not 
paid them. King Edmund tried to break this down by 
permitting a maegth to abandon their kinsmen guilty of 
homicide. The influence of the Church also tended to 
weaken the kindred tie in the case of religious Orders, 
for those who became monks lost all the rights of kindred. 
In some cases, also, a man lost his family rights as a 
penalty. In the forty-second law of Alfred it is ordered 
that a man who should attack his foe after he had yielded 

1 Cart. Sax., i. 501. 2 Laws of King Alfred, 27. 

3 Laws of Ine, 74, par. 2 ; ^Ethelstan, vi. 1 2, par. 2. 

4 Young, Ernest, loc. cit., p. 140, 

170 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

should forfeit his right to the maegth. All these laws 
and customs relating to the maegth refer to one of the 
oldest of the Anglo-Saxon institutions affecting social 
life and the administration of law. The maegth and its 
organizations assist us in understanding the settlement 
of the Anglo-Saxons by families. All over England we 
find evidence of this in the Saxon place-names, many of 
which are tribal names, or derived from them. These 
family settlements made up the larger community of the 
maegth, whose existence as the basis of organization is 
evidence of the formation of villages or communities of 
people within the recognised degrees of kindred. 

The term sibscraft for kinsmanship, and also mcegth 
and sippe, denoting kindred, became disused at the close 
of the Saxon period. In many parts of England, however, 
it is probable that the name of the old maegth survives 
in the modern form may or maid. In the old country 
of the tribal Maegesetas there are two hills, May Hill 
near Ross, and another near Monmouth, whose names 
are probably examples. The numerous earthworks called 
Maiden Castle, many of them of Celtic origin, were 
probably used as defensive earthworks by the early 
maegths. Some of these, which comprised many families, 
were certainly large communities, and we know that the 
repair of local fortifications was one of the obligations of 
all Anglo-Saxons. The words mceden and mcegden- 
man as variants of maegth are mentioned in the Anglo- 
Saxon laws. These maiden names have thus probably 
been derived from the msegth. The maegenstan, or 
boundary of the maegth, is mentioned in a charter re- 
lating to Ashbury in Berks in 856, and there are many 
instances in which the origin of such names as Maybury 
and Mayland may reasonably be traced to an old masgth. 
Maidenhead, originally Maydenhithe, Maidstone or May- 
denstan, and similar names, are probably examples which 
in their old forms referred to a maegth. 

The sippe name, modified in sound, probably survived 
in the Anglo-Saxon names Siberton in Northampton- 

Family Settlements and Early Organization. 171 

shire, Sibbestapele and Sibbeslea in Worcestershire, 
Sibestun in Huntingdonshire, Sibbeswey and Sibling- 
chryst in Hampshire. 1 The word sibry was also an 
equivalent for kinship, but while in our common tongue 
the latter survived, the former passed into disuse. Other 
old names, such as Sipson in Middlesex, Sibley Heading- 
ham in Essex, Sibsey in Lincolnshire, Sibthorp in Notts, 
Sibton Sheales in Northumberland, and Sibbertoft in 
Northamptonshire, appear to be names of the same kind. 
Another trace of the old word sippe for kindred may be 
found in the word gossip, which originally meant a 
godsip or god-parent, and was so used as late as the 
seventeenth century. 

The sippe, as we have seen, included in all seven joints 
or degrees, and as a whole, therefore, nine generations, 
reckoned on the human frame thus : Head, neck, shoulder, 
elbow, wrist, first finger-joint, second joint, third joint, 
and nail. Within these nine generations it was pos- 
sible for a family to form a large community, and some 
settlements were no doubt of one family descent only. 
There is an interesting reference to the sippe and its 
joints in the laws of ^Ethelstan relating to the degree of 
kinship within which marriages were not permissible. 
' And let it never happen that a Christian man marry 
within the relationship of six persons of his own kin 
that is, within the fourth joint. '2 The fourth joint was 
the wrist. A similar reference occurs in the laws of 
Cnut. In old Frisian law relating to the next of kin, 
in the case where a man or woman dies and leaves no 
near relatives to divide the property, the sibbosta sex 
honda is mentioned that is, their six next of kin, viz., 
father, mother, brother, sister, child and child's child. 3 
The first instalment of the wergeld, called the healsfang, 
which the msegth or kindred, in the case where a member 

1 Codex Dipl., Nos. 964, 209, 1094, 595, 589, and Dom. Bk. 

2 Laws of ^Ethelstan, vi. 12, quoted by Ernest Young, 
Anglo-Saxon Family Law,' pp. 127, 128. 

3 Young, Ernest, loc. cit., p. 133. 

172 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

was killed or injured, was entitled to receive, was shared 
equally between the father, the children, brothers, and 
the paternal uncles. The rest of the fine was shared by 
the whole kindred, 1 but it does not appear that any 
record remains to show exactly how or in what propor- 

There is another aspect from which the msegth or 
kindred may be viewed, and that is in relation to oath- 
taking. It is not possible for us to realize fully the oath- 
taking that was carried on as a judicial system among 
the Old English and the tribes from which they sprang. 
If a man was accused of a certain crime, and he swore he 
was innocent, he had the right of proof, and called his 
oath-helpers around him. If they took oath that they 
believed his oath to be clean, and that he did not commit 
the crime, his acquittal followed as a matter of course. 
This was trial by compurgation, and much depended on 
which party had the right of proof. A man naturally 
looked to his kindred for his oath-helpers, and the wider 
his kindred, the more numerous were those he could 
generally gather for his defence. He had, no doubt, to 
convince them that he was innocent, and they would be 
ready to take oaths in his defence, for if he was proved 
guilty they would, as his kindred, be liable to pay his fine. 

It is not possible to. understand the circumstances of 
the settlement and life of the Old English people without 
realizing the great importance of the kindred tie. In the 
many instances in which we find old settlements named 
as the tun or ham of a man, the settlement was not only 
the tun or ham of a man, but also of his family and of 
some, at least, of his near kindred who assisted him in 
the cultivation of the land. The -ing terminal part of 
many place-names in south and south-eastern England 
had a wider significance than merely ' son of.' In 
many cases it included all the near kindred, probably 
in some cases all those who were liable as kinsmen. 
Viewed in this light, such place-names as Basing, Mailing, 
1 Young, Ernest, loc. cit., p. 144. 


Family Settlements and Early Organization. 173 

Goring, Semiring, and Charing, and those ending in 
-ingham, -ington, and others of a similar kind, denoted 
bodies of kinsmen having an organization of their own. 
Such names may thus be traced to family settlements, 
comprising, as time went on, in some cases persons 
who were not only children or grandchildren of the 
original head of the family, but relatives within the limit 
of the sippe, to the seventh degree of relationship. As 
these settlements sent off some of their number to form 
other settlements in the forest-land or other unoccupied 
territory, their kinship to the parent stock would last 
until the nail had been reached i.e., the limits of the 
sippe had been passed and the rural colonies had formed 
new kindreds of their own, the original kin or ken name 
given to them by the first settlers, or the parent stock 
whence they came, alone surviving to afford us a dim 
glimpse of their origin. It was one of the duties of the 
kindred, in the later Saxon time, at least, to see that 
the landless kinsman had a lord in the folk-gemot, other- 
wise they had themselves to become responsible for him 
to the State. This collective responsibility of the kindred 
survived in England as a tribal usage after many genera- 
tions of occupation and settlement. It survived for cen- 
turies after the introduction of Christianity, which, from 
the sense of individual responsibility, was opposed to the 
principle of joint responsibility of the kindred. Neverthe- 
less, this tribal custom, with its wergelds or fines, lasted 
long, and even the clergy placed themselves under it by 
claiming that a Bishop's wergeld to be paid if he were killed 
should be that of a prince, and a priest's that of a thane. 1 
From what has been said, it will be seen that the prob- 
ability of the Domesday names of some of the hundreds 
being the later names for still older tribal areas of adminis- 
tration is great. These older areas appear in some 
instances to be known in Anglo-Saxon time by a tribal 
name. Among such old Domesday hundred names are 
Honesberie in Warwickshire, Danais or Daneis in Hert- 
1 Seebohm, F., ' Tribal Custom in Anglo-Saxon Law,' 385. 

1 74 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

fordshire, Godelminge and Godelei in Surrey, Estrei in 
Kent, Wandelmestrei and Bexelei in Sussex, Honeslaw 
in Middlesex, Salemanesberie in Gloucestershire, Wederlai 
in Cambridgeshire, Normanecros in Huntingdonshire, 
Weneslai and Wilga in Bedfordshire, Hocheslau in 
Northamptonshire, Wensistreu and Angre in Essex, 
Caninga in Somerset, and Hunesberge in Devon. In 
addition to these, whose names have apparently a con- 
nection with old tribes which we can identify, there are 
many others whose names, ending in -ga or -ges, seem to 
denote various clans or kindreds. Of such are Hapinga, 
Lothninga and Dochinga in Norfolk; Blidinga and Ludinga 
in Suffolk ; Clauelinga and Rodinges in Essex ; Wochinges 
in Surrey ; Brachinges in Hertfordshire ; and Mellinges and 
Staninges in Sussex. 

We are not without evidence of the existence, even in 
the later Saxon time, of agricultural communities that 
were their own lords, nor without traces of the existence 
of these lordless villages to our own time. They existed 
apparently here and there within the Danelaw, or among 
settlers of Scandinavian origin. Thus, Domesday Book 
tells us, concerning Goldentone in Bedfordshire, that the 
land there was held by the men of the village in common, 
and that they had the power to sell it. 1 Similarly, at 
the present time in another Scandinavian district, at 
Ibthorpe, a manor in the parish of Hurstbourn Tarrant, 
in Hampshire, the inhabitants are lords of the manor, 
and have territorial jurisdiction over a rather extensive 

In the time of the Empire one fact concerning Celtic, 
German, and Wendish tribes alike, which appears to 
have interested the Roman observer, who could find no 
parallel to it in his own country, was the custom of culti- 
vating land in common. 2 Wendish immigrants would 
therefore bring with them, like their much more numerous 
Teutonic neighbours, a common system of agriculture. 

1 Domesday Book, i. 213 b. 

2 Codex Dipl., Introd., i., p. iv. 

Family Settlements and Early Organization. 175 

On the other hand, it must be remembered that in the 
social life of our Old English forefathers no point is 
established by clearer evidence than the existence of 
people of all classes, from the great lord down to the slave 
who could be sold. Slavery was an Anglo-Saxon institu- 
tion, and there are some early records relating to it. There 
is an account of a slave sold to a Frisian merchant in 
London in the seventh century. One of the laws of Ine 
is directed against ' those men who sell their country- 
men,' and another of ^Ethelred orders that ' no Christian 
or uncondemned person be sold out of the country.' 
There were slaves among the Old English whom their 
lords could dispose of from the time of the earliest settle- 
ments. There were above them unfree men, who had 
certain rights and certain specified services to render 
to their lords. Above these were the freemen, who 
enjoyed the protection of their kindred, aud thus formed 
a large privileged class. An old record says : ' It was 
whilom in the laws of the English that people and law 
went by ranks, and then were the witan of worship, 
worthy each according to his condition.' 1 

All freemen were bound under penalties to attend the 
local assemblies of their district, and these, later on, were 
the Hundred Court and Shire Court. They collectively 
administered the highest justice, and this part of their 
function was recognised as late as the time of William 
the Conqueror, in one of whose laws they are referred 
to in these words : ' Let those whose office it is to pro- 
nounce judgment take particular care that they judge 
in like manner as they pray, when they say " Forgive us 
our trespasses." . . . Whosoever promotes injustice or 
pronounces false judgment through anger, hatred, or 
avarice, shall forfeit to the King 403., and if he cannot 
prove that he did not know how to give a more right 
judgment, let him lose his franchise.' The highest courts 
were the courts of the early primitive States, which after- 
wards were called shires, and the local courts were those 

1 Seebohm, F., ' Tribal Custom in Anglo-Saxon Law,' 367. 

176 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

of the smaller regions, afterwards called hundreds. 
These courts were commonly held in the open air at well- 
known meeting-places, as in Germany and Scandinavia. 
Even as late as the thirteenth century the States of East 
Friesland assembled under three large oaks which grew 
near Aurich, 1 and open-air courts of the hundreds sur- 
vived in England to a later date. 

The various tribal names that were in use in England 
before the origin of the present shires either must have 
been brought by the original settlers from the Continent 
or have been newer designations that arose after their 
settlement. Such names as Engle, Waring, Gewissas, 
Ymbres or Ambrones, Wilsaete, Thornssete, and others, 
are native names that no doubt came in with the settlers 
themselves. Others that are met with appear to have 
had their origin from topographical and other local 
circumstances. Few tribal names in use on the Con- 
tinent survived as names for tribal areas of England, 
which shows that the provinces in England were not 
commonly settled by people of one tribe. New desig- 
nations would thus become necessary for the people of 
various Continental tribes living in one English tribal 
area. These new names would thus become the collective 
names of people of various older tribal origins, and the 
older names would survive in England, if at all, not as 
tribal names, but as names of settlements, and in many 
instances of places that were called after the heads of 
families or small communities of people of the same kin. 
There is a list of Anglo-Saxon tribes preserved in the 
Harley MSS. known as the Tribal Hidage, the earliest 
of which is of the tenth or eleventh century, but refers 
to a considerably earlier date. Some of these tribal areas 
were large and some small, and others are known to 
have existed, for they are mentioned in early records. 
They will be referred to later under the several parts 

1 Mallet, M., ' Northern Antiquities,' translated by Bishop 
Percy, ed. 1847, p. 511, note. 

Family Settlements and Early Organization. 177 

of the country of which they apparently formed a 

All the German nations anciently acted upon the 
principle of judging every man by the laws of his native 
country, for which reason the Franks allowed the different 
tribes subdued by them to retain their own laws. 1 This 
general custom of the German tribes helps us to under- 
stand several matters concerning the Anglo-Saxons 
which would otherwise be very obscure. The existence 
of so many small hundreds in the South-Eastern and 
Eastern counties and each hundred certainly had its 
own court points to the settlement in these districts 
of many different tribes, each judged by its own cus- 
tomary laws. On the Continent, Franks, Burgundians, 
Alamanni, and others of whatever nation living in the 
Ripuarian country, were all judged, and dealt with if 
guilty, according to the law of the place of their birth. 2 

Ancient Norway was divided into districts called 
shires, and it is from this Scandinavian name the English 
divisional name was probably derived. The early shires 
or hundreds which are so clearly indicated in the North 
of England have left their traces also in other parts of 
the country. Among the probable survivals of their 
names are the old shires of Cornwall, and among others 
in old records are Pinnockshire, Blakebornshire, 3 and 
Kendalshire in the county of Gloucester ; Upshire in 
Essex ; and Chipshire in the north-west of Buckingham- 
shire. These primitive shires were early names of those 
districts afterwards called hundreds. The word scir in 
Anglo-Saxon nomenclature was also applied to ecclesi- 
astical as well as to political divisions. Kirkshire in 
some parts of England appears to have been an early 
name for parish, and the possessions of the Archbishop 
of York are mentioned in Domesday Book as his scire. 

1 Menzel, W., ' Hist, of Germany,' i. 162 ; Monumenta Germaniae, 
edited by Pertz, i. 2. 

2 Seebohm, F., ' Tribal Custom in Anglo-Saxon Law,' 166, and 
Ripuarian Law, xxxi. 3 Cal. Inq. Post-mortem, ii. 237. 


178 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

The name Sherborne survives in various parts of England. 
In Dorset the territorial district or diocese of the Saxon 
Bishop of Sherborne was called Selwoodshire. 1 

The districts of Northumberland, Yorkshire, and 
Lancashire which were in ancient time called shires, and 
in some cases still are locally so called, correspond to 
the hundreds or wapentakes of other counties. Wessex 
in the early period of its history comprised Hants, Wilts, 
Dorset, and Berks, and as time passed on, Somerset, 
Devon, and Cornwall were added to it. Mercia, however, 
if we are to judge by the number of its later shires, had 
more primitive states than Wessex. There is no more 
reason to suppose that when the shires of Mercia were 
first recognised as counties these territories were thus 
all arranged for the first time than there is to suppose 
that the states, called later on Wilts, Dorset, and Somer- 
set, did not exist before they were called shires. In 
Mercia we read of ealdormen of the Hecanas before we 
read of Herefordshire, and of the Hwicci before we read 
of Worcestershire. Every early state which later on 
became a county had its viceroy. Mercia, having so 
many more states, would be likely to have more ealdor- 
men or viceroys than Wessex on great occasions to witness 
the charters of the Mercian Kings. This is what we gener- 
ally find by a comparison of the number of witnesses who 
sign as dux or comes in the charters respectively of the 
Kings of Mercia and Wessex. When the Kings of 
Mercia were overlords of Kent and Surrey the number 
of their viceroys would be increased, and later on, when 
the Kings of Wessex had acquired this supremacy, the 
number of their viceroys would be increased. In a 
charter by the Mercian King Kenulf in 814 relating to 
land at Chart in Kent, 2 there are sixteen witnesses who 
sign as dux or ealdorman. In Kenulf's charter relating 
to the establishment of the abbey at Winchcombe in 
811 there are eleven witnesses similarly described. 3 The 

1 Ethelwerd's Chronicle. 2 Cart. Sax., i. 481. 

3 Ibid., i. 473- 

Family Settlements and Early Organization. 179 

occasion on which this charter was signed was a very 
important one, and many of the Mercian ealdormen were 
probably assembled. In another charter of the same 
King in 816, granting certain lands to the Bishop of 
Worcester, there are also eleven witnesses who are styled 
dux or ealdorman. 1 Some of these may have been the 
viceroys of more than one of the areas of administration 
or states, afterwards called shires or counties, but that 
eleven men of this rank should be witnesses of charters of 
the Mercian King shows that he had many of them, and 
as each had an area of administration, perhaps more 
than one, this number points to the existence in Mercian 
territory of more states than existed in Wessex. The 
greatest number of ealdormen who appear to have wit- 
nessed any charter by a King of Wessex is nine, and the 
occasion was the grant of land at Droxford in Hampshire 
in 826 by Egbert. He had, however, at that time become 
the overlord of much more of England than Wessex. 
Several of his charters concerning land in Wessex are 
witnessed by three ealdormen only, and important ones 
by Ethelwulf, his son, are witnessed by only six. 2 
Although territorial changes were in some cases made, 
it is certain that the Old English counties arose from the 
primitive states. 

One of the most important of the Old English local 
organizations connected with the shires and hundreds 
was that for defence. All freemen were under three 
general obligations, which were apparently of ancient 
date at the time when we first meet with them in records 
viz. : (i) They were obliged to take their part in 
military service for the defence of their state or the 
kingdom of which it formed part, the levies being made 
in each state, afterwards known as the county ; (2) they 
were under the obligation to assist in maintaining the 
local fortifications ; and (3) they were similarly obliged 
to assist in the maintenance of bridges. The liability 

1 Cart. Sax., i. 498. 2 Ibid., ii. 64, and ii. 94. 

12 2 

180 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

for military service in case of urgent necessity still exists 
in our Militia Act ; the maintenance of bridges remains 
as a county charge ; but the liability for the repair of 
local defences has passed away. It is, however, interest- 
ing to us when studying the remains of these ancient 
fortifications which still exist in most parts of England. 
Some of them are great mounds of the later Saxon period, 
but many of them are old Celtic earthworks which the 
Britons made, and the Saxons adopted for their own 
defences. In some parts of the country, as on two 
hills close to Burghclere in Hampshire, the remains of 
two great British camps may be seen, one of which, on 
Beacon Hill, was maintained apparently during the 
whole Anglo-Saxon period, and the other, on Ladle Hill, 
allowed to fall into disuse and decay, the banks being 
now almost obliterated, while the other is in a much more 
perfect condition. In the confirmation of Magna Charta 
by Edward I. we read that ' no town nor freemen shall 
be distrained to make bridges nor banks, but such as 
of old time have been accustomed to make them in the 
time of King Henry our grandfather, and no banks shall 
be defended from henceforth but such as were in defence 
in the time of King Henry our grandfather, by the same 
places and the same bounds as they were wont to be in his 
time.' All freemen among our Old English forefathers 
were trained to the use of arms, and were always ready 
to take the field or defend their fortifications. When 
the repair of these banks ceased there is, so far as known, 
no record, but from the above quotation it is certain 
that they must have been kept up as local defences to 
be used in case of need for at least two centuries after 
the Norman Conquest. It is no doubt owing to the 
ancient local obligation to repair them that so many 
remain in a fairly perfect state. Maiden Castle, near 
Dorchester ; Ufiington Castle in Berkshire ; and Pains- 
wick Castle in Gloucestershire, are other examples of 
earthworks that were probably kept in repair until a 
late period. 



THE settlers in Kent are of special interest from 
several points of view. Known as Jutes since the 
beginning of our history, they can, without much 
difficulty, be traced as regards their origin to more than one 
of the ancient nations or tribes of Northern Europe, and as 
they alone of all the early colonists in the South of England 
adopted as the name of their kingdom its name in the 
Romano-British period, Cantium or Kent, we may reason- 
ably look among them for a survival of some people from 
the Roman time. The name Gutae appears on an ancient 
runic monument in Scandinavia, about 400 A.D. being 
assigned to it by Stephens, 1 and one of the historians 
of the Goths tells us that Gothi, Getae, and Guthi are 
names for the same people, 2 so there can be no doubt 
that Guthi, or Jutes, were of the same race as the Northern 
Goths. Under this name, as in the case of Angles and 
Saxons, other tribal people also probably settled in Kent. 
Bede wrote of them all under the Jutish name, and as 
the later chroniclers copied from him, the name Goths 
ceased to be used for the most .part in England, but not 
wholly so. Asser, for example, tells us that King Alfred 
on his mother's side was descended from the Goths and 
Jutes of the Isle of Wight. The Kentish Jutes are also 

1 Stephens, G., ' Old Northern Runic Monuments,' iii. 397. 

2 Magnus, J., ' Hist, deomn. Goth, reg.,' ed. 1554, p. 15. 


1 82 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

mentioned in early Northern literature by the name of 

Bede tells us that the Jutes under Hengist and Horsa 
came to Kent in three long ships, and of this there was 
no doubt a tradition current in his time. As it bears a 
remarkable resemblance to a Gothic tradition of older 
date, we may perhaps see in it another gleam of light 
connecting the Jutes with the Northern Goths. The old 
Gothic story speaks of the migration of people of three 
tribes of that race from Scandinavia to the eastern side 
of the Baltic Sea. It tells us of Ostrogoths, Visigoths, 
and Gepidse, 1 who passed from their old homes in Scandi- 
navia across the Baltic in three vessels. In this case it 
is clear that, as the migrating people were of three tribes, 
the traditional number of vessels was made to correspond 
to the number of the tribes. Similarly, in the Kentish 
tradition the number of vessels may have been repeated 
from age to age to the time of Bede, and have had its origin 
in people of three tribes having been among the settlers. 

There is a similar tradition in reference to Sussex, and 
another in which the invaders are said to have come in 
five ships for the conquest of Wessex, and these tradi- 
tions may also denote separate tribal expeditions. 

Kent possesses at the present time, and has possessed 
from a time beyond the memory of man, a remarkable 
custom in its law of inheritance in cases of intestacy 
i.e., the custom of gavelkind. The principal incidents of 
it are the partibility of the inheritance, the right of the 
widow or widower, the freedom from escheat for felony, 
and the infant's right to ' aliene by feoffment ' at the age 
of fifteen years. 2 It is a custom which is the most re- 
markable of all which are recognised by our common law, 
seeing that a whole county is thus marked off from the 
rest of England by a peculiar rule of inheritance. While 

1 Kemble, J. M., ' Saxons in England,' i. 16. 

2 Elton, C. L, and Mackay, H. J. H., ' Law of Copyholds,' 
1893, p. 8. 

The Jutish Settlers in Kent. 183 

primogeniture is the common law of succession in other 
parts of England, gavelkind, or partible inheritance, is 
the law in Kent. It has also been the custom to divide 
lands and other property in the same way as in Kent 
on a considerable number of large and small manors in 
other parts of the kingdom, but with this important 
difference : the custom is presumed by law to exist in 
all parts of Kent unless it is proved that the lands were 
disgavelled or changed in their tenure, while outside that 
county it must be proved to have existed as an ancient 
custom. The proof is not required in Kent, but is 
required outside of it. Relatively to the whole country, 
however, the custom prevails on comparatively few 
manors out of this county. 

All the available evidence tends to show that Kent 
was settled chiefly by Goths and Frisians under the 
Jutish name. It is most probable that its peculiar 
customs were introduced into that part of England by 
the people who settled there, and were not a survival of 
old Celtic customs of the same kind. This could hardly 
have been the case, seeing that the word wealh, for a 
Welshman, does not occur in the ordinances of the 
Kentish Kings. Partible inheritance is a custom which 
was very widely spread in the ancient world, and it 
is only by considering the other customs which were 
incidental to it in any country or locality, and by a 
comparison of these incidental customs with those in 
other countries or localities, that its probable origin can 
be traced. As it existed in England, the custom was 
varied in many details. The partible inheritance or 
gavelkind of Kent, however, stands out distinct in some 
respects as the ' custom of Kent.' It differs from that 
which prevailed in Wales in three essential points : In 
Kent only legitimate sons were entitled to a share of 
the inheritance, in Wales all sons claimed their shares ; 
in Kent daughters succeeded if there were no sons, in 
Wales they did not ; in Kent the widow was entitled to 

184 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

half her husband's estate as dower, in Wales she had no 
such provision. 

A parallel in custom may be found by comparing the 
law of Kent with the Jutish law of King Valdemar II. 
in the thirteenth century, both of which contain the pro- 
vision that the son, in reference to the property of the 
deceased father, shall be considered of age in his fifteenth 
year. This usage, though on the one side in accordance 
with Danish laws, and on the other valid among the 
socmen in other parts of England, is probably not derived 
from the Saxons, but is rather to be referred to the 
immigration of the Jutes. 1 Such a comparison also 
assists the evidence, which tends to show that the 
numerous socmen were of Scandinavian rather than of 
Saxon origin. Among other early privileges of Kent 
was the custom of freedom from ordinary distress. 
There was a Kentish process of ' cessavit,' under which, 
if a tenant withheld from his lord his due rents and 
services, the custom of the country gave the lord a special 
process for the recovery of what was due to him. 2 A 
somewhat similar custom of freedom from ordinary 
distress prevailed in London in very early time, and in 
a few other parts of the country. Where rents could not 
be recovered by the ordinary process of distress they were 
called ' dry rents.' The value of the comparison of these 
customs becomes clear when it is remembered that the 
ancient Visigoth law prohibited distress, 3 and these 
Visigoth settlers in Western Europe probably brought it 
from their Northern home. As it was common alike to 
the Visigoths, the people of Kent, and those of London, 
it supports the evidence that the Jutes were mainly 
Goths, and that people of this race settled in sufficient 
numbers in Kent and in and around London to insure 
the continuance of one of their customary privileges. 

1 Lappenberg, ' Hist. Anglo-Saxon Kings,' ed. 1884, i., 123, 124. 

2 Elton, C. I., ' Gavelkind,' p. 196. 

3 Maine, Sir H., ' Early Institutions,' 269, 270. 

The Jutish Settlers in Kent. 185 

The Kentish land tenure was also distinguished by the 
prevalence of family or allodial rights. 1 The land was 
more or less of the nature of family land, as it was in 
parts of Hampshire and other counties that can be con- 
nected with settlements of Goths or other people of 
Northern origin. 

In the division of the father's land by the custom of 
Kent, the youngest son appears to have been entitled to 
the family hearth or homestead on making compensation 
to his brothers. This can also be traced among the 
Frisians. 2 Subject to this preference "for the youngest in 
regard to the hearth, the partition by the gavelkind 
custom gave the eldest son the first choice of the divided 
parts of the land. 3 

Another of the incidental customs of Kent was the 
widow's right to half of her deceased husband's estate. 
This has survived with other gavelkind customs until 
modern times. By the old common law of England, a 
widow, unless debarred by some local custom, received 
one-third of her husband's estate as dower. In the case 
of the Sussex tenants on manors where borough-En glish 
survived, she was entitled to have for her life the whole 
of her husband's lands. On some manors in various parts 
of England her dower was only a fourth. It is of interest 
to find that this custom of a provision for widows prevailed 
among the Goths. Olaus Magnus, writing of the ancient 
Goths, tells us that ' among them a man gave a dowry for 
his bride instead of receiving one with her.' The earliest 
reference we have in England to the custom of the 
morning-gift, or endowment of the wife, is in the early laws 
of Kent, and the oldest race to which a similar custom can 
be traced is the Goths. 

That Kent was largely settled by Goths is proved by the 

1 Robertson, E. W., ' Scotland under her Early Kings,' ii. 264. 

2 Ibid., ii. 266. 

3 Lambarde, W., ' Customs in Gavelkind : Perambulation of 
Kent,' 1570, ed. 1826, p. 519. 

1 86 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

evidence of the runic inscriptions which have been found 
within it. The most important of them are those dis- 
covered on two large stones at Sandwich. These were 
fixed monuments, and the inscriptions must therefore be 
identified with the people who lived near them. These 
monuments could not have been brought from Gothland 
or any other Northern land, as personal ornaments with 
old runic inscriptions could. Stephens 1 says : ' These 
are evidently heathen stones. Such stones would not 
have been erected after Kent was christianised say, 
A.D. 600 at latest. They could not have been raised 
over dead Vikings, for the High North had by this time 
cast aside the old Northern stave, and adopted the Scan- 
dinavian alphabet, or futhorc.' This opinion from the 
greatest writer on runic monuments is valuable as showing 
that the runic letters on the Sandwich stones are old 
Northern Gothic, and not the later Scandian ; that 
these monumental inscriptions are pre-Christian, and 
consequently of a date not later than the end of the sixth 
century. This discovery, therefore, proves the settlement 
of Northern Goths on the east coast of Kent. As the 
runic monuments have been discovered chiefly in the east 
of the county, it was presumably there that the Goths 
mainly settled. 

The people in some parts of Kent exhibit in many 
respects the typical Frisian race characters. Those ob- 
served in Friesland at the present time have been described 
by Lubach as ' a tall, slender frame ; a longish oval, flat 
skull, with prominent occiput ; a long, oval face, with flat 
cheek-bones ; a long nose, straight or aquiline, the point 
drooping below the wings ; a high under-jaw and a well- 
developed chin.' 2 Many years ago Macintosh drew atten- 
tion to somewhat similar features prevalent among the 
people of West Kent. He says : ' The Jutian characters 
are prevalent about Tonbridge,' and are ' a narrow face, 

1 Stephens, G., loc. cit., i. 363. 

2 Beddoe, J., ' Races of Britain,' p. 40. 

The Jutish Settlers in Kent. 187 

very convex profile, head narrow, rather elongated, and 
very much rounded off at the sides, very long neck, and 
narrow shoulders.' 1 These physical characters may still 
be observed in the county, and more particularly in its 
western parts. 

The ancient Goths, one of the noblest of the old Euro- 
pean races, have long since disappeared. Their identity 
has been almost entirely lost in the birth of new nations. 
If we seek for any remnants of the old stock, we shall find 
them, such as they are, in the Dalecarlians of Sweden, 
among whom the custom of partible inheritance still 
survives. The Goths were the people most advanced in 
civilization of the nations in the Scandian peninsula, and 
we must trace to the parent Gothic stock many of the 
qualities of the present races of Scandinavia and the 
northern parts of Germany. They have disappeared, but 
the newer nations which sprang from them have preserved 
until our own time their love of liberty. If we trace it to 
its ultimate source, England is Gothic by birth, and Kent 
pre-eminently so. The Kentish man's liberty was his 
marked characteristic in the Middle Ages a characteristic 
which had come down to him from the earliest Kentish 
settlers. Descended partly from Frisians who were 
themselves, as the remnant of their ancient language 
shows, also of the old Gothic stock and strongly marked 
by their love of freedom, the people of Kent preserved, 
through all the changes of the Anglo-Saxon period and 
the later powerful influences of feudalism, their free insti- 
tutions, the relics of which, in the customs incidental to 
the gavelkind land tenure, have come down to our time. 
There is, perhaps, no survival in the length or breadth of 
England that is as remarkable as this. 

Under the laws of JSthelbert, the Kentish ceorl was 
a freeman, and we read of him later in the laws of sub- 
sequent Kings. It was the proudest privilege of birth in 
Kent in the Middle Ages that every man so born, or whose 
1 Trans. Ethnological Society, vol. i., p. 214. 

1 88 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

father was so born, was free from those obligations of 
personal service which inferior tenants in other counties 
were bound to fulfil. The Kentish man was free to move, 
and if he went into another county and some lord of the 
manor claimed villein services from him, it was a good 
answer in law if he pleaded his father's Kentish birth. 1 
This privilege of personal freedom, which is now the birth- 
right of every Englishman, was only the birthright of the 
people of one of our present counties in the period of feudal 
domination viz., the people of Kent. Many other people 
who were inferior tenants on manors elsewhere were more 
or less freemen. Their number collectively was great, 
but no other instance occurs of any county in which all 
the people born in it, or whose fathers were born in it, 
were personally free. In this respect there was, perhaps, 
only one other area of local government which could be 
compared to Kent with all its privileges, and that was the 
City of London. In London every man from the earliest 
time was personally free if born there. 

One of the general conclusions which an examination 
of the Anglo-Saxon relics found in England leads to is the 
similarity that many of them exhibit in design and orna- 
mentation to those of early date, before the later so- 
called Viking period, which have been discovered in the 
Scandinavian peninsula the home of the Northern 
Goths. From whatever source they ' acquired their 
knowledge of iron-working and its accompanying arts of 
metallurgy and gilding, the Goths certainly introduced 
this knowledge and art into the Scandian peninsula. 
These arts were much practised by the Gauls until the fall 
of the Roman Empire, after which they were lost in the 
South ; but as they had been acquired by the Goths of 
Scandinavia, they were preserved and developed by them 
in the North, where they were unaffected by the great wars 
which marked the decline and fall of the Empire in other 
parts of Europe. 2 These lost arts were thus recovered 

1 Lambarde, W., loc. cit. t p. 511. 

2 Starkie-Gardner, J., ' Ironwork,' p. 37. 

The Jutish Settlers in Kent. 1 89 

(from the Goths, and were reintroduced into England by 
them. Some of the oldest English ironworks were those 
of the ancient Andredsweald forest district of Sussex and 
Kent. Among Anglo-Saxon relics there are well-known 
Kentish types, many examples of which have been found 
also in the Isle of Wight, South Hampshire, and other 
parts of England, in or near to which settlements of Goths 
can be traced. 

The early laws of Kent appear to afford evidence of the 
survival in that State in the sixth century of descendants 
of some of the settlers introduced into Britain from the 
Continent before the end of the later Roman occupation. 
Such settlers in various parts of the Empire were known 
as Lseti. In Kent these people were called Lsetas. This 
is a fact of interest and importance, for these Lsetas of 
Kent in King ^thelbert's time were probably descendants 
of some of the Burgundians, Alamans, Vandals, or others, 
who were settled in Britain by Probus and some of his 
successors, as already mentioned. Their number and 
influence in Kent must have been considerable, as special 
provision was accorded to them in one of the laws of 
^Ethelbert viz., that which says, ' If anyone slay a Laet 
of the highest class let him pay 80 shillings, if he slay 
one of the second class let him pay 60 shillings, and if of 
the third, let him pay 40 shillings.' 1 In considering, there- 
fore, the possibility of the survival elsewhere in England 
of any descendants of the tribes introduced into Britain 
by the Roman Emperors, the evidence that in Kent some 
descendants of these people survived increases the pro- 
bability that in other parts of the country, such as along 
the so-called Saxon shore, similar descendants of the 
barbaric settlers of the time of the Empire who had not 
been absorbed in the Celtic population may also have 
survived until the same period. In connection with the 
early settlement of Kent, this reference to the Laetas in 
the Laws of ^Ethelbert is of more historical value than the 
story of Hengist and Horsa. In the early history of 
1 Laws of ^Ethelbert, 26. 

i go Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

France the Lseti are known as soldiers of the Empire, or 
their descendants. 

There is, however, another view by which the Lsetas 
of Kent may be regarded. They were, as mentioned, of 
three classes, and were protected by ^Ethelbert's laws by 
three degrees of fine or wergeld, in case any one of them 
should be killed the higher the class, the higher the fine. 
The name Laetas may have been used to denote freemen 
of this early time, as the name Lseti was on the Continent. 
In the early laws of Scandinavia we read of three classes 
of men who had obtained their freedom i.e., who had 
become freedmen and they also were protected by fines 
or wergelds in the same proportion as those connected 
with the Laetas of Kent viz., 80, 60, and 40 ores of 
silver. 1 The highest class of these was the man whose 
great-grandfather had been also a freedman, called in 
Scandinavia a leysing. As the evidence concerning the 
Jutes connects them with Scandinavia, this system of 
classing the freemen or freedmen of Kent may have been 
a Northern custom introduced into that part of England 
by them. The people so classed may therefore have been 
in part introduced by the Jutes, and in part have been 
descendants of the older Teutonic settlers introduced into 
Britain by the Romans, and for administrative purposes 
classed under this system. 

That Frisians were largely represented among the 
settlers in Kent is generally allowed. The traces of 
Frisians in Kent, as elsewhere, may be looked for under 
the tribal designations by which people of that race were 
known, or called themselves. Bede mentions the Hunni 
as one of the tribes from which the people of England in 
his time were known to have descended, and these can 
be identified with the Frisian tribe known as Hunsings. 
The name Hunesbiorge occurs in a Kentish charter, 2 and 
Honinberg Hundred is mentioned in Domesday Book. 
Brocmen and Chaucians, and other Frisians of tribal 

1 Seebohm, F., ' Tribal Custom in Anglo-Saxon Law,' 485, 486. 
2 Cart. Sax., ii. 202 

The Jutish Settlers in Kent. 1 9 1 

names now lost, were probably represented among the 
settlers in Kent under the name of Jutes. Of these Jutes, 
the Goths were probably the more numerous, seeing that 
the name adopted for the Kentish people generally was a 
modified form of Gutae, a name for their own race. 

The traditional freedom of the people of this county, 
and the still older traditional freedom of the Frisians, 
confirm the other evidence, anthropological as well as 
philological, which connects Kent with ancient Friesland. 
The old laws of the Frisians declare ' that the race shall 
be free as long as the winds blow out of the clouds and 
the world stands.' 1 

The Frisians, with the Batavians of what is now Holland, 
came under the dominion of Charlemagne, who confirmed 
their laws and left them their native customs. 2 The per- 
sonal freedom of the people of Kent was their most highly 
prized birthright, derived from their tribal ancestors, and 
has been commemorated by Dryden in the following lines 
referring to that county : 

' Among the English shires be thou surnamed the free, 
And foremost ever placed when they shall numbered be.' 

This last line, about being placed first, refers to another 
remarkable Kentish custom or claim viz., that of being 
marshalled in the van of the national army when being 
led to war. This claim was one of the warlike privileges 
of the men of Kent, and was recognised throughout the 
period of their early history. As will be shown later on, 
it was a claim which was also recognised and allowed to 
Kentish settlers in another part of England. 

There may have been more than one Baltic homeland 
of the Jutes, and Witland, east of the Vistula, may have 
been one of them. Wulfstan, in narrating his voyage up 
the Baltic to King Alfred, says that Witland 3 was east of 

1 Monumenta Germanise, and ' Laws of the Frisians,' quoted by 
Rogers, J. E. Thorold, ' Holland,' p. 4. 

2 Rogers, J. E. Thorold, ' Holland,' pp. 4, 5. 

3 King Alfred's ' Orosius,' edited by Sweet, H., p. 20. 

1 92 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

the Vistula, and appertained to Eastum or Eastland. 
The old form of the w in Witland is uu, and in this 
form Uuitland is close in sound to Jutland. It would, 
from this and other evidence, appear not improbable 
that Eastmen may have settled among the Jutes in 

The remarkable collection of ancient skulls that formerly 
existed at Hythe were believed by some who examined 
them to have been the remains of men who fell in battle. 
Knox, 1 who examined them in 1860, thought that a large 
number of them were of the Celtic type, and the remainder 
of Anglo-Saxon type. Two of the skulls he believed to be 
those of Lapps. Another observer found broad skulls as 
well as long ones among them. 2 To account for the 
broad skulls, we must suppose either a survival in this 
part of Kent of descendants of the broad-headed men 
of the Bronze Age for the later Celts were not of this 
type or the arrival with the long-headed Teutonic in- 
vaders of some men of a broad-headed race. 

In Romney Marsh and the neighbouring portion of the 
Weald, Beddoe's observations show that darker hues 3 
prevail among the people, and it is near the coast of 
Romney Marsh that the Domesday place Blachemene- 
stone now Blackmanstone is situated. Such a name 
is unlikely to have been given to a place on the coast 
from a survival of dark Celtic people there. As a coast 
place, it is far more probable that it got its name from 
dark-haired settlers. This was the country of the tribe 
known in Saxon time as the Merscwara, and it must be 
concluded that, whether these people were partly of Celtic 
descent or not, there was probably some ethnological 
difference between them and the people in other parts of 
Kent. Two designations' Men of Kent ' and ' Kentish 
Men ' have come down to our time. They are certainly 
old, the former being the designation of the people in the 
east around Canterbury, and the latter that of those in the 

1 Archesologia Cantiana, xviii. 333-336. 2 Ibid., 334. 

3 Beddoe, J., ' Races in Britain,' 256. 

The Jutish Settlers in Kent. 193 

west of the county. The traditions relating to these 
names for Kentish people are apparently as old as the 
time of the settlement. The inhabitants of the eastern 
part of the county were certainly called * Men of Kent,' 
and those in the western part * Kentish Men.' In one of 
the early charters the words ' provincia orientalis Cantise,' 
or province of East Kent, occur. 1 The Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle tells us, under the year 858, that the Danes 
fought with the Men of Kent (mid Cantwarum). Under 
the year 865, it states that they made peace with the Men 
of Kent. Under the year 902, we read of the Danes and 
the Cantwara, or Men of Kent. Similarly, in the same 
Chronicle we have some references to the West Kentish 
people. Under the year 999, we read of the Danish army 
going along the Medway to Rochester, and of the ' Centisce 
fyrd,' or Kentish military array, which is also mentioned 
as the ' weast Centingas,' or West Kentish men. Under 
the year 1009, the same Chronicle mentions the East 
Centingas, or people of East Kent. There appears, 
consequently, to be no doubt that the provinces of East 
and West Kent were well known in Saxon time, and 
little doubt that these corresponded with the diocesan 
divisions, or Dioceses of Canterbury and Rochester. As 
the runic monuments, which must be assigned to the 
Goths, have only been found in East Kent, it is possible 
that the two ancient divisions of Kent were ethnological 
divisions, and mainly, perhaps, between Goths in the east 
and Frisians in the west. 

If further evidence were wanted to prove the settlement 
of Goths in Kent, it could be found in the earliest money 
that was used. Sceatts and scillings are mentioned in the 
Kentish laws, the sceatt being a small silver coin of a 
value somewhat equivalent to the later penny. In a 
fragment of Mercian law which has survived sceatts are 
also mentioned. 2 In the early Northumbrian metrical 
translation of the Book of Genesis, which is ascribed to 

1 Codex Dipl., No. 256. 2 Seebohm, F., loc. cit., 445. 


194 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

Caedmon in the seventh century, the word sceat is used 
for the passage in which Abraham declares he would take 
' neither sceat ne scilling ' from the King of Sodom. 
Sceatts and scillings are mentioned in one of the Northern 
Sagas ' The Scald's Tale ' so that sceatts must have 
been known in the North of Europe, the original home of 
the Goths. That the coin was in use among the people of 
this race is shown by its name in the translation of the 
Gospels made in the fourth century by Bishop Ulphilas 
for the Moeso-Goths, who had migrated from the North 
and settled near the lower course of the Danube. In the 
passage ' Show me a penny,' etc., the Latin word denarius 
is translated skatt in two instances. Its occurrence in 
the Kentish laws thus points to Goths, and the use of 
a similar name in Mercia and Northumbria indicates a 
Gothic influence 

From the evidence that has been stated, the Scandi- 
navian origin of the Jutes appears to be conclusive, and 
this is supported by the early monetary currency in the 
Kentish kingdom. The Kentish shilling differed greatly 
from those of Wessex and Mercia. It was much more 
valuable, and of the weight of a Roman ounce of silver, 
or 576 wheat-grains. 1 This was the same as the Scandina- 
vian ora, 2 which was divided into smaller silver coins, each 
one-third of its weight and value, called the ortug, weighing 
192 grains of wheat. This latter was of the same weight 
and value as the Greek stater of the Eastern Empire. 3 

In Kent, therefore, we find that the earliest shilling, 
which was worth 20 sceatts, or i ounce of silver, was 
the equivalent also of 3 Byzantine staters. Conse- 
quently, in this monetary equivalence we see on the one 
hand evidence of the Scandinavian connection of the 
Kentish Jutes or Goths, and on the other evidence of the 
Eastern commerce between the Goths of the Baltic regions 
and the Greek merchants of the Eastern Empire. 

1 Seebohm, F., loc. cit., pp. 448, 449. 

2 Ibid., 233. 3 Ibid., 233. 

The Jutish Settlers in Kent. 195 

In its monetary system and reckoning the kingdom of 
Kent seems to have been peculiar from the first, 1 and to 
have continued peculiar for centuries, for its shilling was 
exactly equal in value to two of the small gold coins, 
known as tremisses, in circulation in North-East Frisia in 
Charlemagne's time, 2 the ratio between gold and silver 
at that time being i to 12. The evidence that Kent 
was occupied mainly by Goths and Frisians appears, 
therefore, to be established by the monetary systems of 
these ancient nations, which point to ancient commercial 
intercourse between them and Kent, or to racial affinity. 
This commercial connection between the Goths and 
Frisians is also supported by the earliest knowledge we 
have of the wergelds, or fines for slaying a freeman, paid 
to his kindred by Goths of the Isle of Gotland and by the 
East Frisians. It was 160 gold solidi, or shillings, in the 
case of each of these tribal people. 3 

As regards the shapes of villages and settlements, Kent 
affords examples, apparently, of both the isolated home- 
stead system, which may be ascribed to Frisians, and of 
the collected homestead plan. The lone farmhouses in 
the county, which are called tons such as Shottington, 
Wingleton, Godington, and Appleton may be regarded as 
venerable monuments of the settlement in these instances 
having been by families and not by larger communities. 

The influence of Kent in the origin of the Old English 
race has been under-estimated. This early kingdom was 
a limited area, with no hinterland for expansion and for 
the settlement near it of its surplus population. As time 
passed on, its limits were found too circumscribed to 
accommodate the increasing number of its people, and 
colonies were sent out. We can trace some of these 
Kentish colonial settlements, as will be shown in later 
chapters, in some of the southern and western counties, 
in Essex, and in the upper parts ot the Thames valley. 

1 Seebohm, F., loo cit., p. 442. 

2 Ibid., 454, 455. 3 Ibid., 231, 232. 




SUSSEX still shows some remarkable traces of its 
early Anglo-Saxon people. The survival of the 
custom of borough-English, by which the youngest 
son is the sole heir to his father's estate, on about 140 
manors in this county, is in all probability due to its 
having been the custom of some of the original settlers. 
It is most common in the Rape of Lewes, but exists also 
on manors elsewhere. 

This custom of borough-English or junior right prevails 
more extensively in Sussex than in any county. While 
Kent is marked by a survival of partible inheritance, 
Sussex is marked in a similar way by the survival among 
the copyholders on a very large number of its manors of 
sole inheritance by the youngest son. These two customs 
resemble each other in one respect the preference for the 
youngest. In Kent he was entitled to have the homestead 
on making an equitable compensation to his brothers, 
but in all other respects the inheritance was divided 
equally between the sons, so that in Kent the special 
recognition of the youngest son is only weak. On the 
contrary, in the Sussex custom the recognition of the claim 
of the youngest son was absolute, as he succeeded to the 
whole of the land to the exclusion of his brothers. As 
already shown, this custom can be traced more clearly to 
Eastern Europe than to any other source. 


Settlers in Sussex and Part of Surrey. 197 

The following circumstances in reference to settlements 
in the South-East of England are important considera- 
tions : (i) The Goths, under the name of Gutse or Jutes, 
were the chief settlers in Kent, as proved by historical 
statements, the existence of fixed monuments with Gothic 
runes on them, and the survival of gavelkind, with its 
incidental customs of freedom from distress and dower of 
widows which can be traced to a Gothic source. (2) The 
existence in Sussex over a large area of the custom by 
which the youngest son succeeded to the whole of his 
father's estate. (3) The existence in Kent of a recogni- 
tion of the youngest son to a less extent, he being 
entitled to the paternal homestead. (4) The prevalence 
of junior right at the present day as the survival of 
an ancient custom of inheritance among some people in 
Friesland, and among the Slavs. (5) The Slavic origin 
of the old Vandal or Wendish tribes of the south coast of 
the Baltic Sea, close to the ancient seat of the Goths. 
(6) The survival of ancient Vandal or Wendish place- 
names in both Sussex and Essex. 

Goths and Vandals, when allied in warlike expeditions, 
were commonly called Astings. 1 It may, of course, be 
accidental that a tribe called the Haestingas was settled 
on the borderland between Sussex and Kent, but there is 
evidence of some commingling of the people of these 
counties near their border. The custom of partible inheri- 
tance, which is general in Kent, does not exist in Sussex, 
except at Rye, 2 where it may still survive in cases of in- 
testacy, and Rye was only separated from Kent by 
Romney Marsh, now reclaimed. The largest of the 
Wendish tribes of North-East Germany was the Wilte, 
called also Lutitzer. The names of several of the 
hundreds of Sussex in Saxon time viz., Wendelmestrei, 
Willingham, Welesmere 3 are suggestive of Wends or 

1 Latham, R. G., ' Germania of Tacitus,' xviii. 

2 Elton, C. I., and Mackay, H. J. H., ' Robinson on Gavelkind,' 
p. 33. 3 Domesday Book. 

1 98 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

Wilte. When we compare the name Wendelmestrei with 
the place-name Wendelstein in one of the old Wendish 
parts of Germany, we can scarcely doubt how the Sussex 
name arose, if considered in reference to the survival in 
Sussex of an old Wendish custom. 

There are other Anglo-Saxon names of places in 
this county which may also have been derived from 
persons who were called by some tribal name, such 
as Bucgan-ora, 1 now changed to Bognor, and Bucking- 
ham, which may have come from the name of the 
pagus of the Bucki, in the Engern country of the Old 
Saxons. The name Bexwarena-land for the country 
around Bexley occurs also in a charter of Off a, 2 and, 
as it is written in the genitive plural, it must be con- 
sidered to refer to a settlement of people known as 

In the extreme West of Sussex there is a place nearSelsea 
called Wittering, which is mentioned in a charter of the 
tenth century as Wedering, 3 a name presumably derived 
originally from a settler called Weder, from his tribal name 
that of the Wederas or Ostrogoths from the Weder- 
mark, on the east of Lake Wetter. The name occurs in 
the boundaries of Selsea, another boundary-name of the 
same land being Cwuenstane. 4 This latter is much 
like Cwen, the Norrena name for a Fin. Another Fin 
settlement appears probable from the Sussex Domesday 
place-name Fintune. 

Similarly, the Domesday name Angemare the Ange- 
meringum or Angemaeringtun of Saxon charters 5 
reminds us of the ancient Swedish province of Angerman- 
land, on the west of the Gulf of Bothnia, opposite to Fin- 
land. As already mentioned, there are still existing in 
the north-eastern provinces of Sweden stone monuments 
with runic inscriptions to those who ' resided westward ii 

1 Cart. Sax., i. 82. 2 Ibid., i. 294. 

3 Ibid., iii. 193. * Ibid. 

5 Codex Dipl., Nos. 314 and 1067. 

Settlers in Sussex and Part of Surrey. 199 

England,' or who ' died in England.' 1 Eastmen or Ostro- 
goths were names used somewhat freely in ancient time 
for the same people, and it is possible that the two Domes- 
day places in Sussex named Essete may refer to settlers 
who were Eastmen. There are four places in Sussex named 
Garinges, and as g and w were interchangeable in sound, 
these may be equivalent to Waringes, and point to settle- 
ments of Warings. 

Hunestan is a Domesday name apparently referring to 
the settlement of a family of Hunsings, as Sasingha does 
to one which bore the Saxon name. 

A trace of people who were in some way connected with 
Franks or Burgundians in Sussex is afforded by the dis- 
covery of a weapon known as the angon in a cemetery 
of the Anglo-Saxon period at Ferring. This weapon, 
almost unknown in connection with ancient burials in 
England, is frequently found on the Continent in ancient 
graves of Franks and Burgundians. 2 

It is not suggested that all the manors in Sussex on which 
the custom of junior right prevailed were settled by Wends. 
That custom can be traced more fully to the Slavs than 
to any other race, but in ancient time, as well as in modern, 
the Slavs were settled close to, or even among, the Teutons, 
and it might have been adopted by some of the Saxon 
tribes or communities of mixed descent, and have been 
introduced into Sussex and other parts of England partly 
by Wends and partly by Frisians, Burgundians, or others 
who had adopted it. This supposition is supported by the 
survival of this old custom over considerable portions of 
North Germany at the present time, whereas generally 
among the Germans the mode of succession of the nobles, 
as well as the inferior tenants, was partible inheritance. 
As regards the inferior tenants, in parts of Germany the 
parcelling out of the land into smaller and smaller 

1 Memoires de la Societe Royale des Antiquaires du Nord, 
1845-1849, p. 333. 

2 Read, C. H., Archaologia, liv. 369. 

2OO Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

portions led to such impoverishment that the 'Minorat 
succession ' was in modern time established so that the 
youngest son was constituted by law heir to the father's 
farms and lands, it being considered that the father was 
better able to portion off his elder children in his life- 
time. 1 A community of mixed descent in contact with 
another which had the junior right custom might have 
adopted it in ancient time, as it was by German law in 
modern time. 

The place-names in Sussex ending in the word -mer 
are suggestive. Grimm tells us that the older Slavs 
called the world mir and ves'mir. 2 Mir is also the name 
for peace, and seems akin to mir a or mer a, a measure. 
Among all the counties of England Sussex is remarkable 
for its place-names terminating in this word -mer, in 
some cases -mere. It appears to refer to a boundary or 
limit rather than to a marsh, for some of the names which 
have this ending are situated on high ground, such as 
Falmer the Domesday Felesmere. Keymer, Angermer, 
Stanmer, Jonsmer, Cuckmere, Ringmer, Udimore (com- 
monly pronounced Udimer), Tangemere, Linchmere, and 
Haslemere, on the county boundary, are other examples 
of the name. Some of these, like those of other ancient 
places and hundreds in Sussex, probably refer to people. 

Among Domesday names of significance in reference 
to Frisians of the Chaucian tribe are Cochinges and 
Cocheha. As in some other counties in which there are 
traces of Wendish settlers, we find a place-name con- 
taining the root sem, probably derived from the old 
Slavonic word for land. It occurs in the Domesday 
place-name Semlintun. 

The number of places in Sussex whose names bear a 
resemblance to Frisian names is remarkable. The ter- 
minal pronunciation of some of them in -urn and -un 
also resembles the Frisian. In Friesland we find Dokkum, 

1 Baring-Gould, S., ' Germany, Past and Present,' pp. 56-68. 

2 Grimm, J., ' Teutonic Mythology,' ed. by Stallybrass, ii., 793. 

Settlers in Sussex and Part of Surrey. 201 

Workum, Bergum, Akkrum, Wierum, Hallum, Ulrum, 
Loppersum, Makkum, Bedum, and others of the same 
kind. In Sussex we find Horsham (locally pronounced 
Horsum and Hawsom), Hailsham (Helsum), Sedle- 
combe (Selzcum), Friston (Frissun), Cocking (Cokkun), 
Lillington (Linkun). 1 The indications pointing to 
Frisians in this county are sufficient to show that 
people of this nation must have settled among the South 

That there were among these Frisians tribal Hunsings 
and Chaucians is probable from such family names as 
Friston, Hunston, the Domesday names Cocheha, Cokke- 
feld, and the numerous similar names, Cuckmere, Cuck- 
field, Cocking, Cockhais, Cockshut stream, Cokeham (a 
hamlet of Sompting), and Cooksbridge, north of Lewes. 
These latter, which may be compared with Cuxhaven in 
the old country of the Chaucians and similar names in 
various parts of England, point to family settlements of 
these tribal people. 

The name Swanborough, the Domesday Soanberge, 
probably denotes the settlement of one or more families 
of Sweons or Swedes. Their connection with the Viking 
expeditions has been proved, and is not a matter of con- 
jecture. In the original settlement of Sussex it must, 
however, be accepted that people of Saxon origin, in- 
cluding the Frisians, were in the majority, and so gave 
their name to the kingdom. The occurrence of the 
Domesday name Sasingha, denoting a family of Saxon 
origin, in a county supposed to have been entirely settled 
by Saxons, may be explained by its possible use, in this 
instance, as a distinctive name for a Saxon settler in a 
district in which the neighbouring settlements were those 
of people who were not Saxons. 

Sussex, like all English maritime counties, had its later 
Scandinavian settlements as well as those of the early 
Saxon period. At Framfield there were customary laws 
1 Lower, M. A., ' History of Sussex,' vol. i. 

202 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

of inheritance of much interest, which point, in all 
probability, to settlers of more than one ancient race. 
These customs were the subject of a legal inquiry early 
in the seventeenth century, and were set forth by the 
Court of Chancery, 4 James I. There was at Fram- 
field bondland and assartland, the former being in all 
probability that which was first under cultivation, and 
the latter that which was converted to arable land by 
some early forest clearing, possibly for a later settle- 
ment of Scandinavians. However this may have been, 
the custom was that if any man be first admitted tenant 
of any assartland and die seised of it, and also of bond- 
land, then the eldest son should be admitted heir of all 
his land, and if he have no son, the eldest daughter 
should succeed. If, however, the tenant be first admitted 
to the bondland, also called yardland, the youngest 
son, and failing sons, the youngest daughter, should 
succeed to the whole of his land. If he left no children, 
the youngest brother ; failing brothers, the youngest 
sister ; and failing these, the youngest uncle or aunt or 
youngest cousin, males being preferred in each degree 
of relationship. 1 The custom by which the eldest 
daughter succeeded if there was no son makes it probable 
that there was a Norse settlement on the assartland at 
Framfield. We may find another trace of people of 
Norse descent in parts of East Sussex in the custom of 
* principals,' by which the eldest son on some of the lands 
in Sussex belonging to Battle Abbey was entitled to 
certain heirlooms or articles in right of primogeniture. 2 
The succession by the youngest seems to have been 
originally connected with the bondland, and follows the 
custom that so largely prevailed in the Rape of Lewes. 

The eldest daughter custom at Framfield and the 
custom of ' principals ' in reference to the eldest son, when 

1 Corner, G. R., ' On Borough-English/ Sussex Archaeological 
Collections, vi. 175, 176. 

2 Encyclopaedia Britannica, Ninth ed., ' Primogeniture.' 

Settlers in Sussex and Part of Surrey. 203 

compared with the customs of Norway and. Cumberland, 
are. so clearly of Scandian origin that we may look for 
other traces of the Northmen in Sussex. The name rapes 
for the county divisions appears to be of Scandinavian 
origin, and to be connected with Anglo-Saxon rap, rcep, 
and the Gothic raip, signifying a rope. In Iceland 
districts are called hreppar to the present day. 1 Scandi- 
navian place-names may be recognised in Harlinges (an 
old place near Framfield), Bosham, Bosgrave, Thorney, 
Angmering, Swanborough, Denton, Scale near Sten- 
ning, and Angleton, all ancient names which occur in 
their old forms in ancient records. There are two places 
named Blechington, one north of Brighton, and the 
other east of Newhaven. These family settlement names 
suggest some connection with Scandian people from 
Blekinge, the province in the South of Sweden. These 
ancient names, and the survival of the customs men- 
tioned, so clearly point to Northmen that there can be 
no doubt that settlements of them, probably during 
the later Saxon period, took place on the Sussex 

At Rotherfield there were three kinds of heritable 
land viz., farthingland, cotmanland, and assartland. 
The eldest son was heir of the assartland, and the wife 
was not entitled to dower. The assartland was that 
which had been reclaimed from some forest clearing, 
and, being new cultivated land, there was no customary 
mode of inheritance attached to it. Consequently, it 
followed the common law of primogeniture. The youngest 
son was heir of the farthingland and cotmanland, but, 
if there were no sons, there was this difference between 
the descent of farthingland and cotmanland : the 
former descended to the youngest daughter, while the 
latter was divided among all the daughters. 2 To this 

1 Domesday Book, General Introduction, by H. Ellis, pp. 179, 
1 80. 

2 Corner, G. R., loc. cit., vi. 15. 

2O4 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

extent the cotmanland followed the custom of Kent, 
and the farthingland the custom of a great part of 

History is silent concerning Norse colonies on our 
southern coasts, but the customs and old place-names 
which have been mentioned point to a considerable 
settlement of Scandinavians in Sussex, and Sweons or 
Swedes among them. That Swedes came among the 
Vikings, as already mentioned, is proved by the runic 
monuments of their country. In the district of Vaksala 
(parish of old Upsala) there is still existing an inscrip- 
tion to Sigvid, ' the England sea-farer.' In Vesterman- 
land there is another ' to a worthy young man, and he 
had gone to England.' In Gestrikland, near Gefle, is 
another made by relatives to ' their brother Bruse when 
he set out for England.' 1 Some of these and other 
inscriptions may be memorials of actual settlers in our 
country. There is additional evidence relating to North- 
men. The Domesday names Totenore, Sidenore, Ven- 
ningore or Waningore, Icenore, and the other early names 
Cymenore, Kynnore, and Cotenore, show by their ter- 
minations traces of Scandinavian people. Among other 
Danish or Scandinavian traces in the oldest place-names 
are those beginning with Sale, which may refer to settlers 
from Sealand. These are the Domesday places Salecome 
and Salhert, now Salehurst, and Salemanneburn, 2 a 
name for one of the old hundreds. The conditions under 
which settlements were formed in Sussex must have 
been peculiar to it from the first. With a great extent 
of coast, and the country nearest to it being for long 
distances sparsely supplied with wood, the early settlers 
must have depended for that commodity on the forest 
district further north, or on woods which became common 
to certain hundreds or groups of village settlements. 

1 Memoires de la Societe Royale des Antiquaires du Nord, 
Copenhagen, 1845-1849, pp. 334-346. 

2 Placita de quo warranto, 749. 

Settlers in Sussex and Part of Surrey. 205 

The Andredsweald forest was known "as the ' Sylva 
communis ' in the Anglo-Saxon period. 1 

There are still surviving a number of place-names 
ending in the word -tye, which probably denoted common 
lands or rights of some kind attached to various places. 
Berwick-tye, Bramble-tye, Horntye, Pilstye, Puckstye, 
Wroth-tye, also Tyes and Tyes Cross, Tye farm, and Tye 
hill, are examples. 

The survival of borough-English on a considerable 
number of manors in the south of Surrey points to 
colonization from Sussex. The custom of succession by 
the youngest son not only survived until modern time 
in these places, but the division of the manors into 
so-called boroughs also survived. At Dorking there 
were four boroughs viz., Chipping borough, com- 
prising the greater part of the town ; Holmwood borough, 
comprising the country on the south side of the town ; 
Milton borough ; and Westcote borough. There were, 
similarly, a number of rural boroughs in the manor of 
Croydon, where borough-English also survived. These 
arrangements for rural government, with a headman 
called the head-borough, are the same as existed in parts 
of Sussex, where succession by the youngest son was the 
custom. It is known that this custom prevailed on at 
least twenty-eight manors 2 in Surrey, including Dorking, 
Croydon, Reigate, and Bletchworth. 3 These places are 
all on, or quite close to, the lines of the old Roman roads 
which connected Sussex with London, and the sur- 
vival of a Sussex custom at places in Surrey situated on 
these roads suggests migrations of people along them. 
Borough-English is also known to have prevailed in the 
following rural parts of Surrey : Weston Gumshall, 
Sutton (near Woking), Little Bookham, Wootton, Abinger, 
Padington, Towerhill, Nettley, Shere, Cranley, Compton- 

1 Horsfield, T. W., ' History and Antiquities of Lewes,' p. 3. 

2 Corner, R. G., loc. cit., 15. 

3 Elton, C. I., and Mackay, H. J. H., loc. cit., 238. 

206 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

Westbury, Brockham in Betchworth, and Dunsford. 
The migration from Sussex into Surrey thus appears to 
have been considerable. 

There is in the south-east of Surrey some evidence of 
the commingling of local colonists from both Sussex and 
Kent in this part of the Weald forest. It can be traced 
in the manorial and other local customs. At Lingfield 
the officials called head-boroughs were appointed for 
all the manors within this large parish, as was the case in 
Sussex on the manors where borough-English prevailed. 
Sterborough, one of the manors of Lingfield, bears this 
borough name. Part of this rural borough lay in Kent, 
and was subject to gavelkind. The tenants of the other 
part of this manor held their land subject to the payment 
of a heriot of the best beast on the death of the tenant. 1 
This custom was probably introduced into England by 
Scandinavians, and is commonly met with in districts 
settled by them. 

Blechingley had some customs which bore a strong 
resemblance to some of those incidental to gavelkind in 
Kent. The tenants paid no heriots, but one penny only, 
and no more, for admission to their lands. They could 
sell or alienate their lands, as the gavelkind tenants in 
Kent could. They could grant leases without their lord's 
license, 2 as Kentish tenants could. Part of Godstone 
was held of the manor of Blechingley, with presumably 
similar customs. At Reigate the free and customary 
tenants had the custom of borough -English, and held 
their lands and tenements in free and common socage, 3 
which corresponded very closely to gavelkind in Kent. 
Similarly, at Limpsfield the copyholds descended to the 
youngest son, 4 like those held in the barony of Lewes. 

In a previous chapter the development of the hundred 
as a division of the later English shires from the primitive 
districts that had their separate popular assemblies of 

1 Manning and Bray, ' History of Surrey,' ii. 340. 

2 Ibid., ii. 296. 3 Ibid., i. 281. * Ibid., ii. 394. 

Settlers in Sussex and Part of Surrey. 207 

freemen has been referred to. Sussex affords us examples 
of hundreds mentioned in Domesday Book that appear 
originally to have been districts of this kind. This is 
seen in the case of the hundred of Bexelei, the area of 
which probably was that mentioned in a charter in the 
time of Off a as Bexwarena-land. 1 These Bexware people 
thus mentioned as a district community no doubt had 
their local assembly or court, common to all Teutonic 
tribes, and it is difficult to see any other probable origin 
of the later hundred of Bexelei. The hundreds of 
Sussex were very numerous, and consequently for the 
most part small. No fewer than fifty of them are 
mentioned in Domesday Book, and they include those 
bearing the clan or tribal names Mellinges, Staninges, 
Ghestelinges, and Poninges, which are examples of 
small communities of people of the same kindred, 
and many similar names are mentioned in the Saxon 
charters. With the exception of Kent, Sussex con- 
tained a larger number of hundreds at the time of the 
Survey than any other county on the south-east coast. 
As we cannot suppose that all these comparatively small 
separate areas of administration arose in the later Saxon 
period, the conclusion appears unavoidable that the 
South Saxons were originally settled in small district 
communities, administered by their own local assemblies 
of the freemen. 

Some evidence of variation in race among the South 
Saxons has been obtained by the examination of skulls 
from their cemeteries. Of fourteen, examined by Horton- 
Smith, found at' Goring, near Worthing, thirteen were 
long and one broad. 2 The long skulls were very marked, 
the average index being 72. As the English skull at 
the present time has an average index of 78, it will be 
seen that the great majority of the settlers at Goring 
were characterized by having specially long heads. They 

1 Cart. Sax., i. 294. 

2 Journal Anthrop. Inst., xxvi. 83. 

2o8 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

correspond closely to the ancient German type found so 
numerously in an old burying-ground at Bremen, which 
has an index of 71 or 72. The skulls with this average 
characteristic index were found in that part of ancient 
Frisia inhabited by the Chaucians, and as some of the 
Sussex place-names point to Frisian settlers, the coinci- 
dence is suggestive. In reference to the broad skull, 
Horton-Smith supposes a fusion of race to have taken 
place between the Saxons of Sussex and some British 
descendants of the period of the Round Barrow or Bronze 
Age. He points out, however, an important difference 
in the height of the skulls viz., that the height-index 
of the Round Barrow race, according to Thurnam, is 
76, whereas that of the typical Saxon is 70. The settle- 
ment in Sussex of some broad-headed people with the 
long-headed majority, coming from a Continental area 
where people of both race characters are known to have 
lived, is probably a better explanation. 

The survival of junior inheritance on so many manors 
in Sussex, and the discovery of differences in the skulls, 
suggest the inquiry, What evidence is there in Sussex of 
a typical Saxon race ? The custom was foreign to the 
Continental Saxons. The settlers in Sussex must appar- 
ently have been tribal people of more than one race. 
They ma}' well have been of three races, as perhaps is 
dimly remembered in their traditional arrival in three 
ships. The observations which were made half a century 
ago on the ethnology of the people of this county by 
Mackintosh are of interest. He says : ' In Sussex the 
Saxon type is found in its greatest purity in the area 
extending from East Grinstead to Hastings.' It is in 
this area that place-names ending in -ham, such as Withy- 
ham, Etchingham, Northiam, and Bodiam, occur. He 
says also that ' in Sussex the majority of the inhabitants 
would appear to belong to two races the Saxon, and a 
race with harder and more angular features.' 1 The 
1 Ethnological Society Transactions, i. 214, 215. 

Settlers in Sussex and Part of Surrey. 209 

immigration of other settlers among the* Frisians and 
Saxons probably explains this. 

The village arrangements in Sussex show examples of 
both isolated and collected homesteads. In some parishes, 
as in Kent, there are old place-names apparently of early 
settlements, distinct from the name of the parish itself. 
Such names, which are now applied to hamlets or farms, 
were in many instances probably the names of settle- 
ments by families in isolated homesteads. This plan of 
village occupation, which prevails so largely in the country 
west of the Weser, may have been introduced into Sussex 
by Frisian settlers. It may, however, be a British sur- 
vival which some of the tribal South Saxons found here, 
and adopted in the districts in which it can be traced. In 
other parts of the county that are marked chiefly by 
villages of collected homesteads the old Celtic arrange- 
ment appears to have been replaced by that observable 
between the Weser and the Elbe, occupied by the old 
Saxons, and in the country north and east of the Elbe, 
occupied respectively by Saxons and Wends. 

One of the most interesting circumstances connected 
with early Sussex is the migration of a large body of 
Sussex people at the beginning of the eighth century, 
and the establishment by them of a colony in Somerset- 
shire, which will be discussed in the chapter on the South- 
western counties. The early date of this migration, 
which can be proved, shows that the tribal people who 
brought with them the custom, of junior inheritance 
into the Rape of Lewes must have been early settlers 
there, and it is quite certain they were not, strictly 
speaking, Saxons. 



r I ^HE settlement of people of more than one race 
in Hampshire under the name of Gewissas is 
historical. The evidence rests partly on the 
statement of Bede, who wrote within two hundred 
years of the probable date of the invasion of this part 
of Britain. His information was derived from Daniel, 
Bishop of Winchester, and the Bishop no doubt 
obtained it from people of more than one race distinctly 
surviving in Wessex in his time. The chief point in 
this historical evidence cannot be doubted viz., that 
there were people settled in the Isle of Wight and 
the southern part of the county who were of different 
descent from those in other parts of the early kingdom 
of Wessex. The original kingdom was no doubt at 
first what is now called Hampshire, or the county of 
Southampton, but the small state soon grew in extent, 
so that before the end of the sixth century it comprised 
parts at least of what is now Dorset, Wiltshire, and 
Berkshire. The settlement of Hampshire, therefore, 
cannot be fully considered without reference to that of 
the counties which adjoin it on the west and north. 
According to the genealogy of the Kings of Wessex, Cedric 
was a great-grandson of Gewis, 1 but this genealogy is 

1 Grimm, J., ' Teutonic Mythology,' edited by Stallybrass 
vol. iv., p. 1711. 


The Gewissas and other Settlers in Wessex. 2 1 1 

legendary, not historical. It may be accepted, however, 
as evidence of the antiquity of the tribal name Gewissae, 
which long survived in this kingdom. In A.D. 766 
Cynewlf, King of Wessex, gave a charter to the monastery 
of Wells, and in it he styles himself ' Cynewlphus Gewis- 
sorum rex.' 1 This is evidence of the survival of the name 
more than two centuries after the arrival of the Gewissas 
in Hampshire. The West Saxon Kings must have been 
proud of it to have retained it. Still later, in the year 825, 
Egbert used the same title ' rex Gewissorum ' 2 in a charter 
in which he gave land at Alton to the Monastery of 
SS. Peter and Paul at Winchester. Eadred also, in the year 
946, in a grant of land to the thegn Ethelgeard, describes 
the situation of this land as being at Brightwell, in the 
district of the Gewissi i.e., Brightwell, near Wallingford, 
in Berkshire, so described, probably, to distinguish it 
from another Brightwell in Oxfordshire. 3 

Even after the Norman Conquest, Ordericus Vitalis, 
writing in the twelfth century, mentions the district round 
Winchester as the country of the Gewissse. The name 
evidently had great vitality, and must have been a 
common one to have been used by a chronicler at so late 
a date. When we consider its probable origin, we have 
first to note the occurrence of the name Gewis in the 
genealogy of the West Saxon Kings, 4 and, secondly, its 
probable meaning. Gewis would naturally arise at the 
time when the Anglo-Saxon genealogies were drawn up, 
from the tribal name Gewissae or Gewissas being in 
common use. This name of the mythological ancestor 
of the royal house is certainly more likely to have 
been derived from the name of the tribe than that the 
tribal name should have had its origin from a mytho- 
logical one. 

Its meaning has recently been discussed by Stevenson, 5 

1 Cart. Sax., i. 283, 284. 2 Ibid., i. 543. 

3 Ibid., ii. 595, 596. * Grimm, J., loc. cit., iv. 1717. 

Hist. Review, vol. xiv. 


2 1 2 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

who has stated the opinions of various writers. The 
most probable derivation appears to be that of Miillenhoff , 
who connects it with the Gothic ga-wiss junction and 
Gewissas are thus explained as confederates. 

In the traditionary accounts of the occupation of Kent 
and Sussex, we read of invaders coming in three ships in 
each case. In the account relating to Wessex we read 
that they came in five, and this may have some reference 
to tribal expeditions of confederates. That the settlers 
who occupied Hampshire consisted of people of more 
than one race admits of no doubt. As will be shown, there 
is evidence within the limits of ancient Wessex of settle- 
ments by Goths or Jutes, Saxons, Frisians, and Wends. 
There is evidence also of later considerable settlements 
of Northmen. The interpretation of the name Gewissas 
as confederates is certainly confirmed by what can be dis- 
covered concerning the West Saxon people. Indeed, 
confederacies played such an important part in the 
settlement of England generally that it can be no matter 
for surprise to find sufficient evidence, even apart from 
the historical, to show that Wessex was colonized by 
people of various races. There were small confederacies 
as well as large ones among the ancient tribes of Germany, 
and it is possible that such names as Gewiesen, Gewissen- 
ruhe, and Gewissowice, which still exist in North-East 
Germany, 1 may have had their origin in clan confederacies 
of people of different tribes or kindreds. 

As regards the Gothic connection of the word, it is of 
interest to note the occurrence of gewiss, used in the sense 
of * assured ' or ' certain,' in an inscription on one of the 
capitals of a column which still remains at Ravenna, and 
which commemorates the rule of Theodoric, the great 
Gothic King at that place. He, the greatest of the Goth 
rulers, was King over people of the same descent as tl 
Northern Goths or Jutes, many of whom, without doub 
made for themselves English homes in Hampshire and tl 
1 Rudolph, H., ' Orts Lexikon von Deutschland.' 

The Gewissas and other Settlers in Wessex. 213 

Isle of Wight, as members of a confederacy known as that 
of the Gewissas. These were apparently sworn or assured 

Among these Gewissas or confederates, Saxons and 
Frisians were probably the greatest in number. From 
what is known of their descendants on the Continent, they 
were people of a blonde complexion, so that the prevailing 
ethnological character of the people of Wessex agrees with 
that of the present inhabitants of Friesland and North 

At the time Bede wrote contemporary evidence existed 
of the two chief tribes, who, under the name Gewissas, 
made up the West Saxon State. At that time the Isle 
of Wight was under its own chiefs or Kings, subordinate 
only to the Kings of Wessex ; and there are some references 
which point to a government of the Meon country, or 
south-east part of Hampshire, at one time by Princes, 
apart from the direct rule of the Wessex Sovereigns. The 
Jutes of the Isle of Wight certainly, and those of the south- 
east part of Hampshire possibly, were under their own 
local administration at the time when Daniel, Bishop of 
Winchester, informed the Venerable Bede of the political 
condition of his diocese. There is no room for doubt con- 
cerning the accuracy of Bede's statement, for it has been 
proved by archaeological and anthropological researches. 
The remains of the Saxon period which have been brought 
to light by the spade in the Isle of Wight, and much more 
recently in the Meon valley, are all of the Kentish type, 
and, like them, exhibit a distinct resemblance to similar 
relics which have been found in Northern countries from 
which the Jutes or Goths migrated i.e., Gothland and 
some of the Danish isles, as well as Jutland. 

One of the Danish isles at the present time is named 
Mon, or Moen, and as the Danish o or oe is in sound like 
the French eu,i it is practically the same in sound as the 

1 Warsaae, J. J., ' Danes and Norwegians in England,' Pre- 
face, v, vi. 

214 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

Hampshire Meon, in the valley of which people from Moen 
were probably among the Jutish settlers. That the iden- 
tity of the Jutes and the Goths, or the very close affinity 
between them, was known locally in Wessex as late as 
the end of the ninth century is proved by a statement 
made by Asser, 1 that King Alfred's mother was Osburga, 
daughter of Oslac, a Goth by nation, descended from the 
Goths or Jutes of the Isle of Wight. The name of Gutae, 
as already mentioned, is found in very early Gothic .runes 
in Scandinavia, and Stephens places their date as early as 
A.D. 400. The evidence of the connection of the Goths 
with the Isle of Wight is also supported by the discovery 
of a runic inscription within it. This is on the inner side 
of the scabbard mount of an iron sword found at Chessell 
Down about the middle of the nineteenth century, and 
is in the British Museum, where, many years after its 
discovery, it was taken to pieces to be cleaned. During 
this process the staves of the runes, which could not pre- 
viously be observed, were seen to have been clearly, but 
not deeply, incised by a sharp instrument on the elegant 
silver mount. The words ' ^Eco Sceri,' which are clearly 
visible in runic characters, Stephens places between 
A.D. 500-600 in date, and interprets as an imprecation 
against the foe with whom the sword might come intc 
contact. 2 

The Jutes of Hampshire are probably referred to in the 
old name Ytene, for the district which is now the Ne\ 
Forest. This word is apparently a later form of the Anglo- 
Saxon Ytena, genitive plural of Yte, a form of the wore 
Jutse used by Bede. This part of the county was know: 
as Jutish for centuries. Florence of Worcester, writing 
at the end of the eleventh century, mentions the ' prc 
vincia Jutarum,' in which the New Forest was formed. 
The Goths occupied the south parts of the county east anc 
west of Southampton W T ater, as well as the Isle of Wight. 

1 Asset, ' Life of Alfred.' 

2 Stephens, G., ' Old Northern Runic Monuments,' iii. 460. 

The Gewissas and other Settlers in Wessex. 215 

We can have no doubt that Saxons of some tribe or 
tribes were largely included among the settlers of a dis- 
trict afterwards known to its neighbours as Wessex, or 
the kingdom of the West Saxons. Among these, in a 
country with good harbours, there can be little doubt 
that Frisians, who were the people among the so-called 
Saxons most given to maritime pursuits, were represented. 
Such names as Emsworth and the river Ems in the south- 
east of the county remind us of Emden and the river Ems, 
close to Eastern Friesland. It is among the present 
Frisians that traditions of Hengist survive, and it is only 
in connection with the Jutes and Frisians that this name 
occurs. It is of interest, therefore, to note that the name 
is mentioned in the West Saxon charters Hengestes-geat 
in Hants, 1 and Hengestesrig 2 in Dorset. 

The harbours of these counties were their ports of 
debarkation, and it was up the river valleys and along 
the old Roman highways that the country was settled. 
The valleys of the Itchen, Test, Avon, Stour, and others, 
afforded a passage into the interior and higher parts of 
the country, and there is evidence to show, more especi- 
ally in Dorsetshire, that settlements by people of the same 
tribe were made in the same or in adjacent valleys. In 
Berkshire the lines of colonization appear to have been 
varied. The natural way into that county is not by 
Southampton Water, but up the valley of the Thames. 
Berkshire did not come under the rule of the Gewissas 
at such an early period as Hampshire, part of Dorset, and 
the south part of Wiltshire. It was separated from early 
Wessex by a wide forest, of which traces still remain in the 
nomenclature of the district. Many of the settlers in 
Berkshire probably came by way of the Thames, but after 
the extension of the West Saxon State they appear to have 
been known as Gewissas equally with the people of the 
original settlement. 

That some of the Berkshire settlers followed the same 
Codex Dipl., No. 648. 2 Ibid., No. 455. 

216 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

route from the south as the West Saxon armies is shown 
by the ethnological evidence and by the dialects. Beddoe ,* 
referring to the south of Hampshire, says : ' The Saxon 
and Frisian types undoubtedly spread from this centre far 
to the north and west, predominating in a great part of 
Berkshire and central Oxfordshire, and occupying in force 
the valleys which radiate from Salisbury among the Wilt- 
shire Downs.' Referring more especially to the people of 
Wilts, he also says : * I do not mean that the Wiltshire 
people are anything like pure Saxons or Frisians ; I 
should be quite satisfied if it were granted that they were 
at least half Saxon.' 2 The prevalence of the blonde type 
in parts of Hants, Wilts, and Dorset is one of the chief 
points in the present physical characters of the inhabitants 
of these counties. Beddoe says : ' Hampshire bears 
witness that it was a starting-point of Saxon colonization 
by the blonde character of the population.' He also 
speaks of the * blonde, smooth-featured Saxons about 
Wilton,' and tells us that ' the blonde types are common 
from Wareham to Yeovil.' 3 

In Hampshire, however, we do not meet with a general 
blonde type. Of the New Forest district Mackintosh 
says : ' The New Forest is inhabited by a mixture of 
races which almost defy classification, the complexion in 
general being dark ;' 4 and this prevalence of dark-com- 
plexioned people among the inhabitants of the New 
Forest district is still apparent, as it is in parts of Wilt- 
shire and Dorset. 

The same ethnological observer, Mackintosh, 5 also says : 
' In the middle and north of Hampshire the people in 
general belong to a dark-complexioned race. I have 
heard the opinion expressed that they are Wends, or a 
Belgic tribe of Wendish extraction.' The present writer 
is not able to regard the dark-complexioned type as being 

1 Beddoe, J., ' Races in Britain,' 257. 

2 Ibid., p. 259, note. 3 Ibid., 257. 

4 Mackintosh, D., ' Ethnological Observations,' Trans. Ethn. 
Soc., ii. 217. 5 Ibid., ii. 214. 

The Gewusas and other Settlers in Wessex. 217 

quite so general, but in the central and north parts of the 
county it may still be found, although perhaps less 
strongly marked now than half a century ago. The 
darker complexion among some of the Hampshire people, 
as among those of Wiltshire and Dorset, may be due in 
part to their descent from people of darker hues, who were 
among the original Gewissas. The Goths were of a fair 
type, as has been already described in the chapter on Kent. 
The inhabitants of the Isle of Wight, although now a very 
mixed population, still show occasional conformities to 
the original Jutish type, and this may be observed in the 
face of the monumental effigy of one of the D'Orseys, an 
old Isle of Wight family, in the church at Newport. It 
may be seen among the people of the Meon district, and 
may be noticed among people who may be met in the 
streets of Winchester at the present time. 

From what has already been said, it will be seen that 
the Kentish custom of partible inheritance can be traced to 
a primitive Gothic source, and the custom of junior right 
to a primitive Wendish or Slavonic source. As Hamp- 
shire was settled by colonists of various races, united 
under the common name of Gewissas, the people of the 
various tribes may be expected to have brought into this 
county some of their peculiar customs, as Goths did into 
Kent, and tribal Frisians and Wends probably did into 
Sussex. It will be desirable, therefore, to consider in 
some detail the various primitive customs of succession 
and land tenure which actually prevailed in Hampshire. 
No instance of exactly the same custom of partible in- 
heritance that prevailed in Kent can be cited in this 
county, but a large number of cases can be quoted of 
land being held by parage or parcenary tenure, a custom 
in its nature very like gavelkind. The survival of this 
parage or parcenary custom was mainly in the old Jutish 
parts of the county viz., in the Isle of Wight and the 
New Forest district. The manors in which this custom 
prevailed were each considered as one manor for the 
purpose of taxation, but were held jointly by more than 

218 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

one tenant, one of them being responsible for the pay- 
ments. In some cases these co-parceners were brothers, 
and are so described in Domesday Book. The custom of 
gavelkind in Kent was very similar to this, the land being, 
indeed, actually divided, but taxed collectively. In 
Hampshire it was taxed as a whole, and held by parceners 
as a whole, without apparently being actually divided. 
Except in preventing minute subdivision, there was in 
practice very little difference. 

In the adjoining county of Dorset partible inheritance 
of the Kentish type survived at the time of the Domes- 
day Survey and long afterwards at Wareham and in 
Portland Island. In Hampshire at the time of the 
Survey the partible custom, which may have prevailed 
at an earlier period among the descendants of the Northern 
Goths or Jutish settlers, had apparently given place to a 
modified tenure, so that parceners inherited their shares 
in an undivided estate. Under the general law of the 
kingdom, apart from recognised local customs, none but 
females were able to hold an estate together. 1 By the 
custom of gavelkind this was different, for by it males 
might hold lands in parcenary, the descent being to all 
males equally. 2 Parceners took their estates by descent, 
and their very title or name accrued only by descent. 3 
The parceners in the Jutish parts of Hampshire who are 
mentioned by name in Domesday Book are all males. 
Parceners do not take by survivorship, but lands descend 
to their issue as in gavelkind. 4 From these considera- 
tions there can be no doubt that we may see in the par- 
cenary tenure which prevailed so largely in the Isle of 
Wight and the New Forest district, which are known to 
have been settled by Jutes, traces of inhabitants of the 
same race as that of the people of Kent, among whom 
gavelkind was, and is, such a strongly-marked charac- 
teristic custom. In this parage custom we may also 

1 Reeve's ' History of English Law/ edited by W. F. Finlason, 
ii. 587. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid., ii. 589. 

* Lyttleton's ' Tenures,' edited by Tomlins, ed. 1841, p. 326. 

The Gewissas and other Settlers in Wessex. 219 

see the survival of family influence in the ownership of 
land, as opposed to the manorial The family tenure was 
the older, and had come down from the tribal era ; the 
newer manorial system gradually supplanted it. The 
Domesday record of Hampshire thus affords examples of 
both the older and the later systems. 

In addition to the earlier immigration of people of 
several races, there is in Hampshire evidence of later 
settlements of Danes and Northmen. Even as late as 
the Domesday Survey the tenants on the manors of 
Ringwood and Winston, and of Arreton in the Isle of 
Wight, paid their dues or rents by Danish reckoning, 
the ora being the coin for their computation. The 
prevalence of allodial tenure along the western border of 
the county is recorded in Domesday Book, and here 
Danish place-names such as Thruxton (Thorkelston) and 
Wallop, with the characteristic Norwegian termination 
-op, survive. Odal or allodial tenure was a family 
tenure, in which one of the family held the land, and is 
specially characteristic of Norway, although not in ancient 
time confined to it. The same custom survived until 
modern time in the old Norse islands of Orkney and 
Shetland. The odaller or udaller was a free tenant, 
and had certain rights which he transmitted to his 
descendants. If through poverty he was obliged to sell 
his land, his kindred had the right of pre-emption, or 
of redeeming it when able to do so. 1 This udal or 
allodial custom prevailed along almost the whole of the 
western border of Hampshire at the time of the Domesday 
Survey. It existed also on some manors in the Isle of 
Wight and elsewhere in the county. Its prevalence is 
another link in the chain of evidence connecting the 
settlers of early Wessex with Jutes or other people of a 
Northern race. Allodial tenure is recorded in Hamp- 
shire in the hundreds of Andover, Brocton or Thorn- 
gate, Fordingbridge and Christchurch, on forty - seven 
manors extending from Tidworth in the north to Sopley 
1 Tudor, J. E., ' The Orkneys and Shetlands,' pp. 18, 19. 

22O Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

and Winkton in the south. This custom is only recorded 
in Domesday Book in the southern counties of Hampshire, 
Sussex, Surrey, Kent, and Berkshire, but it may have 
prevailed on manors elsewhere without being specially 
mentioned. It is referred to in the tribal laws of the 
Franks and of the Angles and Warings. 1 Its existence at 
the present time in Norway and its survival in the Norse 
islands of the Orkneys and Shetlands may afford a clue 
as to whence the Scandinavians, whether the earlier Goths 
or the later tribal settlers in England, came. The Danish 
conquerors of Wessex were probably to some extent 
supplied with lands within that State itself, and it is not 
improbable that depopulated Saxon manors and lands 
or forest clearings were given to them. We can scarcely 
think that Cnut, King of Denmark and King of Wend- 
land, whose name is so much connected with Wessex, 
and who when in England chiefly resided within it, 
would fail to provide his followers with lands near the 
seat of his government at Winchester. The thorpe 
place-names in the old parts of Wessex, of which there 
are a considerable number, support this view. Other 
Norse names, such as Hurstbourn, formerly known as 
Up Husbond and Down Husbond, are clearly Scandi- 
navian. The forest land around Up Husband or Hurst- 
bourn Tarrant was called Wikingelega Forest, 2 or later 
Wytingley Forest, a name derived from Wikings. 

These considerations open up the still larger question, 
What was the relationship of the Goths at the time 
the Gewissas settled in Hampshire to the people known 
as Northmen ? The term Northmen had certainly a 
wider significance than its limitation to the Norse or 
people of Norway. All the four chief Northern nations 
of antiquity, Goths, Danes, Norse, and Swedes, spoke 
the old Norrena dialects or language, 3 of which the best- 

1 Seebohm, F., 'Tribal Custom in Anglo-Saxon Law,' 151, 
170, 226. 

2 Red Book of the Exchequer, A.D. 1155-1156, part, ii., p. 663. 

3 Cleasby and Vigfusson, ' Icelandic Dictionary,' Preface. 

The Gewissas and other Settlers in Wessex. 221 

written example that exists is the Icelandic, the later 
representative of the language carried to Iceland by the 
colony of Northmen who settled there. The custom of 
partible inheritance among all the sons equally not only 
prevailed among the ancient Goths, but also among the 
ancient Northmen. It survives both in Gothland and 
in Norway to the present day- The system of udal or 
odal right is the foundation of the whole social system of 
Norway, and to it the people have tenaciously clung for 
long centuries, during all the political changes through 
which Norway has passed, or the political crises to which 
it has been subjected. One of the incidents of this odal 
right at the present time is that one of the sons has by 
custom the right to pay the others their share of the 
estate if they all agree. This one is also by custom the 

The allodial tenure that existed at the time of the 
Domesday Survey on the manors along the western 
border of Hampshire and other parts of that county was 
apparently of the same nature as the odal right still in 
operation in Norway. It may have been introduced into 
Hampshire at the time of the settlement of the con- 
federated invaders, the Gewissas, or by a later settlement 
after one or other of the Danish inroads. That this 
tenure existed in some parts of the county and not in 
others is not surprising when we consider that the original 
settlers were not all of the same race, but Gewissas, con- 
federates, or assured allies of several tribes or nations. 
Wallop, close to the western border of the county, pre- 
sents a good example of the equal right of sons to share 
their father's estate. A manor there was at the time of 
the Norman Survey held ' by four Englishmen, whose 
father held the land in allodium.' This appears to be a 
case exactly parallel to the custom of Kent, the father's 
land being divided equally between his sons, but yet the 
whole, land taxed collectively. We must also remember 
that parage or parcenary tenure, by which one tenant 
was responsible, but others shared with him, was not 

222 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

the same as allodial. The land was in both cases family 
land, held collectively in the former case, and by one of 
the family in the latter. This is clearly seen in the 
manors and tenures of the Isle of Wight, mentioned in 
Domesday Book, where twenty-one tenures in parage 
are named and thirty in allodium. Under this odal or 
udal tenure in Norway at the present time all the kindred 
of the udalman in possession are what is called odels- 
baarn to his land, and have in the order of consanguinity 
a certain interest in it, called odelsbaarn ret. 1 Hence, if 
the udalman in possession should sell or alienate his land, 
the next of kin is entitled to redeem it on repaying the 
purchase-money, and should he decline to do so, it is in 
the power of the one next to him to claim his right and 
recover the property to the family or kindred. The 
effect of this custom is evidently, to a certain degree, to 
entail the land upon the kindred of the udalman. It 
affords us a glimpse of the probable operation of the early 
Anglo-Saxon msegth, which did not as a collective body 
of kindred own land, but everyone in the maegth or 
kindred had obligations to the others in the same maegth, 
with certain reversionary rights. 

From the consideration of the historical evidence 
relating to the settlers of Hampshire, the survival for 
centuries of the term Gewissas as their original collective 
name, and the various customs and tenures which existed 
in so marked a way at the time of the Domesday Survey, 
it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that the Goths or 
Jutes must have had much in common with those after- 
wards known by the general name of Northmen, and 
from the evidence of the runes it is certain that there 
was a close connection between the Goths and Angles on 
the one hand and the Norse on the other. 

The darker-complexioned people among the invaders 
and colonists of England during the Anglo-Saxon period 

Laing, Samuel, ' Journal of a Residence in Norway,' ed. 1851, 
P- 137- 

The Gewissas and other Settlers in Wessex. 223 

were probably some of the Wendish or Northern Serbian 
race who were at that time in alliance with other Northern 
tribes. The ancient Vandals have left permanent traces 
of their extensive conquests more or less in alliance with 
the Goths. Their settlements extended from North 

Africa and Spain to the present Slav states of Eastern 
Europe, and thence northwards to the Baltic. Along 
this extended line of ancient Vandal occupation we find 
historical evidence or other traces of their allies, the 
Goths. If they were allies, at times, in other parts of 
Europe, there cannot be much room for doubt that they 
may also have been allies in England. The evidence 
of the settlement of some Wends among the Gewissas 
of Hampshire is derived partly from the county itself, 
and partly from traces of them in Wiltshire and Dorset. 
There are nine manors in Hampshire on which borough- 
English has been traced. The historical statement of 
Bede that Rugians were among the ancestors of the people 
of England living in his time cannot be explained away. 
In Bede's time there must have been a common know- 
ledge that part of the English people were descended 
from Rugians, and these were Wends, the Isle of Riigen 
being the chief seat of Vandal worship in the North of 

In the parts of South Hampshire which were occupied 
by the Goths we find the early names Ruwanoringa 1 in 
a Saxon charter and Ruenore 2 in Domesday Book for 
a place now called Rowner. The equivalence of the old 
g sound in such names as Riigen to that of the later w is 
proved by the oldest records of both Germany and 
England. These names of the Saxon period certainly 
appear to indicate a settlement of Rugians i.e., Wends 
or Vandals. Attention has already been drawn to the 
various names by which ancient . tribes were known. 
The name Rugians is, perhaps, a native name, and 

- used as their own designation by these people them- 
1 Codex Dipl., No. 1263. 2 Dom. Bk., 45, b. 

224 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

selves. They were certainly called Wends by the 
ancient Germans, including Saxons and Frisians. By the 
Northern nations, including the Northern Goths, the 
Vandals were called Vindr or Vinthr, whence probably 
our tribal or personal name Winthr or Winter. In 
English localities with settlements of Goths and others 
speaking the same language, which had here and there 
also settlements of Vandals, these latter would naturally 
be known to their neighbours as those of the Winthr, 
and the bearing of this on English place-names will be 
fully discussed in the next chapter. In other localities 
where Frisians, Saxons, and others speaking German 
dialects had here and there similar Vandal settlements 
among them, these neighbours would be designated 
Wends or Wendeles. In other districts it is reasonable 
to suppose that Vandals may have retained their tribal 
names, such as Rugians or Wilte, and the latter appears 
in the early Saxon name of the Wilsaete or Wiltshire 
settlers. It is not suggested that all the people of 
Wiltshire were descendants of the Wilte, but the name 
Wilsaetas may have arisen owing to an original settle- 
ment of these people in the south of the county. 

One of the most remarkable boundary names which 
we meet with in Anglo-Saxon charters is that of crundel. 
The name survives as a village name in that of Crondall 
in the north-east of Hampshire, where the extensive 
ancient manor of this name formed the north-eastern 
boundary of the county. The name is now confined to 
the village and parish which still forms part of the county 
border, but in Saxon time Crundele was the name of the 
hundred or great manor which extended from Yateley 
in the north to Aldershot in the south, including both 
these places. It was this manor which King Alfred in 
his will bequeathed to Ethelm, his nephew. The name 
crundel, however, is met with frequently in Dorsetshire, 
Wiltshire, Hampshire, and Berkshire, in the boundaries 
mentioned in charters, and less frequently in Somerset- 
shire, Gloucestershire, and Worcestershire. The name is 

The Gewissas and other Settlers in Wessex. 225 

not a common one, and is practically confined to these 
counties as far as the Saxon usage of it is concerned, 
and where it occurs in the charters it is always as a 
boundary name. 

The word as a boundary name may have come into use 
among the Anglo-Saxons from those people who were called 
Gewissas, for it is only found in Saxon charters relating to 
the counties which were settled by the Gewissas or colon- 
ised by them. Hampshire, Dorsetshire, Wiltshire, and 
Berkshire were the earliest counties they occupied, and 
after the conquests of Ceawlin and other kings, West Saxon 
settlers occupied parts of Gloucestershire, Worcestershire, 
and Somersetshire. The Thames forms a dividing line 
north of which the name crundel as a boundary does not 
occur in the charters. In Wiltshire the name is mentioned 
eighteen times, in Dorsetshire eleven times, Hampshire 
nine times, Berkshire fourteen times, Somersetshire 
four times, Gloucestershire once, and Worcestershire 
four times. On the Continent similar words occur in 
both Scandian and Slavonic countries, of which Carls- 
crona in Sweden and Kronstadt are apparently examples. 
In Central Europe the place-names beginning with the 
word krain occur chiefly in those parts that are or were 
Slavonic. 1 The occurrence of these crundel names in 
Wessex, and only in those counties in which Gewissas 
settled, appears to connect its use with these people. 

As it existed at the time of the Domesday Survey, the 
extensive settlement of Crondall in the north-east corner 
of Hampshire was certainly Scandinavian, for among 
the customs of that great manor, which included Crondall, 
Yateley, Farnborough, and Aldershot, that of sole inherit- 
ance by the eldest daughter in default of sons prevailed, 2 
as over a large part of Cumberland, and this is a peculiarly 
Norse custom. 

1 Rudolph, H., ' Orts Lexikon von Deutschland.' 

2 Baigent, F. J., ' Records and Documents relating to the 
Hundred and Manor of Crondall,' 163. 




IN the Southern counties, where the underlying strata 
are chalk and limestone, there are numerous 
streams whose upper courses are dry in summer 
and have water in them only in winter. In Dorset there 
are two streams called Winterborne, in Wiltshire three, 
in Berkshire one, and in Sussex one. In these counties 
there are also many streams which have water flowing in 
them in winter and not in summer, but which have 
not the word winter connected with their name. Why 
a few should have this and many others not have it 
has not been explained. There are also villages called 
Winterborne on the streams of the same name. In view 
of the fact that there is a winter flow of water in many 
streams not called by the name winter, the popular 
explanation of the origin of the name Winterborne 
may not be the correct one. The names are old, the 
earliest references to a place or district so called in Dorset 
being A.D. 942 and 949 - 1 The possibility that they have 
been derived from a tribal name must be considered. 

The evidence already stated shows that the earliest 
settlers in Hampshire could not have been all of one race, 
and that there were in that county very considerable 
settlements of Goths and other Scandinavians. There 
are also traces to be found in parts of Dorset and Wiltshire 

1 Cart. Sax., ii. 508, and iii. 43. 

Wessex, Wilts, and Dorset. 227 

of early colonies of people of more than one race, and 
of later settlements of Northmen. Such old place-names 
in Dorset as Godmaneston, 1 Goderiston, 2 and Goder- 
thorn Hundred, 2 point to settlers who were Goths, as 
also does the custom of partible inheritance of the 
Kentish type among sons, and failing sons, among 
daughters, that survived at Wareham and Portland. 
The dialects spoken by the Northern people, whether 
Goths, Danes, Norse, or Swedes, were some form of the 
old Norrena, 3 and we may consider it certain that if 
there were Wends settled among people of any of 
these races in Dorset and Wilts they would not call them 
Wends, but by the name by which they were known 
in their own language viz., Windr, Winthr, or Wintr. 

There is ancient evidence that Scandinavians used 
the word Winthr or Windr for Wends. The words 
of an old writer on early Northern history on this sub- 
ject are : ' Wandali quos nos materna lingua vocamus 
Windir.' 4 Another Northern writer mentions the Western 
Slavs as ' Slavi occidentales, or Vestr Vinthr,' and the 
Eastern Slavs as the ' Slavi orientales, or Austr Vinthr.' 5 

For this explanation of the origin of the Winter place- 
names in these counties to be probable, or even possible, 
it is necessary to prove the settlement in them of people 
who spoke a Norrena dialect. The ancient topographical 
names, some of which are now lost, in both these counties 
supply this proof. 

In Dorset we find Swanage, Purbeck, Shapwick, Ore, 
Witherston, Butterwike, Wichampton, East Holm, West 
Holm, Byrport (now Bridport), Candel (which may be 
compared with Candleshoe Wapentake in Lincolnshire), 
Ringstede, Farnham, Gillingham, Grimston, Swindun, 

1 Tax. Eccl. P. Nicholai, 179. 

2 Hutchins, J., ' Hist, of Dorset,' ii. 205. 

3 Cleasby and Vigfusson, ' Icelandic Diet.,' Preface. 

4 Monumenta Germanise, Script, xxix., 250. ' Ex Theodrici 
Hist, de Antiq. Reg. Norwagiensium.' 

5 Ibid., 319, ' Ex. Hist. Reg. Danorum dicta Knytlinga Saga.' 


228 Origin of the Anglo-Savon Race. 

and other names which can be most satisfactorily ac- 
counted for by the Northern dialects. The name Rolle- 
stone Barrow, on the border of Wilts and Dorset, near to 
the dyke known by the Scandinavian name Grimsditch, 
points to the same conclusion. 

In Wiltshire we find Burdorp and Salthorpe near 
Swindon, East Thorp and West Thorp on either side of 
Highworth, Ramsbury (with the old Estthropp and 
Westhroppi on either side of it), Rollestone, Buttermere, 
Normanton, Maniford, Burbage, Scandeburn, Grimstede, 
Hardicote, Ulfcote, and others, clearly denoting settle- 
ments of Norrena-speaking people. In the north of the 
county also is a circle of stones round an old burial- 
place near Winterborne-Basset, and the Kennet long 
barrow, very similar to those of Scandinavia. The barrow 
at Kennet so closely resembles that in which one of the 
Danish Kings is by tradition said to have been buried at 
Lethra in Zealand that Fergusson tells us the age of the 
one must be the age of the other. 2 Similarly, in Berk- 
shire we find places with old Scandinavian names around 
Winter bourne. 

In Dorset we also find proof of a large Scandinavian 
settlement in the Danish money computation mentioned 
in Domesday Book at Dorchester, Wareham, Bridport, 
and Shaftesbury, and at Ringwood, near its border. 

When did this settlement take place ? History is 
silent in reference to it, but the proof is clear that some 
Scandinavians did settle in all the counties of Wessex. 
Some of these may be accounted for by Goths and other 
Northern settlers among the early Gewissas. A large num- 
ber probably settled in Wessex after the wars of Ethelred I. 
and his brother Alfred. It is certain that a considerable pro- 
portion of the fighting men of the old counties of Wessex 
had become exterminated before the peace between Alfred 
and Guthrum, and they were probably succeeded in many 

1 Hundred Rolls, ii. 265. 

2 Fergusson, J., 'Rude Stone Monuments,' 284. 

Wessex, Wilts, and Dorset. 229 

localities by colonists "of Scandinavian descent. History 
is silent for the most part concerning the Anglian and 
Danish settlements in Lincolnshire and Norfolk, but 
these settlements cannot be doubted, nor can the 
settlements of Goths and Northmen in Wessex, either 
among the original Gewissas or after the Danish 
wars of the ninth and tenth centuries. In any district 
in which Scandinavian freemen were settled at a subse- 
quent date to that of the original settlers some changes 
in land tenure and in the customs of inheritance would 
be likely to follow, as well as a change in some of the local 
names, which may account for the disappearance here and 
there of some very early customs. 

In Dorset the Domesday names Windresorie and Win- 
delha occur, and the old names Windleshor' Hundred and 
Windregledy also are known. These apparently refer 
to men who were Vandals, or Windr, as they would be 
called by Scandinavian Goths and others who spoke some 
dialect of the old Northern tongue. 

This old name Windr for Wends used by the Northern 
nations is a link in the chain of evidence by which Wendish 
settlements may be traced in our country. The name 
Winter in place-names occurs most frequently in Dorset, 
but also in Wiltshire and some other counties. It is 
chiefly attached to the word bourn, but by no means 
exclusively, the place-names Winterstoke, Winterhead 
(anciently Wintret), and Winterburge, being known in the 
southern counties ; also Wintrinton in Dorset, Wintring- 
ham in Huntingdonshire, Wintrington in Lincolnshire, 
and Winterset in Yorkshire. 

The name Windresorie for the place now called Broad 
Windsor in Dorset had its origin apparently under 
similar circumstances to those which gave rise to the name 
Windlesore, now Windsor in Berkshire. Among other 
early Dorset names that may be connected with people 
known as Windr are Windrede-dic or Windryth-dic, a 
boundary ditch near Shaftesbury, and Windaerlseh meed, 

230 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

near the river Avon, on the Hampshire border, which are 
mentioned in Anglo-Saxon charters. 1 These cannot refer 
to winter, the season. 

The connection of the name of tribal people with the 
name of the stream flowing through their territory is an 
old custom of topographical nomenclature. In the 
northern parts of Germany we find many old examples of 
this. Among the instances 2 are the Stur River and Stor- 
mari, or Stormar people in the south of Holstein ; the 
Hasa River and the Hassi tribe near Osnaburg ; the Havel 
River and the Havelli, or men of Havel, in Brandenburg, 
mentioned by King Alfred ; the Suala River and the Swal- 
felda people ; the Ambra or Emmer River (now the Ems), 
and the Ambrones or Emisga tribe ; the Meisse and the 
people of Meissen in Wendish Saxony ; the Warinna River 
and the Werini or Waring tribe ; the Wandalus River, or 
Waal, and the Vandals who settled in Holland ; the Hunse 
River and the Hunsing people in Friesland ; the Hunte 
River and the Huntanga tribe, also in ancient Frisia. 

Similarly, in England in Anglo-Saxon time we find the 
Wiley and the Wilssete, the Meon and the Meonwara, 
the Arrow and the Areosetna in Warwickshire ; the 
Collingbourn 3 and the Collinga people in the east of Wilt- 
shire. Further instances of the same kind may be traced 
in the Old English river-names Swanburne, 4 Honeyburn, 5 
Broxbourn, Ingelbourn, 6 Coquet, and others. 

With this evidence before us, both from ancient Ger- 
many and England during the Anglo-Saxon period, the 
probability that the streams called Winterborne may 
have been named after people called Wintr living on their 
banks is strong. 

In Dorset the traces of Scandinavian and Wendish 
settlements abound, especially in the valley of the ancient 

1 Codex Dipl., Nos. 470, 489, 658. 

2 Monumenta Germanise, River-names. 

3 Codex Dipl., Nos. 336 and 358. * Dom. Bk., 143 b. 

5 Codex Dipl., Index. 6 Cart. Sax., iii. 92-94. 

Wessex, Wilts, and Dorset. 231 

Stur. This is a Northern name, a well-known example 
of it being that of Snorri Sturluson, the earliest Icelandic 
author. If we consider the names of the streams which 
are the feeders of the Stour, and the names of places along 
the course of that river and its tributaries, we may 
recognise the Scandinavian origin of nearly all of them. 
The Gale, the two Loddons or Liddons, and the Winter- 
borne, are tributaries, while there are two places named 
Stourton, three places named Stour, and two named 
Sturminster. The name Stur is also significant in another 
way. There was a river Stor which was one of the boun- 
daries of Stormaria, north-east of Hamburg, and that 
was a Wendish tribal district. This leaves little room for 
doubt concerning the Scandian or Wendish origin of some 
place-names in the valley of this Dorset river. Gilling is 
a name connected with Norse mythology, and occurs in 
the Dorset name Gillingham. 

With this evidence before us, it is not surprising to find 
a Norse name used for the Wendish people settled on the 
western side of the Stour valley. It would have been 
strange, supposing such people had been settled there, 
if they had been called by any other name than the 
Scandinavian name for their tribe viz., Winthr or Windr. 

The use of the patronymic termination -ing in such 
names as Wintringa-tun 1 or Wintrington in Lincoln- 
shire, and Wintrington in Dorset, 2 are clearly cases in 
which Wintr must have been used in a personal sense, as 
the name for the head of a family or clan. Similarly, 
-inga in Wintringa-tun denotes the descendants of a Wintr. 
In such instances the name can have no reference to win- 
ter, the season. There were other Wintr place-names in 
Dorset and Wilts in the Saxon period which had no 
reference to bourns : Winterburge geat, 3 Wilts ; Win- 
dresorie, Windelha, Windestorte, Winfrode, and Win- 
lande all Domesday names. The name Windelha 4 

1 Codex Dipl., No. 953. 2 Ibid., No. 361. 

3 Ibid., No. 436. * Domesday Book, i. 82 b. 

232 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

clearly refers to a place that was named after a man called 
Windel at the time of its settlement. If, therefore, there 
were some places in Dorset called Wintr, Windr, or Windel 
after Wends, it is very probable that other Wintr place- 
names in this and other counties had a similar origin. 
In the West Riding of Yorkshire the old name Winter- 
set 1 survived at a later period, and this may originally 
have denoted the settlement of Wends. 

The name Winthr for Vandals, which was used by the 
Northern Goths and other Scandians in the sixth century, 
may have partly lost its significance as the dialects became 
blended into one speech. There is linguistic evidence of a 
great commingling of nations in the body of the English 
settlers. 2 The Anglo-Saxon, in its obscure etymology, 
its confused and imperfect inflections, and its anomalous 
and irregular syntax, furnishes an abundant proof of 
diversity of origin. It has the characteristics of a 
mixed and ill-assimilated speech, and its relations to the 
various ingredients of which it is composed are just those 
of the present English and its own heterogeneous system. 
It borrowed roots and dropped endings, and appropriated 
syntactical combinations without the inflections which 
made them logical. 3 There is no proof that Old English 
was ever spoken anywhere but on the soil of Great Britain. 4 
The language grew as the tribal people who formed the 
settlers became fused. Anyone who will compare the 
oldest remnant of Anglo-Saxon poetry now extant, a few 
lines of Csedmon, and the same lines as they were modern- 
ised by King Alfred in his Old English version of Bede 
about 200 years after Caedmon's time, will have no doubt 
about the changes which time brought in the dialects 
and language of the Old English people. In this de- 
velopment, the Northern name Windr or Winthr for a 

1 Nomina Villarum, A.D. 1315. 

2 Marsh, G. P., 'Lectures on the English Language,' First 
Series, pp. 42, 43. 3 Ibid. 

* Ibid., 43, and Latham, R. G., ' English Language,' 105. 

Wessex, Wilts, and Dorset. 233 

tribe may have lost its original meaning, and have been 
confused with that of winter, the season ; and there are 
other instances of names having a tribal origin, which 
subsequently had meanings attached to them which were 
foreign from their original ones. 

The name Winterborne appears to have been used at 
first for considerable districts in Dorset and Wilts that 
were subsequently divided into manors. It is worth 
noting also that one of the manors called Wintreburne 
in Wiltshire was held at the time of the Domesday Survey 
by Godescal, 1 a man of the same name and perhaps a 
descendant of Godescalc the Wendish Prince, who was 
a notable person in England in the time of King Cnut, 
and who married that King's daughter. To the Norrena- 
speaking people this Wendish Godescalc was a Vintr. 

Another fact which supports the evidence of Norrena- 
speaking settlers at an early date in Dorset is the name 
Thornsaeta for the people of that district, corresponding 
to the Wilsaeta and Sumersseta. This name Thornsaeta 
is mentioned by Asser in his Life of Alfred, is repeated in 
some charters, and passed into Dornsaeta or Dorsseta. 
As the word thorn is the name of one of the old Northern 
runes, it must have been familiar to the people whose name 
was connected with it. The inventors of the runes were 
certainly the Northern Goths, and the circumstance of the 
use of such a name supports the evidence of a settlement 
of Goths in parts of Dorset. 

It is certain that during the later Saxon period Wends 
were connected with Dorset, for there is documentary 
evidence to that effect. In a charter dated 1033 King 
Cnut gave land at Horton in Dorset to one of his huscarls, 2 
and, as is well known, these were originally a force of 
Wends. This was presumably a case in which Cnut, who 
was also King of Wendland, rewarded one of his Wendish 
subjects. Domesday Book tells us of payments from the 
boroughs of Dorchester, Bridport, Wareham, and Shaftes- 
1 Domesday Book, 73 6. 2 Codex Dipl., No. 1318. 

234 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

bury, which were annually made to the huscarls as late 
as King Edward's time. The Domesday record also tells 
us of a place in Dorset named Hafeltone. 1 This is of some 
weight, for it is difficult to see how such a name arose 
except from the settlement of a man so named because 
he was a man of the Wilte tribe, or Men of Havel, men- 
tioned by King Alfred. 

The old name Ruanbergh, which occurs in a charter of 
King Alfred, 2 also refers to an early settlement of Rugians, 
or people of a Wendish or Slavic descent, in Dorset. 
The similar name Ruwanbeorg survived in Wiltshire in 
the later Saxon period, and gave its name to the hundred 
of Rughe'berg in later centuries. 

Among ancient names in Dorset that are probably of 
Wendish origin are Cranborne, Trent and Tarent, Luse- 
berg and Launston. Crane, the name of a stream, 
and Cranborne, a boundary place-name, may be com- 
pared with the Slavic name Ukraine, from crain, a limit. 
Trent, a place-name in Riigen Isle, occurs also in the 
old Slavic part of the Tyrol. Luseberg, an ancient 
hundred name, reminds us of the Wendish tribe Lusitzes, 
and Launston may be compared with the Wendish 
Lauenberg. It is remarkable that in Germany the Trent 
name is only found where Slavic influence prevailed, and 
in England where Wendish settlers may be traced. Among 
names of old places in Wiltshire of similar origin are 
Semeleah, on the river Sem ; Wilgi, a Domesday place ; 
Launton, now Lavington ; and the Ruan or Rughen 
names. There is a river Sem in the Ukraine. Launton 
was on the border of the hundred called in the Saxon 
charters Ruwanbeorg, and in later records Rughe'berg, 
which names correspond closely with those used in the old 
Germanic records to denote the Wendish people in Riigen. 

As already pointed out, the name Wintr in Anglo- 
Saxon records is used in some instances for persons. 3 

1 Dom. Bk., 83. 2 Codex Dipl., No. 319. 

3 Searle, W. G., ' Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum.' 

Wessex, Wilts, and Dorset. 235 

Wintra was an abbot in Wessex in A.D. 704. Another 
Wintra was a monk at Abingdon in 699, and a third so 
named was abbot of Tisbury in Wiltshire in 750. Wintred 
also was the name of several monks who are recorded in 
the later Saxon period, and Wintre was apparently the 
name of the head of a family who gave his name to the 
place called Wintreshleaw, now Winterslow, in Wiltshire. 

The personal name Wintre was not confined to England, 
one who was so called having been physician to Charles 
the Great. It can also be traced in the form Wynther 
among people of Norse descent in the Shetland Isles 1 as 
late as the sixteenth century, and in England it can be 
traced from the Saxon age into the later mediaeval period. 

A considerable area in Dorset in the latter part of the 
Saxon period was held like the land in the Isle of Wight 
and the New Forest district, much of which, Domesday 
Book tells us, had been held collectively or in parage in 
the time of King Edward. At Wey, the Domesday 
W T ai, there were three manors, which in the time of the 
last Saxon King were held collectively by nine, eight, and 
five thanes a total of twenty-two landholders in parage 
in this place alone. At Hame the manor had been held by 
five thanes, at Ringstede by four, at Pourtone by eight, 
at Celvedune by nine, at Mapledre by seven, at Derwinston 
by five, at Horcerde by four, and at a place not named 
there were five hides held collectively by eleven thanes. 
At a place called Goda the land had been held by 
three free thanes, and the other places in which it had 
been held by brothers or by parceners are somewhat 
numerous. This system of land tenure, identical with 
that in the Jutish part of the south of Hampshire 
and the Isle of Wight, points to a connection in custom 
and probably in race between some of the original settlers 
in Dorset and the Goths and Jutes of the adjoining county. 

One of the most remarkable peculiarities which any 
English county shows in Domesday Book is exhibited by 
1 Proceedings Soc. Antiq. Scot., xxv. 189. 

236 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

Wiltshire in reference to those of its inhabitants who were 
called ' coscets.' These were evidently inferior tenants of 
the cottar class, but they were differentiated from the 
cottars. On some manors in Wiltshire there were at 
the time of the Survey both coscets and cottars, so that 
there can be no doubt that these coscets were different 
in some respects from the cottars. With the exception 
of five coscets who are mentioned in the Shropshire 
survey, all the others enumerated are found in Wiltshire, 
Dorset, Somerset, and Devon. The numbers men- 
tioned in these counties are, according to Sharon Turner's 
calculation : Wiltshire, 1,385 ; Dorset, 146 ; Somerset, 43 ; 
and Devon, 32 ; in addition to the 5 found in Shropshire. 1 
Jones, in his book on the Domesday of Wiltshire, makes 
the total number rather larger than Turner, but sub- 
stantially the two enumerations agree. Jones says : 
' There are in the whole of Domesday but 1,750 registered, 
and of these more than 1,400 are found in the Wiltshire 
portion of the record.' 2 It is to be noted that, with the 
exception of the five mentioned in Shropshire, all these 
coscets are recorded in the survey of counties which were 
occupied by Gewissas at the time of the settlement, and 
even in Shropshire after the conquest by Ceawlin some 
may have migrated to that county. It is clear that 
Wiltshire was the home ot the English coscets, and those 
found in neighbouring counties can easily be accounted 
for by their proximity to Wiltshire, and the migration of 
some of their descendants. 

The existence in Wiltshire of two classes of inferior 
tenants of the cottar kind as late as the time of the 
Domesday Survey is a remarkable fact. The existence 
of both cottars and coscets in large numbers in Wiltshire 
coscets alone being found on some manors, cottars 

1 Sharon Turner, 'Hist, of the Anglo-Saxons,' ed. 1852, iii. 

2 Jones, W. H., ' Domesday of Wiltshire,' Introd., xix. and 
p. 201. 

Wessex, Wilts, and Dorset. 237 

alone on some, and both classes on some other manors 
points unmistakably to a peculiarity in the customs of 
Saxon Wiltshire distinct from those which prevailed in 
other counties. This sharp distinction must have arisen 
from some ancient cause, and it is very difficult to see 
what it could have been except the attachment of people 
of different tribes to the immemorial customs of their 
race. If this is the explanation, the question arises 
whether we can identify any of these ancient Wiltshire 
people by their peculiar customary designations of 
coscets and cottars. The name coscets is spelt in Domes- 
day Book in four ways viz., coscets, coscez, cozets, 
and cozez. 1 The spelling is of little importance, the 
sound of the word is the same in each case. In Lower 
Saxony, near the old Wendish country, there exist, 
or have existed until modern time, tenants of a cottar 
kind who are, or were, known by the names kater, 
kotter, kotsass, and kossat, and these have been identi- 
fied as the representatives of the cottars and coscets of 
our Domesday Survey. 2 

Those Wends who were known by the tribal name 
Wilte, or Men of Havel, and were located partly on the 
right bank of the Elbe below Magdeburg, could easily 
have sailed to England direct from their own territory. 
The evidence of the settlement of people of a non-Teutonic 
race with others in early Wessex is of a cumulative kind ; 
any one part of it may be inconclusive, but the whole 
evidence proves the case. There is the statement of 
Bede that Rugians were one of the tribes from which the 
English of his time were known to have been descended. 
There are the old Rugian place-names in Hants, Wilts, 
and Dorset of the Saxon period. There is also the fact 
that as far back as historical references to Rugen and 
its people extend, or to the tribes on the coasts of Meck- 

1 Domesday Book, General Introd., xxxvi. 

2 Woodward and Wilks, ' History of Hampshire,' i., p. 335, 
quoting Garnet. 

238 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

lenburg and Pomerania, they are found to be Wends and 
of Slavonic descent. Again, there is the historical name 
Gewissae or Gewissas for the tribal settlers in Wessex, 
and the manifest interpretation of this name as con- 
federates. There is, next, the settlement of Jutes in the 
Isle of Wight and South Hampshire, and the identifica- 
tion of these as Goths by the statement of Asser, and 
the discovery of a runic inscription on a relic found in 
the Isle of Wight. The alliance of Goths with Vandals, 
so potent elsewhere in Europe, could scarcely have been 
altogether absent in England, and particularly in Dorset 
and Wilts, where Vandal place-names survive. As the 
Northern Goths spoke a dialect of the Northern tongue, 
and had a custom of partible inheritance, we might expect 
to find traces of their Northern speech and of their customs 
in early Wessex, and of both the speech and custom of 
inheritance we find unmistakable traces. 

The settlement of some part of Wiltshire by people 
of the Wilte tribe from the south of the Baltic or the 
right bank of the Elbe does not appear to be unlikely. 
Schafarik, a great authority on Slavonic antiquities, 
connects our English Wiltshire with this Slavonic 
tribe, 1 but some of our own philologists derive the name 
from Wilton, the town on the river Wiley. 2 The Wilt- 
shire settlers are, however, mentioned by the name 
Wilssete in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in the year 801, 
nearly 200 years before the name Wiltonscire occurs. 
The name Wilssete long survived, and is mentioned in 
Ethelweard's Chronicle about A.D. 973. The name 
' Wiltene weie ' for the road from Damerham to Wilton 
is also used in a charter dated 946, and Wiltene, a variant 
of Wiltena, is the genitive plural of Wilte. Such being 
the facts, the derivation of the name Wiltshire from 
Wilton is clearly wrong. In a district that affords other 
traces of Wendish settlers the Wilte name may have 
been the origin of the Wilssete name, and that of the 
1 Morfill, W R., ' Slavonic Literature,' p. 3. 2 Ibid. 

Wessex, Wills, and Dorset. 239 

Anglo - Saxon tribal people, the East Willa and West 
Willa, whose districts are mentioned in the Tribal Hidage. 1 
The name Wilte Scira occurs in the Exon Domesday, and 
the name Wilsaete was probably at first only that of the 
settlers in the south of the county. 

The traces that survive of a mythological or legendary 
kind in the counties that formed the early kingdom of 
Wessex find their parallels in similar survivals in Riigen 
and Pomerania. The most remarkable is that of Hertha, 
or Mother Earth, a goddess with somewhat similar 
attributes to the Norse Frige and the Saxon Frea. The 
name Frige survives in that of Freefolk in Hampshire, 
the Frigefolc of Domesday Book. In Wiltshire the 
mythological name which can be most clearly traced 
during the Anglo-Saxon period is that of Hertha. 

Latham has pointed out that there is no word beginning 
with ' H ' in any German equivalent denoting terra or 
earth. 2 The name Hertha, although mentioned by Tacitus, 
appears to have come from another source. Herkja and 
Herche are among its variants. 3 Hertha is still remem- 
bered in the folk-lore of North-Eastern' Germany, the 
old borderland between the Teutonic and Slavonic tribes, 
where she goes by the name of Frau Harke, 4 the same as 
our Mother Earth, but in England she has lost her per- 
sonality. In the old mythology the personified Mother 
Earth embodied also the attributes of Ceres, 6 and in 
that capacity Hertha was much honoured in the Wendish 
parts of Germany. Kine were yoked to her car, and 
her image was conducted through fields on her annual 
festival with much solemnity. We find that Hertha as 
the name for this goddess was used by the people of 
Riigen and the Baltic countries near it from time imme- 
morial. The survival of the name and the folk-lore 

1 Cart. Sax., i. 416. 

2 Latham, R. G., ' The Germania of Tacitus,' Notes, p. 145. 

3 Grimm, J., ' Teutonic Mythology,' translated by Stallybrass, 
i. 253. * Ibid. 5 Ibid., ii. 45. 

240 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

connected with it in Riigen and in Pomerania at the 
present day is important, in reference to the survival of 
the name in Wiltshire at the present time, and its wider 
existence in that county in the Anglo-Saxon period. Such 
a survival strongly supports the other evidence relating to 
Wiltshire settlers of Wendish descent. The original Wilssete 
or Wilte settlers, being at least partly made up of Wends, 
would naturally bring with them to Wiltshire some of 
the mythology of Riigen. Adam of Bremen tells us 
that this island was opposite to part of the country of 
the Wilte. The names Hertha' and Heortha' are found 
in Domesday Book in three places in Wiltshire, and in 
one of these, Hertham near Chippenham, it still survives. 
The Anglo-Saxon name Jerchesfont in Wiltshire is 
also found in Domesday Book, and leads us to the folk- 
lore of Hertha still surviving in the island of Riigen and 
in Pomerania. It brings us to one of the most ancient of 
legends, the Lady of the Lake. The lady was the goddess 
Hertha, who, it is believed, had her dwelling in the hill 
in Riigen still known as Herthaberg, where often yet, 
as people of that island believe, a fair lady comes out of 
the hill surrounded by her maidens to bathe in the lake 
at its foot. 1 Similarly, in a wood in Pomerania stands 
a round hill called Castle Hill, and at its foot is a small 
lake, called Hertha's Lake. Here, too, the mysterious 
lady is said to bathe. The home of the Hertha legends, 
consequently, must be allowed to be Riigen and Pomer- 
ania, where her worship has been described by historians 
and her legends survive more than elsewhere. The old 
Saxon name Jerchesfont connects her with a legendary 
bathing-place in one of our Wessex counties. Its modern 
name is Urchfont, and it is situated in the middle of 
Wiltshire, near the border of the old hundred of Rughe'- 
berg, the Anglo-Saxon Ruwanbeorg. At this old settle- 
ment, named after Hertha, there are copious springs, 
where much water rises, and hence the termination -font 
1 Hartland, E. S., ' The Science of Fairy Tales,' p. 71. 

Wessex, Wilts, and Dorset. 241 

in the name. Domesday Book tells us of three Saxon 
mills driven by this stream, not far from the springs. As 
copious chalk or green-sand springs never freeze, the 
water being uniform in temperature, and in winter 
much above freezing-point, such a pool may well have 
been associated in the minds of the Wilte settlers with 
the goddess Hertha. 

These old Hertha-names leave but little room for 
doubt that some of the early settlers in Wiltshire were 
of Wendish extraction, and this conclusion is supported 
by other mythological names. Piriun and Pyrgean 1 
are ancient place-names of the Anglo-Saxon period in 
this county, but now lost. Perun was the Wendish name 
for the god of thunder, the Scandinavian Thor, and the 
Frisian or Saxon Thunor, and place-names derived from 
both of these exist. The mythological names attached 
to the prehistoric dykes of Wiltshire, Wansdyke, Grims- 
dyke, and Bokerly dyke, tell the same story. Wansdyke, 
the Wodnesdic of the Saxon age, reminds us of Woden, 
Grimsditch of the Norse Grim, a Northern name for 
Woden, and Bokerly dyke, anciently Boggele or Boccoli, 
reminds us of the circumstance that Boge is the name 
for a deity in every old Slavonic language or dialect. 
Another old Wendish name for a god was Kirt, or 
Krodo, which corresponded to Saturn, 2 and the name 
Creodan hylle, or hill of Creod, near Ruwanbeorg, 
Wiltshire, is met with in a charter of Egbert, A.D. 825- 3 
One of the most remarkable legends of Riigen is that 
of the black dog which guards the treasure of an old 
heathen King in that island, 4 and a legend somewhat 
similar to this survives in that of the black dog at 

One of the most remarkable of the Celtic survivals 

1 Codex Dipl., Nos. 1263, 460, 479. 

2 Grimm, ' Teutonic Mythology,' i. 249. 

3 Codex Dipl., No. 1035. 

* Hartland, E. S., ' The Science of Fairy Tales,' p. 236. 


242 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

during the early part of the Anglo-Saxon period, which 
can be traced anywhere in England, is that on the east 
of Somerset and the north-west of Wiltshire, and com- 
prised the country which forms the valley of the Frome 
and that of the upper part of the Bristol Avon. The 
name Devizes may indicate the frontier of this British 
province, which extended from near Wells to Bredon 
Forest, north - east of Malmesbury. Guest recognises 
Devizes as having been situated on its eastern border, 
and traces the name to this circumstance. 1 It was a 
projecting strip of British territory extending north- 
ward, that was left under its native rulers for a con- 
siderable time after the West Saxon King Ceawlin had 
defeated the Britons at Deorham in south Gloucester- 
shire. There must have been a commingling of race in 
and near to this district, and, as Beddoe's researches 
show, the result of this racial fusion may be traced at 
the present day in the darker complexion of the people 
in the north-west of Wiltshire. 

In Dorset the darker hues of the people that have been 
observed in the Gillingham district may be due to 
descent from settlers of a darker race near the fairer 
people in the valley of the Stour. They were, no doubt, 
for the most part of Teutonic origin, but among them 
were others of the Wendish race who came into 
Wilts and Dorset among the Gewissas. The evidence 
of the black-haired Vikings of the ninth century is from 
contemporary records certain, and as the English place- 
names denoting settlers of a dark or black complexion 
are names which were in use in the Saxon period, 
there appears to be no reason to doubt that there 
were among the Anglo-Saxon settlers people of a darker 
race than the fair-haired Angles and Scandians, or the 
fair-complexioned Saxons and Germans. The anthropo- 
logical researches of Beddoe and others have, however, 

1 Journal Archesol. Inst., xvi. 116. 

Wessex, Wilts, and Dorset. 243 

shown the survival on a large scale of blondes in Dorset 
and Wilts. The valley of the Stour as far north as 
Somerset is marked at the present day by blondes. 
Some of the Baltic races, such as the Lithuanians, are as 
fair as Scandinavians. The recorded facts and existing 
ethnological characters evidently support the conclusion 
that Wessex was originally occupied by a mixed popula- 

The difference in the village shapes is of some interest. 
In the north of Wiltshire the isolated homesteads are 
more common than in the valleys of the Wiley, Avon, 
and Nadder, and the isolated homestead was the Celtic 
arrangement. The collected homesteads of South Wilt- 
shire may be compared with those between the Elbe 
and the Weser i.e., in the old Saxon country; and, 
allowing for variations, also with the collected home- 
steads east of the Elbe i.e., in the former Wendish 
country. The villages of collected homesteads in England 
had large areas of open commonable land, including the 
cultivated fields, and it is of interest to note that, as late 
as a century ago, half the area of Berkshire was open 
land, and more than half of Wiltshire. 1 

The evidence which the features of the skulls from 
burial-places supply concerning the introduction of more 
than one race into Wessex has already been given, and 
there is further evidence of the same kind supporting 
the settlement in Dorset of people of Slavonic origin. 

Among the skulls in West Saxon graves a small minority 
are of the broad-headed type, having an average cephalic 
index of 81, whilst the majority are long-headed, with 
an index of about 76. The reasons for concluding that 
this was due to the introduction of people of a broad- 
headed race with the Anglo-Saxon settlers, rather than to 
a fusion of the descendants of the remote Round 
Barrow men with Saxon immigrants, have already been 

1 Maine, Sir H., ' Village Communities in the East and West,' 
pp. 88, 89. 

l6 2 

244 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

stated. 1 The further point that skulls from Saxon graves 
in Wessex show a tendency to prognathism has been fully 
dealt with in the chapter on settlers from the Baltic 
coasts. 2 Fifteen skulls from the Saxon burial-ground at 
Winklebury, on the border of Wilts and Dorset, which 
was explored by General Pitt Rivers, were found to 
present differences in shape, showing that the interments 
could not have been those of people of homogeneous 
ethnological characters. Beddoe examined these skulls, a 
and found six to be elliptic, four ovo-elliptic, four ovoid, 
and one oblong-ovate. Some were thus much broader 
than the others, and he points out in his report that 
the skull which he finds to be oblong-ovate is the same 
as that called Sarmatic by the Continental anthropologist 
Van Holder. The word Sarmatic was an older name for 
the Slavic race ; and the Wends, who have been shown 
by other evidence to have settled among other tribaL 
people in Wilts and Dorset, were Slavs. 

1 Chap. VII., p. 117. a Chap. VIII., p. 129. 

3 Journal Anthrop. Inst., xix. 5. 



BEDE tells us of battles in Kent between the Jutes 
and the Britons during the latter part of the 
fifth century, and it was probably these battles 
that opened the way for the settlement around London. 
He wrote from the traditional knowledge of these 
events, and his statement may be accepted as evidence 
of a series of conflicts that must have occurred before 
the British people abandoned London a distinguished 
city, which during the later Roman period bore the 
name of Augusta. There were roads into it from all 
directions : from Canterbury, from Pevensey, from 
Chichester ; from Silchester and the south-west parts of 
Britain ; from Uriconium, or Wroxeter, and the Midland 
district ; from York and Lincoln, and from Colchester. 
These roads and other less important ways radiated 
from London like the spokes of a wheel, thus proving 
the importance of the Roman city. They all existed 
at the time of the coming of the new settlers ; many 
of them exist to this day, and the lines of others can be 
traced. The Romans made them, and our Anglo-Saxon 
forefathers wore them down, and here and there roughly 
repaired them. 

The earliest Saxon records supply no evidence of the city 
in a ruined state. On the contrary, they show its con- 


246 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

tinued existence as a port from the earliest date to which 
they relate. From its greatness in Roman time, Anglo- 
Saxon London probably declined, but there is no reason 
to doubt that it continued to be relatively a great 
commercial city. The Goths and Frisians, of whom the 
bulk of the settlers in Kent were composed, were the 
greatest navigators of Northern Europe. They, called 
Jutes by Bede, advanced on London. The Thames 
became their great waterway, and London for a time 
their chief port. The river by which commodities could 
be brought into the country and the Roman roads by 
which they could be distributed are sufficient to show 
the extreme probability of the continuous existence of 
London. Nowhere else in England did such a combina- 
tion of advantages exist. 

The city which the newcomers found was one of 
considerable importance. The great roads alone are 
sufficient to prove this, and the Roman remains which 
have been found attest it. It was protected by defen- 
sive walls, contained temples, elegant houses, and many 
other structures characteristic of a place that was the 
centre of a Roman province. 

We must look on the forests around London, in both 
Roman and Saxon times, as necessities. To have cleared 
the land and settled a rural population on it, if a sufficient 
population had existed, would very likely have paralyzed 
the trade of the city. In an age when pit-coal for fuel was 
not available a great woodland tract near it was necessary 
for any great city, such as London was at the end of the 
Roman period, and continued to be during the Saxon era. 
We see the same connection of ancient forest land with a 
city in the Ainsty, which from very ancient time has been 
within the jurisdiction of York, and which was a great 
woodland. The forests around London supplied not only 
fuel for household purposes, but charcoal for arts and 
handicrafts. The smiths and metal-workers of all kinds 
required charcoal, and the charcoal-burners in the forests 

The Settlement around London. 247 

supplied it. Their occupation is one of the oldest, but 
has now almost disappeared from this country. In the 
New Forest, however, the charcoal-burners are not even 
yet extinct. Traces of them exist around London 
in such place-names as Collier's Wood, near Merton. 
The smiths in Saxon London must have been numerous, 
and, as the evidence points to settlements in and near the 
city of Northern Goths, who at that time were the greatest 
metal-workers in Northern Europe, they were probably 
also skilful. 

The Romans finally left Britain about A.D. 430, and, 
although the settlement of Kent took place before the 
end of the fifth century, we have no records until the 
coming of Augustine, and no historical account until the 
time of Bede, who died in A.D. 735, or three centures 
after the Roman withdrawal. This early Anglo-Saxon 
age is the darkest period of our history, and yet it was this 
period that saw the beginning of the English race, and as 
such must always be a time of much interest to the people 
of the Anglo-Saxon stock. As history tells us nothing of 
this period on the evidence of contemporary writers, we may 
take what Bede and the writers of the various manuscripts 
of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle wrote to be the traditional 
knowledge of this early Saxon period. We may supplement 
these accounts by information concerning the various 
tribes and races which are known to have taken part in 
the English settlement or may reasonably be inferred to 
have participated their customs, dialects, arts, weapons, 
race characteristics, and the relics which have been found. 

In the Saxon records we first read of London in the year 
A.D. 457, in which year Bede and the Chronicle tell us the 
great Battle of Crayford in Kent was fought, and the 
British fugitives took refuge within the old Roman walls 
of London of which small parts may still be seen. There 
are no records of what happened in the city after this battle 
until the year 604, a century and a half later, when we are 
told that Augustine hallowed Mellitus as the first Bishop 

248 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

of London, and sent him to preach baptism to the East 
Saxons ; but we know that it was yEthelbert, King of Kent, 
who gave him his Bishop's See. Bede also tells us that 
j^Ethelbert built the first church of St. Paul, and in the 
charter granted to it more than four and a half centuries 
later William the Conqueror specially mentions that the 
church was of ^Ethelbert's foundation. Thus, in the year 
457 we lose sight of Roman London in connection with 
a great victory of the Kentish people over the Britons at 
Crayford, and when we get the next historical glimpse 
it is in connection with ^Ethelbert, King of Kent, founding 
a Bishop's See within the city. The inference to be drawn 
from these two historical statements is plain viz., that 
some time between these two dates the Kentish people 
drove out the Britons, and took possession of the city. 
It may have been early or late, even as late as the 
early part of the time of ^Ethelbert himself, as Green 
supposes. 1 

It has been shown that the settlers in Kent must 
have been mainly Goths and Frisians, both maritime 
nations known to Bede under the general name of Jutes. 
It must have been the people of the Jutish race in Kent, 
assisted probably by emigrants from their former homes, 
who attacked and took Romano-British London. A 
great prize was theirs. We know nothing about its loot, 
but great loot there must have been sufficient, no doubt, 
to attract a host of allies from the great shipping centre 
in the Baltic Wisby, in the Isle of Gotland. The city 
became by conquest part of the Kentish dominion. 

It would be out of place to discuss at any length how 
it was probably captured, but, considering that Goths, 
Frisians, and Wends were all maritime nations, and con- 
sidering also how centuries later it was taken by the mari- 
time Danes and Norwegians, there can be little doubt 
that a naval force on the Thames played an important 
part in its capture. Did the captors destroy it ? There 
is no contemporary information, but, reasoning from 
1 Green, J. R., ' Making of England,' 109. 

The Settlement around London. 249 

archaeological associations, their self-interest in preserving 
such a commercial prize, and the relatively vast impor- 
tance of the city in the later Saxon period, there is sufficient 
reason to think that they did not destroy it. The con- 
tinuous use of the Roman roads which crossed London from 
north to south and east to west is evidence of the continu- 
ance of ways through it. If the so-called Saxons destroyed 
it, they must have immediately set to work and have 
rebuilt it. Some buildings, repugnant to their religious and 
other ideas, particularly those in the continuance of which 
they might suspect evil influences, they very probably did 
destroy, but that the city continued without interruption 
there is every reason to believe. It probably grew as the 
Saxon conquest became more and more complete, and the 
country more and more settled. By the time of ^Ethelstan it 
had become so great and wealthy that it required a special 
code (A laws of its own, and by the time of Cnut its wealth 
had become so vast that after his conquest he levied upon 
it a tax of ten and a half thousand pounds, equal to one- 
seventh of that levied on the rest of England, and this 
tax was paid. 1 

Another circumstance which points to the later wealth 
of Saxon London is that the laws of yEthelstan relating 
to the city are much concerned with regulations for the 
capture and punishment of thieves. It is clear that 
opportunities for thieves would be greater in a rich city 
filled with merchandise than in other parts of the country. 
We read of London first as a city controlled by ^Ethelbert, 
King of Kent. Whether it was or was not part of the 
kingdom of the East Saxons at that time is uncertain, 
but in any case ^Ethelbert was their overlord. We have 
no evidence that the neighbourhood of London was 
originally settled by people from Essex. Some may 
have come westward through the great forest, if the 
eastern part of Essex was occupied by Saxons at that 
time. On the other hand, there is considerable evidence 
pointing to this settlement around London having been 
1 Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A.D. 1018. 

250 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

made by people of the same races as the people of Kent 
viz., Goths and Frisians, with probably some Wends. 
It is most improbable that the Anglo-Saxon people who 
conquered London could have been any other than those 
of the Kentish race. 

It was not until the year 491, according to historical 
statements, that the second Saxon kingdom, Sussex, was 
founded. Whatever local settlements may have been 
formed on the Essex coast, there was certainly no king- 
dom of Essex until long after the Battle of Crayford ; 
and when it does appear, it comes before us as a sub- 
ordinate kingdom to that of Kent. History, therefore, 
if taken alone, points to Kent as the Anglo-Saxon State 
which first controlled London ; but there is other evidence 
of a remarkable kind which leads to the same conclusion. 
There are the customs of inheritance which survived in 
the city for many centuries, and on the great manors that 
existed around London almost to our own time, which, 
with other customs, bear an unmistakable resemblance 
to those of Kent. It cannot be said that none of these 
have been found in Essex, but, as Essex was subordinate 
to Kent in the earliest period of its history, it is but 
reasonable to think that some settlers from Kent may 
have migrated across the Thames into it. The majority 
of the early people of Essex were probably of a different 
race from the Goths, the dominant race in Kent. The 
Essex people were called Saxons and those of Kent Jutes, 
and this distinction in names must have arisen through a 
difference in race. Some Wen,ds, for example, can be 
traced as settlers in Essex more clearly than in Kent. 
The name Middlesex does not occur in Anglo-Saxon 
records until that district became a province of the East 
Saxon kingdom, and the distinctive name of Middle 
vSaxons would be likely to have arisen from geographic 

When we compare the condition of the people an 
customs of London and the manors around it with those 
of^Kent, and still further with those that can be traced 




The Settlement around London. 251 

to ancient Gothland and Friesland, we find a remarkable 
similarity. Before customs of all kinds was personal 
freedom, and in Kent alone of all the English counties 
every man was from time immemorial personally free. 
Similarly in London, which was called the ' Free Chamber 
of the King of England,' every man was personally free. 1 
The name Franklins of Kent has found a place in our 
literature, and all the native-born men of London, or 
those who had resided in it for a year and a day, were 
similarly accounted freemen. Kentish people, when they 
migrated, carried with them some, at least, of their own 
laws and customs, certainly their personal freedom. 

The very remarkable custom of Kentish gavelkind may 
be considered in reference to the customs in and around 
London. Its nature has already been discussed. Its 
chief privilege was partible inheritance among the sons, 
and, failing sons, among the daughters. The gavelkind 
custom also provided for the inheritance of the homestead 
by the youngest son. The custom of partible inheritance 
among sons was the ancient custom of the City of London 
specially confirmed to the citizens in the charter of 
William the Conqueror. This charter runs as follows, in 
modern English : ' William the King greets William the 
Bishop and Godfrey the portreeve, and all the burgesses 
within London, French and English. And I grant you 
that I will that ye be all of your law worthy, that ye were 
in the days of King Edward. And I will that every child 
be his father's heir after his father's day. And I will not 
suffer that any man do you wrong. And God you keep.' 
As every child was to be his father's heir (not his or her 
father's), it is clear that the custom referred to was the 
old Kentish custom of partible inheritance among sons. 
This custom of dividing the property among the sons was 
also the custom of the ancient manors of Stepney, Hack- 
ney, Canonbury or Canbury, Newington Barrow or 
Highbury, Hornsey, and Islington. 2 

1 Stow, J., ' Survey of London,' A.D. 1598. 

2 Elton, C. I., ' Robinson on Gavelkind,' 34, 36. 

252 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

In view of the city's early connection with the Kentish 
kingdom, it is difficult to see any other satisfactory 
explanation of such a remarkable parallelism between 
its customs and those of Kent than a settlement of 
Kentish people in it and on the east and north of it ; 
and when we take into consideration the early over- 
lordship of JEthelbert, King of Kent, in relation to Essex, 
that explanation is strengthened. The Norman Kings, 
who desired to see a uniform system of primogeniture 
established, nevertheless respected these ancient customs 
of inheritance, so different from the rural primo- 
geniture which prevailed in Normandy, or the feudal 
primogeniture which they established over almost the 
whole of England. We know that the partition of the 
lands, which was an ancient custom on some great 
manors in various parts of England, was allowed to con- 
tinue in many instances, for cases have survived until 
our own time. In his general code of law, William I. 
expressly allowed it, but we know that the change from 
old customs of inheritance to primogeniture of the 
feudal type went on nevertheless, so that in a century 
or two after the Norman Conquest the survivals of 
customs of inheritance other than primogeniture became 
much rarer than they must have been during the 
Saxon period. Glanville, who wrote in the time of 
Henry II., tells us that partible inheritance was in his 
time only recognised by the courts of law in those places 
where it could be proved that the lands always had been 
divided. 1 Consequently, as the custom was allowed to 
continue on the manors to the north and east of London, 
it must have been proved to have been an immemorial 
custom to the satisfaction of the law in the twelfth 
century i.e., it must have been shown to have been the 
usage during the Saxon period. The custom of dividing 
the inheritance that prevailed among the German tribes 
in the time of Tacitus, which was of immemorial usage 

1 Glanville, R. de, 'Tract, de leg. et cons. Angliae,' lib. vii., 
chap. iii. 

The Settlement around London. 253 

in Friesland, and can be traced further back to the Goths 
of Gothland, may, of course, have been brought into 
England, and to some of the manors on the north and 
east of London, by the settlers who originally formed 
colonies there ; but there are other circumstances that 
connect early Kent and London. The custom of partible 
inheritance among the sons prevailed at Kentish Town, 
and it is a very remarkable circumstance that on this 
manor, which bears the Kentish name, a Kentish custom 
actually survived until modern times. 

As in Kent, so in London, the people were not liable 
to the ordinary process of distress for debts. 

Another custom which the citizens cf London had in 
common with the people of Kent was the power of 
devising their property by will. Kent alone among the 
English counties had this privilege, which was a rare one 
possessed by the tenants of only a few isolated manors 
elsewhere. It was not until the reign of Henry VIII. 
that copyholds generally were made devisable by will. 
Another resemblance in custom between Kent and the 
City was the age at which heirs could inherit. Bracton, 
who wrote in the thirteenth century, tells us that the full 
age of heirs was twenty-one in the case of a military fief, 
and twenty-five in the case of a socman. In Kent a 
son could succeed his father at fifteen years, and the son 
of a burgher was understood to be of full age when he 
knew how to count pence rightly, to measure cloths by 
the ell, and to perform other like business of his father. 1 

There was yet another resemblance between the customs 
of London and Kent viz., in the widow's dower. She 
was entitled to half her husband's estate, even if his 
goods should be otherwise forfeited for felony. This was 
the custom of Kent, and the Dooms of ^Ethelstan tell 
us that it was the custom also of Anglo-Saxon London.2 

One of the privileged customs of the Frisians was their 

1 Bracton, H. de, ' De legibus et consuetudinibus Angliae,' 
edited by Twiss, ii. 5. 

2 ^Ethelstan's Dooms, vi. ; Judicia Civitatis Lundoniae, i. 

254 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

freedom from the wager of battle as a judicial pro- 
ceeding. The custom of settling disputes of right or 
wrong by duel is among the oldest judicial customs that 
can be traced. We meet with it in England in the laws 
of King Alfred, in which it is stipulated what course a 
man has to take against his foe in order to obtain justice 
before he proceeds to judicial settlement by force of arms. 1 
To a commercial people such as the Frisians there was 
an injustice involved in the merchant being liable to be 
challenged to wager of battle in order to settle a dispute 
with a possible swash-buckler, whose profession was that 
of arms, concerning the terms of a purchase or the price 
of a commodity. In the old Flemish charters, which 
apparently embody still more ancient privileges and 
customs, we find a law which exempts the Frisians of 
the early part of the twelfth century from duel in every 
market of Flanders. 2 Similarly, in London one of the 
oldest franchises was that none of the burgesses should 
be compelled to wager of battle, but that they might 
settle their disputes according to the custom of London ; 
and although this privilege was subsequently granted to 
thirteen cities and boroughs, 3 such grants do not diminish 
the significance of it in London, where its origin is lost 
in antiquity, the custom being known as the ' Custom 
of London.' 

The evidences of the early trade of London in the 
Anglo-Saxon period also point to its connection with 
the chief traders of Northern Europe at that time the 
Goths and Frisians. That the maritime trade of London 
went on without any great break from the Roman period 
into that of the Saxons is extremely probable. In a 
charter dated A.D. 734, by which Ethelbald, King of 
Mercia, granted leave for a ship to pass into the port of 

1 'Ancient Laws,' edited by Thorpe, i. 91; Maine, 'Early 
Hist, of Institutions,' 303. 

2 ' Saxons in England,' by Kemble, edited by Birch, ii., 
Appendix, 528, quoting ' Flemish Charters of Liberties.' 

3 Ballard, A., English Historical Review, xiv. 94. 

The Settlement aroiind London. 255 

London without tax, he speaks of the tax on shipping as 
his royal right and that of his predecessors. This 
appears to be the earliest notice of Saxon London in a 
contemporary document. 1 For maritime commerce there 
must have been regulations of some kind from the earliest 
time, and the earliest that can be traced in the North of 
Europe is ' The Maritime Law of Wisby.' At the time 
when Ethelbald granted a remission of his tax to this 
ship in the port of London, Wisby was the commercial 
centre of the North. In early London there was prob- 
ably a maritime court, as there was in Ipswich. The 
court sat daily, as shown by the customary of that town, 
to administer the Law Marine to passing mariners. 2 
This practice is referred to in the Domesday of Ipswich, 
and this is probably the earliest extant record of any court 
sitting regularly. 3 When and how the practice originated 
is uncertain, but it was a legacy of Imperial Rome that 
maritime causes should be heard without delay by com- 
petent judges in each province, and there is good reason 
for believing that mediaeval Europe accepted this legacy 
and never allowed it to lapse. 4 

In the shipping trade of the Netherlands in the Middle 
Ages we meet with two codes of maritime regulations, 
one called the Rolls of Oleron, from a French source, 5 
and another resembling what is known as the Maritime 
Law of Wisby. With these mediaeval maritime codes 
we are only concerned so far as regards the antiquity of 
the Wisby code and its provisions in reference to ' lay 
days.' The Maritime Law of Wisby was first published 
at Copenhagen in 1505, under the name of ' The Supreme 
Maritime Law.' 6 The provisions of this code are similar 
to those of ' The Usages of Amsterdam,' with which those 
of the Frisian ports of Enchuysen, Stavern, and others 

1 Cott. MSS., Chart, xvii. i ; also Codex Dipl., No. 78. 

2 Black Book of the Admiralty, edited by Twiss, ii., Introd., 
vii., viii. 

3 Ibid. * Ibid. 

5 Ibid., iii., Introd., xx. 6 Ibid., iii., Introd., xxi. 

256 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

on the Zuyder Zee, are identical. The extreme antiquity 
of Wisby as a port points to an early code of some kind 
necessarily connected with it as the original source of the 
Frisian regulations. By the Usages of Amsterdam and the 
custom of the Frisian ports, and by the Maritime Law of 
Wisby, the interval allowed as lay-days for a chartered 
vessel is fourteen days, the fortnight of English usage, 
whereas in the ' Judgments of Damme,' or regulations of 
West Flanders, derived from the Rolls of Oleron, the time 
is fifteen days. 1 There is thus a remarkable coincidence 
between the maritime usage of old Frisian and Gothic 
ports and those of England, of which London was the 
chief. It points to Frisian and Gothic traders in such 
numbers as to be able to introduce an important pro- 
vision of their own marine customs into English ports, 
and this probably with people descended from their own 
races who traded with them, as was likely to have been 
the case in Anglo-Saxon London. 

When we leave the consideration of the Goths and 
Frisians, and turn our attention to the remarkable 
customs which have come down from time immemorial 
on the south and west of the city, we are met by 
circumstances of another kind. Inheritance by the 
youngest son instead of the eldest, as in common law, 
prevailed unto within living memory on the manors of 
Kennington, Walworth, Vauxhall, Peckham Rye, Wands- 
worth, Battersea, Lambeth, Streatham, Croydon, Barnes, 
Shene or Richmond, and Petersham. On the north 
of the Thames it existed at Edmonton, Tottenham, 
Ealing, Acton, Isleworth, and Earl's Court. 2 Junior right 
prevails among some of the Frisians of Friesland. 
It can also be traced and still exists in parts of ancient 
Wendland i.e., Pomerania and, as already pointed 
out, is found sporadically in isolated districts of Ger- 
many, North-Eastern France, and Belgium, where isolated 

1 Black Book of the Admiralty, iii., Introd., xix. 

2 Elton, C. I., loc. cit., and Corner, ' Custom of Borough- 

The Settlement around London. 257 

colonies of Wends existed. Since junior right has pre- 
vailed until modern times at Wandsworth, and at that 
place we have the custom associated with the ancient 
Vandal name Wendelesworth, the origin of the custom 
around London must, apparently, be traced to Frisians 
or Wends, or to people of both races. 

On the manor of Earl's Court the youngest son in- 
herited ; at Lambeth the youngest son, and in default of 
sons, the daughters equally ; and at Tottenham the same 
custom prevailed. At East Sheen the youngest son 
succeeded, and in default of sons, the youngest daughter, 
brother, sister, or nephew ; and at Croydon the youngest 
son, and if no sons, the youngest in every degree. At 
Vauxhall the youngest son, and failing sons, the youngest 
daughter, was the heir. At Islington, on the Sutton Court 
and St. John of Jerusalem manors, the strict borough- 
English custom prevailed. At Isleworth, Sion, Ealing, and 
Acton, the borough-English custom extended to brothers. 
At Fulham, Wimbledon, Battersea, Wandsworth, Downe, 
Barnes, and Richmond, the inheritance, in default of 
males, passed to females lineally and collaterally. 1 

In tracing this custom, as far as we are able, from what 
appears to have been its home in Continental lands to 
England, we have to take into consideration the pro- 
vision which the English custom shows for female rights. 
In it the widow had her dower ; she held the land for her 
life, and the youngest son succeeded after her. Also, 
if there were no sons, either the youngest daughter or 
youngest female succeeded, or the land was divided 
among the female heirs. Whatever may have been the 
provision for females among the ancient Wendish tribes, 
we know that the right of dower was a custom among 
the Teutons, and is mentioned by Tacitus. We know, 
also, that inheritance by females as well as males pre- 
vailed among the Frisians, and was a custom of the 
Northern Goths. We may perhaps, therefore, see a 
1 Elton, C. I., loc. cit., 238. 


258 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

Gothic influence in the junior right custom in England, 
by which dower for the widow is secured and succession 
by daughters provided for in the absence of sons. The 
growth of such provisions would be easy to understand 
on the supposition of a fusion of Goths with a Vandal 
tribe which had junior inheritance. The result would be 
a compromise, as may possibly have been the case in 
Kent, where, on the supposition that Wends, or some 
Frisian clans which had the same custom, were among the 
Kentish settlers, we find partible inheritance, not on the 
strict lines of the Gothic, but with daughters coming after 
sons, and the youngest son having the homestead. 

The territory south of London and Middlesex, which 
afterwards became known as Suthereye, appears, from the 
custom which survived in it and its ancient topographical 
names, to have received as settlers Goths and Frisians, 
Norwegians and Wends. Some reference has already 
been made to them. Junior inheritance survived until 
modern time on many manors in Surrey, as mentioned 
in the chapter on Sussex. This points either to coloniza- 
tion from Sussex, where the same custom has survived 
more widely than elsewhere in England, or to the settle- 
ment of people of the same racial descent as those in the 
Rape of Lewes. It is not difficult to believe that colonists 
crossed the forest land of the Weald and settled on the 
lands which form the slopes of the chalk downs of Dorking 
and Reigate. This country of the North Downs must at 
an early period of the Saxon settlement, as now, have 
been more free from wood than the forest land of the 
Weald. As this same custom also prevailed at Wands- 
worth, Battersea, Lambeth, Walworth, Vauxhall, Peck- 
ham Rye, Barnes, Richmond, and Petersham, all of which 
are on or near the river, it is probable that Surrey was 
colonised, in part at least, by settlers who arrived by 
water. We may thus, perhaps, reasonably conclude from 
these survivals that the country was settled partly over- 
land from Sussex and partly by other colonists who came 

The Settlement around London. 259 

up the Thames. Surrey thus appears tohave received 
among its settlers some Goths of the same Northern stock 
as those who settled in Kent. From Kent to Surrey 
migration was easy. A great forest area separated these 
parts of Southern England during the period of the 
settlement, but there were two natural routes by which 
people from Kent could reach even the western parts of 
Surrey viz., by the Thames and along the ridge of the 
chalk downs which extended from east to west, and, 
being incapable of growing trees, must always have 
afforded an open route. 

The yEscings is one of the names by which the early 
Kentish settlers were known, and a place called Jesting, 
now Eashing, part of Godalming, is mentioned in King 
Alfred's will. On the boundary of Hampshire and Surrey, 
to which the ancient limit of Godalming extended, there 
is a hill still called Kent's hill. The name Godalming 
appears to have been derived from the descendants of 
one or more Goths, its old form being Godelming, and 
the old popular form being Godliman or Godlimen. 

There are two remarkable entries in Domesday Book 
that point directly to an ancient connection of some of 
the settlements in Surrey with Kent. Under Waletone, 
now Wallington, we are told that its woods were in Kent ; 
and under Meretone, now Merton, we are told that two 
solins of land in Kent belonged to this manor, as the 
men of the hundred testified. 1 We can trace Kentish 
place-names here and there through Surrey. 

The survival of the custom under which the eldest 
daughter inherited the father's property in default of 
sons at Chertsey, Beaumond, Farnham, Worplesdon, 
and Pirbright, shows that the west of Surrey must have 
received some settlers who were neither Goths, Frisians, 
Wends, nor of any mixed race which clung to the custom 
of inheritance by the youngest son. The Goths and 
Frisians had not^this eldest daughter custom. Saxons 

1 Dom. Bk., p. 30 a. 

17 2 

260 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

and Angles had none of it, for their customs were strongly 
marked by male inheritance. As mentioned elsewhere, 
there is only one old race to which it certainly can be 
traced, and that is the Norwegians. We may, conse- 
quently, conclude that Norse colonists, at some time 
or other, settled at these western parts of Surrey. 
This part of the county adjoins the north-east of Hamp- 
shire, where a similar custom prevailed, and in Surrey, 
on the east of Aldershot, the old place-name Normandy 

There is an early charter relating to the grant of land 
at Batrices-ege, or Battersea, to St. Peter's, Westminster, 
dated A.D. 693, in which Wendles-wurthe and Ceokan-ege 
are mentioned in the boundaries. 1 This mention of 
Wandsworth shows that the name is an early one, and 
shows also that it could not have originated from a settle- 
ment in the eleventh century during the time of Cnut, 
who introduced Wends from Jomberg into England as 
his huscarls. 2 The settlement at Wendles-wurthe was 
probably one of the early settlements of Surrey, and as 
junior right survived there, the settlers appear to have 
brought it with them. The name Ceokan-ege may refer 
to a man who was a Chaucian, or a settler of that race. 
It appears to point in any case to the only tribe who had 
such a name, the Chauci, settled between the Weser and 
the Elbe. 

In the Middlesex settlement the old name for the people 
who lived around Harrow was ' Gumeninga hergae.' This 
word gumeninga can be traced through the Anglo-Saxon 
to the Gothic word guma, denoting a man, and thus 
appears to have come into the Old English language from 
the Goths. The words, gumeninga hergae denote the 
children or descendants of the men of Harrow, and occur 
in a charter of Off a dated 767.3 This is important, as 
it points to an old settlement of people of Gothic extrac- 

1 Cart. Sax., i. 1 16, 1 17. 

2 Adam Bremen, ii. 59, quoted by Kemble, ' Saxons 
England,' ii. 120. 3 Cart. Sax., i. 284. 

The Settlement around London. 261 

tion around Harrow, possibly a migration 6f some of the 
men of Kent, and we find close to Harrow a place still 
called Kenton. 

Harrow was a great domain that belonged to the See 
of Canterbury from a very early date. The Archbishop's 
lands, apart from the monastic at Canterbury, were 
only separated in the time of Lanfranc, 1 just before the 
Norman Survey, and Domesday Book tells us that 
Harrow was held by the Archbishop. It was a great 
estate, and possessed privileges which placed it outside 
the jurisdiction of the county. What we are concerned 
with is the probability of the district around Harrow 
having been settled by Kentish people of Gothic extrac- 
tion. We cannot trace the custom of partible inheritance, 
such as prevails in Kent, as having survived at Harrow, 
but we can point to a time when the Archbishop was 
permitted to change his estates, or some of them, from 
gavelkind tenure into knight's fees. This was in the 
reign of John, when a license was granted to Hubert, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, to that effect. 2 The non- 
survival of the custom of partible inheritance on the 
ancient estates of the Archbishop of Canterbury in 
Middlesex, that were apparently settled by Kentish or 
Gothic people, can thus be accounted for. The settlement 
around Harrow was probably an early one, before the 
invaders had become Christian ; for the most ancient name 
of the place Hearge, or Hearh (genitive, Hearges) 
denotes a heathen temple, and we cannot think that after 
their conversion to Christianity any settlers would have 
given the place this name. Harrow was clearly a sacred 
heathen site, and there was probably a significance in 
the early grant of this estate to the Archbishop, and in the 
subsequent erection on the highest site in Harrow of a 
church by the Anglo-Saxon prelate. 

The other estate of the early Archbishops of Canterbury 
in Middlesex was Yeading, or, as the manor was called 

1 Elton, C. I., loc. cit., p. 18. 

2 Lambarde, W., ' Perambulation 'of Kent.' Ed. 1596, p. 531. 

262 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

later on, Hayes. It is first mentioned in a charter of 
Ceadwalla dated 678, in which that King granted Gedding 
and Wudeton to Archbishop Theodore. As Ceadwalla 
was a West Saxon King who had succeeded a Mercian as 
the overlord, this was probably, a confirmatory grant. 
The name Gedding, modified in spelling to Yeading, still 
survives in the parish of Hayes. These grants of lands to 
monasteries and Bishops by the early Anglo-Saxon Kings 
were colonization grants. All that they had in their 
power to give was the land, certain services from the people 
already settled on the land, or who might become settled 
on it, and the fines and forfeitures falling to the lord from 
the administration of the law. 

Kent, of all the Old English kingdoms, had probably the 
least room for the expansion of its people. As they in- 
creased in number, they were necessarily obliged to seek 
new homes and migrate. We can hardly imagine any 
more likely circumstance in relation to the settlement of 
Middlesex than that some of the surplus population on 
the Archbishop's land in Kent should have been allowed 
to settle on his lands in Middlesex, to the advantage of 
both the settlers and their lord. In considering this prob- 
ability, we should also remember the clause in the laws 
of Wihtrsed, drawn up about 685, which refers to the 
Kentish freedman, his heritage, wergeld, etc., not only 
in Kent, but elsewhere, the words used being, ' Be he 
over the march, wherever he may be.' It is quite clear 
from these words that some of them had gone over the 
march at that early time. 

A considerable proportion of the people who settled in 
Middlesex appear to have come from Kent, and to have 
retained privileges which their ancestors had also pos- 
sessed. This is shown as probable by the Domesday 
records concerning the cottars. They were the labouring 
class of manorial tenants, but had land of their own, and 
had also more freedom as small tenants than those called 
borderers in many other counties. Cottars are only men- 
tioned in Domesday Book in considerable numbers 

The Settlement around London. 263 

Kent, Sussex, Surrey, Middlesex, Berkshire, Wiltshire, 
Dorset, Somerset, Herefordshire, and Cambridgeshire. 1 
We can trace them from Kent up the Thames valley. 
Whatever the privilege of the cottar may have been (and 
it is generally agreed that he had a cottage and a few acres 
of land, which he cultivated himself when not working 
for his lord), it is certain that the man in this position, 
by whatever name he was called, was more free in Kent 
than in any other county, and probably better off in 
other respects. It is of interest, therefore, to trace the 
existence of the cottar in other counties into which Kentish 
people may have migrated, or people of the same races 
as those from which the Kentish people were descended 
may have settled. These were mainly the freedom-loving 
Frisians and Goths, collectively called Jutes. The cottar 
was a freeman subject to certain manorial customs. He 
paid his hearth penny i.e., his Rome scot or Peter's 
pence on Holy Thursday, as every freeman did ; he 
worked for the lord one day in the week and three days 
in harvest time, and he had five acres more or less. 2 This 
class of manorial tenants was relatively large in Middlesex 
and Surrey at the time of the Domesday Survey. If they 
existed in Essex, they are not mentioned, and this cir- 
cumstance alone points to Kent rather than to Essex as 
the State from which colonists settled in Middlesex 
i.e., rather to Frisians and Goths than the so-called Saxons 
of Essex. The cottars of Middlesex lived at Fulham, 
St. Pancras or Kentish Town, Islington, Drayton, Staines, 
Hanwell, Harmondsworth, Sunbury, Greenford, Shepper- 
ton, Enfield, Tottenham, and other places. These 
Middlesex cottars, like the Middlesex villeins, the next 
class of manorial tenant above them, were more important 
persons and more free in their holdings than villeins and 
borderers in other counties usually were. This, again, 
points to early migrations from Kent, and to the influence 
of the great city on the country round it. 

1 Maitland, F. W., ' Domesday Book and Beyond,' p. 39. 

2 Ibid., 327. 



AS we proceed up the Thames from Middlesex, we 
meet with evidence of settlements by people of 
different races. This is apparent in the eastern 
part of Berkshire and the adjoining part of Buckingham- 
shire. The name Windsor, anciently Wendlesore, 1 is 
similar to that of Wendleswurthe, and can scarcely 
have been derived from any other source than the 
settlement of a Wend and his family, or a community 
of these people. When we consider that there are 
Wendish place-names in the south of Essex, it is not 
surprising to find them higher up the Thames. Wendlesore 
and Waendlescumb, also in Berkshire, are examples. 
The old place-name Wendlebury, a few miles north- 
east of Oxford, may have had its origin in the settle- 
ment of a family or kindred of Wends. Isaac Taylor, in 
reminding us of the statement by Zosimus of Vandals 
settled in Britain by the Emperor Probus, mentions this 
Wendlebury, near Bicester, in Oxfordshire, as a place 
that was likely to have been a Vandal settlement. 2 It 
may, of course, have got its name from an early settlement 
in the time of the Roman Empire, or a later one in the 
time of the Anglo-Saxon settlement, such as that of the 
Rugians, who were Wends, and whom Bede tells us were 

1 Codex Dipl,, No. 816. 

2 Taylor, Isaac, ' Words and Places,' 1873 ed., p. 180. 


Settlements in the Thames Valley. 265 

among the many tribes from which the English in his 
time had their origin. 

In a charter assigning the boundaries of land at 
Waltham, near Maidenhead, given to Abingdon Abbey 
the name ' Godan pearruc ' occurs. 1 This charter is dated 
940, but the name was apparently an older one, and occurs 
in another charter. It denotes the enclosure of Goda, 
and Goda denotes a Goth, so that we may take it to have 
been derived from the settlement of a family of Goths. 

There can be no doubt that the ancient names Goda 
and Geat denote a Goth and Jute, and if we note the old 
names of this kind as we proceed up the Thames, we find 
Goddards tything, Reading ; Godstow and Godefordes 
Eyt, near Oxford ; 2 Godeslave, in Oxon ; 3 ' terram Gode,' 
the name of land belonging to the church at Culham ; 
Geatescumbe, in the boundaries of the land of the Abbey 
of Abingdon, near Oxford, 5 and others. 

These names suggest that there was a migration into 
the Thames valley of people called by the race-names of 
the Goths, Geats, or Jutes, from Kent up the river. If 
we similarly trace the Kentish name itself up the valley, 
we meet with very old examples of it : Kenton, now 
Kempton, in Middlesex ; Kentes, in East Berkshire ; 6 
Kentswood, near Pangbourn ; and Kentwines treow, at 
Shefford, near the Thames above Oxford. 7 

When we look for other confirmatory evidence of a 
Kentish migration up the Thames, we find it in the 
Hengist place-names near Oxford. Hengist is a name 
common in the early history of Frisians as well as Jutes, 
and these names near Oxford may have been given them 
by Frisians or Goths. People of both these races settled 
in Kent, and it was apparently from Kent that the people 

1 Chron. MOD. de Abingdon, edited by J. Stevenson, i. 98, 
and i. 420. 

2 Wood, A. A., ' Antiquities of Oxford,' edited by Clark, i. 430. 

3 Domesday Book, i. 159. 

4 Chron. Mon. de Abingdon, edited by J. Stevenson, ii. 58. 

6 Codex Dipl., No. 1171. 6 Cal. Inq., p. m., iv. 394. 

7 Codex Dipl., No. 714. 

266 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

came into the country near Oxford. The name Hengistes- 
ege is mentioned in a charter of Eadwy, 1 and refers to 
Hinksey. Hengesthescumb also occurs 2 among the 
boundaries of Scypford, now Shefford, not far from 

At Bray, in this same part of Berkshire, and at Wycombe, 
in Buckinghamshire, not far from it, we find evidence of 
settlements of some Scandinavians ; for the ancient custom 
survived by which the eldest daughter inherited the whole 
of the father's estate in default of sons. 3 This identifies 
the settlers at these places, whenever they may have come, 
as Norwegians, for in no country but Norway, where the 
eldest daughter still has her birthright, can the custom, 
so far as known, be traced. 

The evidence that Norse settlements existed in this part 
of the Thames valley is confirmed by the discoveries in 
a mound at Taplow overlooking the river. The objects 
found included two shield bones ; a sword, and frag- 
ments of others ; a bronze vessel ; a wooden bucket with 
bronze hoops, like those common in graves in Scandinavia ; 
two pairs of glass vessels, green in tint, and similar to one 
found with a burial ship in Void in Norway ; silver-gilt 
ornaments for drinking-horns ; a green glass bead ; and a 
quantity of gold thread belonging to a garment, the 
triangular form of the pattern still remaining. 4 These 
objects have been recognised as apparently belonging to 
the later Iron Age of Scandinavia. The name Wycombe, 
in a charter of Offa in 767, is written Wicham, 5 by which 
it was known as late as the thirteenth century ; and it is 
well known that the prefix wick- in place-names is oftei 
a sign of a Norse settlement. In the case of Wickai 
the significance of the name is confirmed by the survival oi 
the Norse custom. At this place there appear to have beei 

1 Codex Dipl., No. 1216. * Ibid., No. 714. 

3 Elton, C. I., ' Law of Copyholds,' 134 ; Hale, W. H., ' Domes 
day of St. Paul's,' Notes. 

4 du Chaillu, P. B., ' The Viking Age,' i. 318, 319. 

5 Cart. Sax., i. 284. 

Settlements in the Thames Valley. 267 

settlers of two races viz., those in which the eldest 
daughter took the whole estate in the absence of sons, and 
those who held land called ' molland,' which was divided, 1 
thus pointing, perhaps, to settlements there at two periods. 

At Bray the original custom, which was probably in- 
heritance by the eldest daughter in default of sons, 
appears to have been modified at some later time. In the 
thirteenth century Bracton tells us that the jurors of that 
place say the custom is that if a man have three or four 
daughters, and all marry out of the tenement of the father 
except one, she who remains in the father's house succeeds 
to all his land. 2 This is clearly only a modification of the 
custom of Norway. 

A considerable part of East Berkshire, stretching from 
the river to the border of what is now Surrey, was occupied 
in the seventh century by people known as the Sunninges. 3 
Their name is mentioned in several Saxon charters in 
the words Sunninga-wyl broc, 4 and survives in that of 
Sonning on the river, Sunninghill and Sunningdale on the 
border of Surrey. Their district is mentioned as ' the 
province that is called the Sunninges,' so that it must have 
comprised a considerable area of country. The name is 
an interesting one, and may have been that given to 
these settlers by their neighbours about Wycombe and 
Bray, for the Sunninges were Southerners to the people 
near Wycombe ; but there is no evidence to show of what 
race they were. In this district there was, however, a 
place called Swaefes heale, which is named as a boundary 
of the land at Waltham given to Abingdon Abbey in 940. 
As mentioned elsewhere, Swsefas is a Northern name de- 
noting the Suevi, which is used as an equivalent for 
Saxons. Swaefes heale, therefore, may refer to a boun- 
dary which was the limit of the settlement of a Saxon, 
as Godan pearruc, mentioned in the same charter, was that 

" * Cart. Sax., i. 284 ; Hale, W. H., ' Domesday of St. Paul's,' 
p. Ixxv. 

2 Bracton, H. de, Note-book, ed. by Maitland, Case 988. 

3 Cart. Sax., i. 56. * Codex Dipl., 208, 441, 1202, etc. 

268 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

of a Goth. If this interpretation is the correct one, 
Swaefes heale points to Saxons settled in East Berkshire, 
with Scandians, Wends, and Goths as their neighbours. 

In this part of the country we also find the significant 
name of Cookham, mentioned in an Anglo-Saxon charter * 
as Coccham, in Domesday Book as Cocheham. As 
already pointed out, a similar name Ceokan-ege occurs 
in an early charter relating to Battersea. There are 
many examples which show that the sounds g and k 
were interchangeable in names of the Anglo-Saxon 
period. Higher up the valley we find similar names 
viz., Cuxham, Coxwell, and others. These apparently 
have a common source, in the tribal name of the 
Chaucians, the Frisian tribe near the mouth of the Elbe. 
The Chaucians, as previously mentioned, were also called 
Hocings, and both forms of their name are probably met 
with in place-names in the Thames valley. Hocheston, 
now part of London, is the Domesday name for Hoxton, 
and may denote the settlement of a Chaucian. In the 
eastern part of Berkshire we find separate hundreds 
mentioned in the Hundred Rolls for Sonning, Bray, 
Cogham or Cookham, and Windsor. This Cogham 
hundred of the thirteenth century may be a survival of 
a more ancient separate local administration, as the 
hundreds of Bray, Sunninges, and Windsor may be, of the 
original settlers at these places. Another entry under the 
name Cocheham occurs in Domesday Book in Burnham 
hundred in Buckinghamshire, not far from the Berkshire 
place of this name, so that some of this family or kindred 
appear to have lived on both sides of the river. 

In the north of Berkshire there is a river called the Ock, 
written in Anglo-Saxon charters in the inflected forms 
Eoccen and Eoccene, the nominative form being Eocce. 
Close to the west of Oxford there was a ford which is 
called Eoccen-ford in part of an early charter of Cead- 
walla which has been preserved in a later one. There 
1 Cart. Sax., i. 405. 

Settlements in the Thames Valley. 269 

was also land or a place close to this ford which in this 
charter is named Eoccene, and centuries later, in a charter 
of Eadwy, is called Occene. The river Ock flows into the 
Thames at Abingdon, but the Eoccene, or Occene, men- 
tioned in these last-named charters was certainly close to 
the west side of Oxford. The proof of this is seen in fol- 
lowing a set of boundaries of land given to Abingdon 
Abbey by Ceadwalla. These boundaries are passed as we 
proceed up the river from Sandford to the lower or old 
mouth of the Cherwell, up that river a short distance, 
round an old river island, down the other side of it again 
into the Thames, then up the river again, and further up 
the east side of a triangular or forked island which 
still exists on the west of Oxford, and down with the 
stream on its northern side into the main stream of the 
Thames again, and so on again up the river past Eoccene, 
the later Oseney, to Eoccen-ford. As there was only 
one river Cherwell, there can be no doubt that these 
boundaries lay close to Oxford. The mouth of the Cher- 
well is now changed by a new cut, but we can still stand on 
the west bank of the Thames north of the gasworks at 
Oxford, and see the water flowing along the north side 
of the forked island into the river, as described in 
Ceadwalla' s charter at the end of the seventh century. 
This subject has been fully discussed by the present writer 1 
in a series of articles on the origin of the place-name 
Oxford. Eoccen-ford is the earliest form of that name. 
The charter of Ceadwalla in which it occurs contains in- 
ternal evidence of its authenticity, and that Eoccen-ford 
was on the west side of Oxford is proved independently by 
the later charter of Eadwy. Many instances have been 
referred to in which streams have been named, both in 
Germany and England, after people settled along them. 
The supposition is that in North Berkshire and part of 
Oxfordshire there was a colony or tribe of people who bore 
the name Eocce, after whom the Ock River, the stream 
1 Notes and Queries, Ninth Series, vols. iii., iv., v., and vi. 

270 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

called the Oke at Hook Norton, and the ford at Oxford, 
were named. The question which concerns us is this : 
Is there any evidence to be gathered from the old place- 
names around Oxford or from other sources of the existence 
of people who may be identified with the supposed colony 
or tribe of people called Eocce ? The only tribe whose 
name appears possible in this respect is the Chaucians, a 
nation in alliance with the Frisians, who are believed to 
be the same people as the Hocings mentioned in Beowulf, 1 
in which an account is given of Hnaef, Prince of the 
Hocings, and Hengest the Jute, vassals of the Danish 
King Healfdene, who were sent to invade the Frisian terri- 
tory at that time governed by Fin, son of Folcwalda, and 
husband of Hildeburh, the daughter of Hoce. Whatever 
the name Eoccen-ford, the earliest name for Oxford, may 
mean, it should not be forgotten that in the old Frisian 
land, close to that in which the Chaucians lived, there 
was a place called Occenvorth. 2 

Latham, as already mentioned in Chapter V., says : 
' In Beowulf we read of the Hocings. Word for word, this 
is held to be the Chauci by all or most who have written 
upon the subject. 3 Hoeing means, not so much a 
Chaucus or Chaucian as of Chauch blood.' As regards 
the first syllable of Cuxhaven being derived from Chauc 
or Chauci, Latham says this has been suggested, and, he 
believes, adopted. As regards the variation in Angle 
Saxon spelling, Sweet quotes ch as equivalent to c, anc 
this as passing into h. 4 Thorpe quotes the Hetware tril 
as the same as the Chatuarii mentioned by Strabo. 
Latham tells us further that ch in Old Frisian is equivalent 

1 Lappenberg, J. M., ' Hist, of England under the Anglo- 
Saxon Kings,' i. 276, note, quoting Zeuss. 

2 Annales Egmundani : Monumenta Germaniae Script., 

3 Latham, R. G., ' English Language,' 5th Ed., 243. 

* Sweet, H., ' Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon,' Preface, xix. 
6 Thorpe, B., ' The Poems of Beowulf,' Glossarial Indej 
P. 3 J 9. 

Settlements in the Thames Valley. 271 

to Mn Anglo-Saxon. 1 Maetzner tells us that the aspirated 
ch was completely foreign to Anglo-Saxon before the 
eleventh century, 2 and he quotes the words did, cece, 
ceafor, ceosan, for the later English words child, cheek, 
chafer, and choose, as examples. These authorities will 
probably be held to be sufficient on this point. In dealing 
with the evidence of place-names in the Upper Thames 
valley which possibly may refer to the Hocings or 
Chaucians, there remains to be considered briefly the use 
of the aspirated h, or its omission. The Anglo-Saxon 
language was marked by the use of the aspirate, but there 
are examples which show its omission. Skeat attributes 
the modern English misuse of the h sound to French 
influence after the Norman Conquest, the French h being 
certainly weaker than the English, and hardly sounded. 3 
He admits, however, that a few sporadic examples may 
be found in Anglo-Saxon. 4 He gives as an example ors for 
hors (horse), found in an unedited Anglo-Saxon manuscript. 
The following also appear to be examples of its omission 
or misuse : ymen, ymn, for hymn ; 5 Ybernia for Hibernia ; 6 
Wulfhora and Wulfora 7 and Ockemere for Hokemere. 8 
There are other examples, such as Elig and Helig for Ely. 
The misuse of the h among the Anglo-Saxons may have 
been due partly to Wendish influence or that of settlers 
from other Baltic lands. The pastor Mithof tells us that 
a peculiarity of the Wends in his day was that whenever 
they spoke German they were in the habit of putting 
an h before words in which it did not exist, and 
leaving it out where it did. 9 Morfill says that the same 

1 Latham, R. G., loc. cit., p. 93. 

2 Maetzner, E., ' English Grammar,' i. 151. 

3 Skeat, W. W., ' Principles of English Etymology,' 359, 360. 

4 Notes and Queries, Seventh Series,- vi. no. 

6 Bosworth, J., Anglo-Saxon and English Dictionary. 

6 Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, edited by Thorpe. 

7 Codex Dipl., 1093 an d 1164. 

8 Cartulary of St. Frideswide, edited by Wigram, i., p. 4. 

9 Morfill, W. R., ' The Polabes,' Transactions Philolog. Soc., 
1880-1881, p. 85. 

272 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

confusion is found in Lithuania. 1 The misuse of the letter 
and its sound which is occasionally met with may there- 
fore have had its origin in settlers from the Baltic, and we 
have seen that there are Wendish place-names not far from 
Oxford. It is worth noting also, in reference to the aspirate 
h, that an old Frisian Chronicle of the thirteenth century 
has Engist for Hengist. 2 From what has been said, it will 
perhaps be admitted that the Anglo-Saxon aspirated h 
may not always have been sounded by all the Old English 
people, and that the h sound was used as an equivalent 
of that represented by the old ch. 

We may now go back to consider what evidence the 
place-names in the Upper Thames valley afford of a pos- 
sible settlement of Chaucians or Hocings. On the west 
of Oxford, near Farringdon, we find Coxwell, the Coches- 
welle of Domesday Book. South of Witney, in Standlake 
parish, is Cokethorpe, the Cocthrop of the Hundred Rolls, 
and east of Oxford, near Watlington, is Cuxham, the 
Anglo-Saxon Cuceshamm. 3 Coccetley Croft is also an 
old name near Abingdon. 4 Hochylle 5 is a name in the 
boundaries of Sandford-on-Thames, mentioned in Saxon 
time, and Hocslew is another mentioned in the boundaries 
of Witney. 6 Hocan-edisce was the name of a place in 
Berkshire on the Thames in the tenth century. 7 Hockes- 
well is mentioned in the Hundred Rolls, 8 and is apparently 
the same place as that now called Hawkswell, in the 
northern suburbs of Oxford. Hokemere is an ancient name 
at Cowley, 9 near Oxford, the same, apparently, as the 
Anglo-Saxon name Ockemere, 10 which occurs in an early 
charter relating to St. Frideswide's Abbey. Hochenartone, 

1 Morfill, W. R., loc. cit., p. 85. 

2 Bosworth, J., ' Origin of the English, German, and Scandi- 
navian Languages,' p. 52, quoting Spiegel. 

3 Codex Dipl., Nos. 311, 691. * Hundred Rolls, ii. 19. 
5 Codex Dipl., Nos. 793 and 800. 6 Ibid., No. 775. 

7 Cart. Sax., iii. 560. 

8 Hundred Rolls, ii. 35. 

9 Wood, A., ' Antiquities of Oxford,' edited by Clark, ii. 507. 
10 Cartulary of St. Frideswide, edited by Wigram, i., p. 4. 

Settlements in the Thames Valley. 273 

which had flowing from it the stream called by the old 
name Oke, is the Domesday name for Hook Norton, and in 
one of the manuscript copies of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 
under the date 914, it is written Hocceneretune. There 
was a place in Buckinghamshire called Hocsaga in Domes- 
day Book, and the tribal name of the Chaucians may 
have survived locally, like that of the Gewissas, until 
after the Norman Conquest ; for the Hundred Rolls 
relating to Oxfordshire show a greater number of inferior 
tenants entered under the names Choch, Cocus, Coc, and 
Hok than in any other county. 

The evidence of the settlement of Kentish people or 
others of the Frisian or Gothic race that is supplied by 
the relics which have been found in the Upper Thames 
valley is very strong. At Iffley and at Abingdon brooches 
of the peculiar Kentish pattern have been found, and are 
now shown in the Anglo-Saxon collection in the British 
Museum. The relics discovered at Brighthampton and 
Wittenham, where Anglo-Saxon cemeteries were explored, 
show a strong resemblance to those found by Kemble at 
Stade in North Germany. 1 The ornamented pattern of 
a mortuary urn containing cremated remains found at 
Brighthampton closely resembled one found at Stade, 
where a very large number were discovered, all apparently 
containing cremated remains. Urns containing calcined 
human bones were also numerously found at Wittenham, 
and were of a similar pattern to those found at Stade. 2 
In considering these resemblances, we must remember that 
Stade is near the lower course of the Elbe in the middle 
of the country anciently inhabited by the Chaucians. 

All these circumstances which indicate a settlement 
of Chaucians around Oxford among other Frisians, Goths, 
and Kentish people, cannot be mere coincidences. 

There remains one other point viz., the probability 
of some connection of the Chaucians with the Jutes. 

1 Akerman, J. Y., Archtsologia, vol. xxxvii. 

2 Ibid., vol. xxix. 


274 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

Holier 1 identifies the language of the Jutes and Kentish 
people with that of the Chaucians. There is, also, mention 
of a people named the Eucii in alliance with the Saxons, 
and that they settled in Kent. These may be a tribe of 
the Chaucians, for Hengist and Horsa are said to have 
come from Engern, which at that time extended over 
the land of the old Chaucians on the Lower Weser. 2 The 
reference, whether traditional or otherwise, to a tribe 
known as the Eucii cannot but be of interest in consider- 
ing the evidence which points to the existence of a tribe 
of Eocce in North Berkshire, of which some of the surviving 
traces may be the names of the river Ock, the Oke stream 
at Hook Norton, and that of Eoccenford, the earliest 
name for Oxford. 

The personal freedom of all the people of Kent assists 
us in tracing the probable colonization of parts of the 
Upper Thames valley by migrations from that county. 
The manorial tenants called cottars, who are mentioned 
in Domesday Book, were freemen in some respects, and, 
as already stated, are found in considerable numbers in 
Middlesex. They occur still more frequently in parts 
of Berkshire near the river, and are also mentioned 
numerously in parts of Oxfordshire in the Hundred 
Rolls. The Berkshire cottars enumerated in the Domes- 
day Survey lived in certain hundreds and not in others. 
These hundreds were Benes or Cookham ; Heslitesford, 
near Wallingford ; Blewbury, adjoining it on the west ; 
Wantage ; and Gamensfeld or Ganfield, which lay be- 
tween the Wantage Hundred and the Thames. Five 
Berkshire hundreds close to, or not far from, the river 
were thus specially characterised by cottars. That they 
were the descendants of an original class of free settlers 
is probable from their number in various places. Cholsey 
had 98 of them, and Blewbury 65. In Heslitesford 
Hundred, which included Cholsey, there were altogether 

1 Molter, H., 'Das Altenglische Volksepos.' 

2 Meitzen, A., ' Siedelung und Agrarwesen der Westgermanen 

11. 101. 

Settlements in the Thames Valley. 275 

144, and in Blewbury Hundred, anciently known as 
Blitberie, there were 166. They thus appear to have 
been too numerous as a class in these localities for their 
origin to be explained otherwise than as probable de- 
scendants of original free settlers. From the other 
evidence already stated, the migration up the river of 
colonists from Kent can scarcely be open to doubt, and 
the existence, centuries later, of these numerous cottars 
settled collectively in parts of the county near the river 
leads to the same conclusion. 

One of the significant statements in Domesday Book 
relating to Oxfordshire is this : ' If any shall kill 
another in his own court or house, his body and all 
his substance shall be in the King's power, except his 
wife's portion, if she has any.' This refers to a privilege 
which corresponds to that of the Kentish tenants in 
gavelkind viz., that a gavelkind tenant's land was not 
forfeited if he should be convicted of felony. The 
custom in Oxfordshire was not general, as will be seen 
by the Domesday extract. If the widow was entitled 
to dower, her share of the husband's estate could not be 
forfeited, but there were some people in Oxfordshire at 
that time whose widows had no dower, as may be inferred 
from the words ' if she has any.' This Domesday entry 
points to the custom having been an old one, and indi- 
cates the probable migration of people up the Thames 
from Kent, where the widow was entitled to half her 
husband's estate for her life, and from the manors in 
Surrey and Middlesex where, by the custom of borough- 
English, she was entitled to the whole for her life. The 
Hundred Rolls for Oxfordshire confirm the probability 
of such migrations, for they contain some entries which 
show that widows held a virgate of land each among 
other virgate-holding tenants, and others showing widows 
holding only half a virgate * i.e., half the customary 
holding. The Hundred Rolls also show, in the occur- 

1 Hundred Rolls, ii. 700, 717, 724, 739, 740, 742, etc. 

18 2 

276 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

rence of the personal name Franklin in Oxfordshire, 
the probability of the migration of Kentish freeholders 
called Franklins from their homes in Kent. 

Similarly, in the Upper Thames valley we find examples 
of parcenary tenure or partible inheritance that resembled 
in its main features the gavelkind custom of Kent. 
Domesday Book tells us of brothers holding land jointly 
at Burfield in Berkshire, Hook Norton in Oxfordshire, 
Hevaford (Hatford) in North Berkshire, and at Cerney, 
near Cirencester. It is not improbable, also, that the 
many instances in Berkshire and Oxfordshire in which 
manors were held in the time of Edward the Confessor 
collectively by thanes or freemen are examples of the 
same kind, such as that of Brize Norton, which was held 
by fourteen thanes, who were probably of the same 
kindred. These instances, which are numerous, are 
apparently examples of manors that were taxed as a 
whole, but held collectively, as in Kent, by brothers, 
uncles, and other kinsmen. 

The custom of junior inheritance is known to have 
prevailed at Binsey, 1 near Oxford ; Garford, 2 near 
Abingdon ; and Crowmarsh, 3 close to Wallingford. These 
examples are probably the only survivals of a custom 
that prevailed in a larger number of places in the Anglo- 
Saxon period, but which were changed under the feudal 
system. They show, in any case, an identity with the 
borough-English custom that existed on so many manors 
around London, and point to probable migrations from 
Sussex or Surrey. 

The early settlers who came from the south into the 
valleys of the Upper Thames and of its tributary streams, 
the Evenlode, Windrush, and others, whose sources are 
in East Gloucestershire, probably travelled along the 
great Roman road that extended from Southampton 

1 Wood, A., ' Antiquities of Oxford,' edited by Clark, i. 323. 

2 Bracton's ' Note-book,' edited by Maitland, No. 779. 

3 Ibid., No. 1005. 

Settlements in the Thames Valley. 277 

Water through Winchester to Cirencester. This road 
can be followed at the present time for the greater part 
of its course, so that there can be no doubt whatever of 
the facilities it offered for a migration from the south 
coast. At Cirencester it joined the Fosse Way that 
connected Bath with Lincoln. By proceeding along this 
latter road colonists could pass to north-east Gloucester- 
shire, where the observations of Beddoe upon the present 
ethnological character of the people show that the original 
settlers were probably fair people of the so-called Saxon 
type. 1 The ancient place-names along the border of 
Oxfordshire and Gloucestershire are of much interest, 
and point to settlers of various tribes and races, as will 
be discussed in a subsequent chapter. From Cirencester, 
also, the road known as Akeman Street passed eastward, 
through the middle of Oxfordshire, and thence into 
Buckinghamshire and the country that was brought 
under the West Saxon rule in the time of Ceawlin. The 
east and south of Berkshire were connected with South- 
ampton Water by the great road from Winchester through 
Silchester, although its course beyond the north gate 
of Silchester cannot now be followed. A way of less 
importance also passed from Hampshire northwards 
through Speen, near Newbury, so that there were three 
roads which led directly into the Thames valley from 
the south. 

The available evidence relating to the dialects that 
have survived also points to migrations from the south- 
Eastern counties up the Thames. The researches made 
on English dialects by Prince Lucien L. Bonaparte 2 and 
A. J. Ellis agree in the conclusion that the dialect of the 
south-eastern part of England extends up the Thames 
valley into Oxfordshire. 3 The dialect of east Gloucester- 

1 Beddoe, J., ' Races in Britain,' 257. 

2 Philological Soc. Transactions, 1875-1876, p. 570. 

3 Ellis, A. J., ' Early English Pronunciation,' Map of Dialect 

278 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

shire, however, has been classed with that of parts of 
Hampshire and Dorset, with which counties, as shown, 
it was in direct communication. 

As regards the villages, those of Oxfordshire and 
Berkshire for the most part consist of collected home- 
steads. The old maps of both counties, made before 
the enclosures of the great areas of common land, show 
this in a remarkable way. If, therefore, we may draw 
a conclusion from the resemblance which the shape of 
the old villages of Oxfordshire, especially those in the 
northern half of the county, bear to those in Germany 
east of the Weser and north of the Elbe, it is probable 
that a considerable proportion of the settlers in that 
county came from these Continental areas. 

The conclusion in regard to the actual settlement which 
appears to be most probable is that the valley of the 
Upper Thames was first occupied partly by a migration 
of Gewissas from the South, and partly by Kentish 
people or Goths and Frisians, with some Wends, who 
came up the river. 



ONE of the most interesting circumstances connected 
with the settlement of Essex is the old Kentish 
colony which was formed in the north-east of 
the county, and was part of the territory belonging to 
St. Paul's Cathedral. 

^Ethelbert, King of Kent, was the overlord of Essex 
in the beginning of the seventh century. He was also 
the founder of St. Paul's, and endowed it and the Bishopric 
of London with its earliest estates. Three centuries 
after his time ^Ethelstan, King of Wessex, confirmed 
its possessions to the Church. The date and authen- 
ticity of the charter in which .ZEthelstan is said to have 
done this is perhaps doubtful, but it is not doubtful 
that the landed estates of the See of London had been 
held beyond the memory of man in ^Ethelstan's time. 
The estate of this church in the north-east of Essex 
comprised Walton-on-the-Naze and the adjoining parishes 
of Kirby-le-Soken and Thorpe-le-Soken. These parishes 
were known as the ' Liberty of the Soke ' for many 
centuries, and comprised several later manors within 
them. The name for this district in the Anglo-Saxon 
period was ^Edulfness or ^Eduves-nasa. 

That this district on the north-east coast of Essex 
was a Kentish colony is proved by its customs, which 
were identical with the gavelkind customs of Kent in 

the following particulars : 


280 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

1. The lands in .Edulfness, or the later Liberty of the 
Soke, were divisible among sons, and failing these, among 
daughters, as in Kent. The evidence of this is found 
in the record known as the ' Domesday of St. Paul's,' in 
which a list of tenants is given. In some of these entries 
the sons are named, and in others the daughters, as holding 
their father's land in the year 1222, according to ancient 

2. The services due from the tenants are laid on the 
hides and not on the actual tenements. This was the 
case in Kent. Each hide, or, as in Kent, each sulong 
the distinction being only in name included a great 
number of plots. Some of these plots were very small, 
and in many instances the same person held plots in 
several hides. The system in the Essex soke was in this 
essential particular the Kentish system. 

3. The widows of tenants had their dower lands, as in 
Kent, many entries of such lands being mentioned in 
the ' Domesday of St. Paul's.' 

4. The tenants paid gafol, or small money rents, as in 

5. They could pull down their houses or lease them, as 
in Kent, without their lord's license, and in other ways 
act with a degree of freedom unknown on other manors 
in Essex, but common in Kent. 

Within this ancient soke are Horsey Island and Peutie, 
or Pewit, Island, identical in name to Horsey and Peutie, 
or Pewit, Islands in the north of Portsmouth Harbour, 
and within the territory of the Jutes in Hampshire, who 
were themselves closely connected with the people of Kent. 

There is no record relating to the settlement of East 
Anglia and Essex similar to those concerning Kent, 
Sussex, and Wessex. All we know is that attacks on 
this part of England were many and often by people fiom 
Germany, who settled in these counties and in Mercia. 1 

1 Henry of Huntingdon, ' History of the English,' edited b] 
Arnold, p. 48. 

Settlers in Essex and East Anglia. 281 

The East Anglian State was probably form'ed in the sixth 
century, for Bede tells us of its King Raedwald, son of 
Tytilus, whose father was Uffa, 1 and Rsedwald is certainly 

The East Anglian people in the ninth century do not 
appear to have been regarded as different in designation 
from those of Essex, for Asser, in his ' Life of Alfred,' says, 
under the year 866, that ' a large fleet of pagans came to 
Britain and wintered in the kingdom of the Eastern 
Saxons which is called in Saxon East Anglia.' The 
important later ethnological circumstance in Norfolk and 
Suffolk is the large settlement of Danes, who appear to 
have been, according to Malmesbury, the ancestors of 
the free tenants or sokemen who were so numerous at 
the time of the Domesday Survey. Ethelweard, in his 
Chronicle, tells us that after the peace between Alfred 
and Guthrum the Danes went into East Anglia and 
reduced all the inhabitants of .those parts to subjection. 
Malmesbury also tells us that they held East Anglia in 
subjection during their later invasions, and that in the 
early part of the eleventh century i.e., in the time of 
Cnut they distributed themselves as best suited their 
convenience in the towns or in the country. 

Among the Essex place-names apparently derived from 
those of known Germanic tribes is Ongar, which appears 
to have come from the Old Saxon Angarian tribal name. 
Its old forms in Domesday Book are Angra and Angre. 
In a Saxon charter 2 a stream called Angrices-burne is 
also mentioned. 

The name Coggeshall may possibly have been derived 
from a settler of the Chaucian tribe, and Amberden 
or Amberdon from the Old Saxon Ambrones. In 
the north-west corner of the county we find old places 
named Radwinter and Quendon, and these words, Wintr 
and Quen, are Old Danish or Norrena for Wend and Fin. 

In this district, also, there are names such as Wixhoe, 

1 Beda, ' Hist. Eccl.,' ii. 15. 2 Codex Dipl., No. 104. 

282 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

Duddenhoe, Farnham, Haverill, Wicken, and others, 
pointing to Norrena-speaking people. There are several 
groups of names in Essex, such as Roothings and Raines, 
which have been derived from clan settlements. The 
eight places called Roothing are all near each other, 
and Braintree, anciently Rayne Magna, was a centre of 
the settlement of people called by the clan-name Rayne. 
Dengy, also called Danesey, near the coast, points to 
Danish occupants. 

The Old English place-names 1 in Essex that are 
suggestive of settlements of families or communities of 
Wends are important. They are Wenesuuic, Wendena', 
Weninchou, Wenesteda', and the hundred name Wen- 
sistreu. These names appear to have been chiefly those 
of localities in the south and west of the county, and 
Wanstead, the ancient Wenesteda', survives. There is 
also an old place in Essex close to the Thames called 
Wenington. 2 When we remember the evidence of 
settlements of Wends, whether named from heads ot 
families or communities, which exists in the place-names 
and surviving customs in the higher parts of the valley 
of the Thames, there can be little doubt that these old 
place-names in Esssex point to people of the same race. 
The name Wendena in the genitive plural appears to 
denote a kindred of them. The modern name is Wendens, 
south of Chesterford, where the custom of borough- 
English survived, and this confirms the Wendish origin 
of the name. From the evidence of probable Wendish 
settlements in Essex, Sussex, and parts of Wessex, it 
would appear that the Saxons at the time of the settle- 
ment of these parts of England were in alliance with some 
tribe or tribes of Wends, as the Continental Saxons were 
with the Wendish Wiltzi in the time of Charlemagne. 
These Wend names in Essex and elsewhere in England can 
be compared with similar names in the old frontier lands 

1 Domesday Book, Index to vol. ii. 

2 Morant, P., ' History of Essex,' vol. i. 85. 

Settlers in Essex and East Anglia. 283 

in the East of Germany, and even to this'day the Fins 
call Russia Wennalaiset, or the land of the Wends. 1 

There are in Essex other traces of Wendish settlements. 
Of these, Hauelingas, which is the Domesday name of 
places in two hundreds, is remarkable, in view of the 
statement of King Alfred that the Wendish tribe known 
as the Wilte or Wiltzi were also called the men of 
Havel. 2 It is direct evidence of the settlement of people 
called by the tribal name Havel. 

The Essex Domesday names Ruuenhala and Ruenhale 
may also reasonably be connected with settlers who were 
Rugians. These names are similar to those found 
relating to Rugians in old Germanic records, and with 
those in the Saxon charters relating to Wiltshire, Dorset, 
Somerset, and Hampshire. 

In East Anglia there is sufficient evidence that Frisians, 
including Chaucians and Hunsings, and Wends, including 
Wilte, must be regarded as among the settlers. These 
people were certainly not of the Anglian race as known 
to Charlemagne, or of the Angli as known in the time of 
Tacitus. There are still remaining in East Anglia traces 
of Saxon settlers. The earliest record we have of Teutonic 
people on the shores of the eastern counties is that of 
Saxons. The name was, no doubt, sometimes used for 
Frisian, and Frisian for Saxon. The Frisian ports were 
Saxon outlets to the sea, and it would thus be likely that 
some Saxons would be called Frisians, and vice versa. 
Domesday Book tells us of Saxon place-names Sax- 
alinghaham and Sastorp in Norfolk, Saxmondeham, Sax- 
ham, and Saxteda in Suffolk, some of which remain at 
the present time. Among the early Continental Saxons 
was the pagus or tribe known as the Bucki, of whom 
records exist as far back as A.D. 775-776,3 and in Norfolk 
we find Bucchesteda, Buccham,Bucham Regis, Buchestuna, 

1 Morfill, W. R., ' Slavonic Literature,' 35. 

2 King Alfred's ' Orosius.' 

3 Monumenta Germanise, Script, i. 155. 

284 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

Buchenham, and other names derived from settlers 
recorded in Domesday Book. 

The name East Anglia which was applied to the 
country of the North folk and South folk is misleading 
to some extent, for it seems to imply that the .settlers 
were chiefly Angles. If they were all Angles from Danish 
and Scandinavian lands we might expect to find in these 
counties some traces of their runic letters. Runes have 
been found in the Anglian districts north and south of 
the Humber. They have not been found in Norfolk or 
Suffolk except in one eleventh-century inscription, which 
is of much later date. This is an important fact, espe- 
cially when considered in reference to the absence of any 
fixed runic monument or inscription in Friesland, Old 
Saxony, or any part of Germany. ' The monuments 
might have been destroyed and disappear,' says the 
greatest writer on runic monuments, ' but if they had 
ever existed in German or Saxon lands they would have 
left some trace behind them.' 1 

This at once establishes a sharp line of distinction 
between the Goths, Swedes, and Norwegians of Scandi- 
navia, the Danes, Angles, and Goths or Jutes of England, 
on the one hand, and the Saxons, Frisians, Wends, and 
other nations and tribes of Germany on the other hand. 
As the latter have left no monuments with runic inscrip- 
tions in their original homes, and as certain parts of 
England which are supposed to have been mainly 
colonized by them are also marked by the absence of such 
monuments, the runic inscriptions on fixed objects in 
England help to prove the settlement in some parts of 
the country of Goths and other Scandinavians, whether 
called Anglians or Jutes, or by their later names of Norse 
and Danes. Similarly, the absence of such inscriptions 
appears to point to the colonization mainly of those parts 
of the country which are wanting in them by settlers 
of other races. 

1 Stephens, G., ' The Old Northern Runic Monuments,' i., p. viii. 

Settlers in Essex and East Anglia. 285 

The absence in East Anglia of fixed runic inscriptions, 
except a late example about A.D. 1050 in the church at 
Aldborough, 1 therefore suggests the inquiry whether East 
Anglia was not originally occupied partly by settlers of 
Frisian and German origin rather than exclusively by 
colonists of the Anglian race. It is evidence also that 
its early colonists came mainly from north German 
lands rather than from the original homes of the people 
known as Angles. Viewed in this light, the original 
settlement of the eastern counties must be regarded as 
more Saxon than Anglian, more Frisian than Gothic or 
Scandian. As regards the Goths, Beddoe 2 has, however, 
pointed out that the name of Tytila (A.D. 586), son of 
Uffa, King of East Anglia, is very like that of Totila, 
King of the Ostrogoths. 

In the eastern counties, as elsewhere, the place-names 
derived from people are probably as old as the settlement. 
The places must have been the abodes of men after whom 
they were named, and where they were designated by 
tribal names it probably was because their occupants 
were of these tribes. 

When we think how few must have been the original 
places of settlement in any county compared with the 
total number of inhabited places at the present time, the 
survival of even a few place-names which may be re- 
ferred to clan or tribal names must be regarded as re- 
markable. Many very old tribal or family names have, 
however, survived, of which only a few of each type 
can be quoted, such as Hunn and Finbo. Hunn is a 
family name at the present time at Old Hunstanton in 
Norfolk, which derived. its name, apparently, from one 
or more settlers that were called Hunn. Finbo also sur- 
vives in the same neighbourhood. These names point to 
the settlement in this part of England of some individuals 
of the Hunsing and Fin tribes. 

1 Stephens, G., loc. cit., i. xxiii. 

2 Beddoe, J., ' Races of Britain,' p. 42. 

286 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

The survival, also, here and there in these counties of 
customs of inheritance that are different from the common 
customs point, probably, to different tribal usages of a very 
remote origin which were brought by early tribal settlers. 

Many years ago some remarkable burial urns of the 
Anglo-Saxon age were found at Eye in Suffolk, and at 
Little Wilbraham in Cambridgeshire. Another large 
collection was found at Stade in the old Chaucian country 
of North Germany. Kemble says of these collections : 
' Generally the urns in sepulchres of North Europe are 
not of a complicated character. The urns found at Stade, 
as well as those from Eye and Little Wilbraham, are, how- 
ever, beaten out and embossed, the raised parts most 
likely pressed out with the thumb.' ' The urns embossed 
like those at Eye, at Wilbraham, and at Stade stand by 
themselves.' 1 This is a remarkable coincidence, for it 
is near Eye that we find such old place-names as Fressing- 
field and Hoxne, names that are probably traces of 
Frisians and Hocings i.e., Chaucians. Stade is in the 
old Chaucian county, and Hoxne is written in Domes- 
day Book in the genitive plural form Hoxna. 

Among many places which have old tribal names in 
Norfolk, we find both Wendling and Winterton, and 
these not improbably refer to settlers of the same race, 
who were called Wends by German tribes, such as the 
Frisians, and Winthr by the Scandians. The names 
Wendling and Winterton, which were probably given to 
these places by the neighbouring settlers, may, perhaps, 
point to people mainly of Frisian descent near W T endling, 
and to people mainly of Scandinavian descent near 
Winterton. The name Somerton, which occurs close to 
Winterton in Norfolk, is probably of later origin, and 
arose after the word Wintr had ceased to be understood 
as a race name. The name Wintretuna or Wintretona 
occurs in nine entries in that part of Domesday Book 
which relates to Norfolk. 

1 Kemble, J. M., Archaologia, xxxvi. 273. 

Settlers in Essex and East Anglia. 287 

King Alfred, in his ' Orosius,' says that Wendland was 
also called Syssele, and in the old name Syselond in the 
Norfolk Hundred of Launditch we probably have a trace 
of it. This hundred, named Lauuendic in Domesday 
Book, may be compared in name with Lauenberg, a 
province and city on the Elbe, in part of the Wendish area 
of North-East Germany. The river Wensum flowed on 
the east of the hundred of Launditch, and among the 
Anglo-Saxon place-names on its banks are Wenlinga, 
Lawingham, Leccesham, Goduic, and Elmenham. 

It is not suggested that settlements of Wends in the 
eastern counties, or, indeed, in any part of England, were 
relatively numerous, but the collective evidence con- 
cerning such settlers appears to be great. 

Owing to the later Danish settlement, Lincolnshire 
and Norfolk have an abundance of names of Danish origin. 
These counties and the East Riding are marked by the 
-bys and -thorpes, which will be considered under Lincoln- 
shire. The country of the Danes was small, and the 
parts of England they colonized were large. It is certain, 
therefore, that they must have had allies who came in 
with them. There are historical references to their 
alliances or political connections with Swedes, Esthonians, 
Livonians, Kurlanders, and Wends. 1 Some of these 
probably settled in England. In the country to which 
the Wash is the entrance from the sea there are old place- 
names still surviving which appear to point to the 
Wilte, one of the Wendish tribes. In Lincolnshire we 
find Wilingha, Wilsthorp, Wilgesbi ; in Cambridgeshire, 
Wandlebury ; in Northamptonshire, Wilaveston, Wend- 
lingborough, now Wellingborough ; and in Huntingdon- 
shire, Wansford and Wintringham. Frisians are denoted 
by many such names as Friston in Lincolnshire, Hunston 
or Hunstanton in Norfolk, while Swaffham in Cambridge- 
shire and in Norfolk may reasonably be connected with 
settlers who bore names derived from the Swaefas or 
1 Saxo Grammaticus. 

288 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

Suevi, a tribe of, or closely connected with, the Saxons. 
The significant old place-name Wynter-worda occurs in 
the early records of Ely, 1 and may possibly be a survival 
of a Norrena or Northern Gothic name for a worth that 
was the home of a man named Winthr i.e., a Wend. 

Among the Domesday places mentioned in Suffolk 
are Wellingaham, Humbresfelda, Scadena, Scadenafella, 
and Elga. The name Wellingaham denotes the home 
of a community known as Wellings, and the only known 
people of this name are the W T eletabi or Wilte. Hum- 
bresfelda apparently refers to settlers of the tribal 
Ambrones or Old Saxons from the country along the 
ancient Ambra or Ems. The Scadena name may point 
to Scandians, and Elga probably to a clan or ga different 
from those near it. Most of these names so closely 
resemble tribal names that it is very difficult to see what 
their origin could have been other than tribal. The 
English race in all parts of the country appears to have 
resulted from the blending of people of the same nations 
or tribes, but in varying proportions. In the eastern 
counties the later Danes formed a large proportion, and 
the racial characters of the English of Norfolk and 
Suffolk must have been modified greatly by the later 
Danish admixture. In the old record known as the 
' Liber de Hyda ' we find what is apparently a reference to 
this. The writer says that Off a first reigned in East 
Anglia, the people of which ' were called Offingas, but 
now they are called Fykeys.' 2 A fusion of race had 
apparently occurred. 

As regards old customs of inheritance in the eastern 
counties, that which prevailed in Ipswich was the par- 
tible custom between all the children, male and female. 
The old book called ' The Domus Day of Gippeswich ' 
says : ' Alle tenementz in the foreseid' toun ben partable 
as weel betwixen heires male, as betwixen heyres female, 

1 Inquisitio Eliensis, Index. 

2 Liber de Hyda, edited by Edwards, E., p. 10. 

Settlers in Essex and East Anglia. 289 

and zif they be not forclosed by zifte or be devis of her 
antecessourys.' ' And zif the heritage be parted betwixen 
hem by her comoun assent, thanne have the eldere par- 
cener avauntage to chesyn which part that he wil.' 1 
This custom points to the Frisians or Goths, and that 
Frisians largely settled in the eastern counties there can 
be no doubt. The general custom of inheritance among 
the Frisians was the partibility of the property equally 
among all the children, males and females. It will be 
noted that the burgesses of Ipswich had the same privi- 
leges as those of London and the people of Kent in regard 
to devising their estates or conveying them to others, and 
the evidence is strong that both Kent and the neighbour- 
hood of London was partly settled by Frisians. 

In the eastern counties there are a considerable number 
of manors in which some form of the custom of borough- 
English or junior right survived as the customary mode 
of inheritance. Corner, who investigated this subject, 
tells us that he found it on eighty-four manors in Suffolk. 2 
He also states that there were fourteen in Essex and 
twelve in Norfolk known to him. 3 Among the Norfolk 
manors are Kenninghall, Gessinghall, Herling Thorp, 
Semere Hall, and Thelton. Among the Suffolk manors 
are Sibton and its members, Yoxford and its members, 
Aldborough, Hoxne, Brockford near Woodbridge, Fres- 
singfield, Elmswell (Framlingham), Geslingham, Paken- 
ham, Middleton, and Mendlesham. The members of 
the Court Leet of Clare were called Headboroughs, a 
similar name to that in use in Sussex, where borough- 
English largely prevailed. Among the Essex manors 
are Maiden, Chesterfield, South Berstead, Tony Wal- 
thamstow, Wivenhoe, Wikes, Wrabness, and Woodford. 

1 ' The Black Book of the Admiralty,' edited by Sir T. Twiss, 
ii. 121-123. 

2 Bury and West Suffolk Arch. Inst. Proceedings, vol. ii., pp. 227- 


3 Elton, C. I., ' Robinson on Gavelkind,' quoting Corner's list. 


290 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

It is not likely that this custom originated on these 
several manors. It is more probable that it was intro- 
duced by communities of settlers who brought it from 
the Continent, and it is not necessary to look for its 
origin entirely to Wendish tribes, for it is known to 
exist in some parts of Friesland, whence in some instances 
it may have been introduced by Frisian tribal settlers, 
and as their descendants formed new colonies or new 
rural settlements, the custom may have spread with 
the growth of the population. Although the custom of 
junior right, by which the youngest son in the partition 
of the father's possessions retained the homestead, was 
followed in some parts of Frisia, the prevailing general 
custom among the Frisians, as already stated, was partible 
inheritance, and if Norfolk and Suffolk received Frisian 
settlers, as there is reason to believe they did, we may 
look for survivals of that custom as well as the custom 
of junior succession. We find that customs of partible 
inheritance in these counties are mentioned by Bracton 
in the early law cases. He quotes cases at Altingeham, 
Fisinges, and Hecham in Norfolk, and at Gipewico or 
Ipswich, Illegha, Lillesheya, and Sproutona in Suffolk. 1 

The records of the Court of King's Bench, Hiliary Term, 
20 Edward III., also show that the lands within the Fee 
of Pickering were partible among males. 2 The old manor 
of Clipsby in Norfolk was alleged to be within this fee 
and had this custom. The Marshall's Fee and Billockby 
in the same county had a similar custom, 3 as had also the 
lordship called Perting Fee, at Saxham in Suffolk. 4 

In Cambridgeshire there are two names of hundreds 
mentioned in Domesday Book of much interest viz., 
Wederlai and Flamindic. The first so much resembles 
the name Wederas, 5 which was that of the Goths of the 

1 Bracton, H. de, ' Note-book,' edited by Maitland. 

2 Elton, C. I., loc. cit., 33. 3 Ibid., 34-36. * Ibid., 40. 
6 ' The Scop, or Gleeman's Tale,' edited by B. Thorpe, Glc 

sarial Index. 

Settlers in Essex and East Anglia. 291 

Wedermearc east of Lake Wetter in anCient Gothland, 
that it is difficult to see a more reasonable origin of the 
name, especially in a county which affords so many other 
traces of settlements of Northmen. The name Flamindic, 
similarly, appears to point to some of the people who 
were among the earliest to be known as Flemings. The 
survival of the old name Wendlebury for the earthwork 
on the Gog Magog Hills near Cambridge may be com- 
pared with the similar old name Wendlebury north- 
east of Oxford, and with Wendel Hill in the Elmet 
district of Yorkshire, all apparently referring to settlers 
who were called by this name. Among other significant 
Cambridgeshire place-names is Hinxton, which is cer- 
tainly a contraction of Hengesteston, the town of Hen- 
gest. Leverington, written Liuerington in 1285, prob- 
ably represents a tribal name, as also do Hockington, the 
town of the Hockings, and Haslingfield, written Haslinge- 
feld in Domesday Book, the field of the Haeslings. 1 

The chief circumstances we can discover in the records 
of Cambridgeshire concerning the classes of tenants 
within it and their customs point more clearly to the 
later settlement of Danes than to the earlier one of 
Anglians and their allies. There was at the time of 
Domesday Survey a considerable number of cottars in 
this county, and in the Hundred Rolls, in which the 
actual holders of the land are stated in detail, a large 
number of small free tenants are mentioned by name. 
The presence of numerous holders of crofts, tofts, or 
other small tenements is a striking character of the 
records in the Hundred Rolls relating to this county. 
The very large number of small holdings of various 
sizes 12, 10, 7, 3, 2, 2 acres, also i acres and i acre 
which were held in many places in Cambridgeshire 
proves that the customary and small free tenements 
were divided on inheritance, as in Gothland and in 

1 Skeat, W. W., Cambridge Antiquarian Soc., Oct. Pub., xxxvi. 

19 2 

292 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

Another feature is the number of widows holding land, 
and in some instances it is expressly stated that they 
hold their tenements for life, so that it must have been 
by customary right. These circumstances point to small 
tenants who were free and, as mentioned in many in- 
stances, paid small rents, in lieu of personal services. 
On some manors parceners are mentioned. In the town 
of Cambridge, Domesday Book tells us of lahmen, which 
shows that officers originally Danish survived there. 
The burgesses also had the power of devising their 
tenements by will. These customs indicate that in the 
earlier or later Scandinavian or Danish settlements a 
large number of free tenants were located in this county, 
and retained their personal freedom and privileges. In 
Cambridgeshire the frequency of the lordless village type 
is a prominent feature of the Domesday record, as pointed 
out by Maitland. 

As regards the dialect of the eastern counties, one of 
the most interesting circumstances is that stated by Ellis, 
who says : ' It is remarkable that in the American colonies, 
afterwards the United States, a distinctly East Anglian 
character was introduced.' 1 There was, as is well known, 
a large emigration from East Anglia. Ellis also says : 
' In intonation, the " drant " of Norfolk and the " whine " 
of Suffolk are well known, but, like other intonations, are 
difficult to understand, and practically impossible to 
symbolize.' 2 The Suffolk is the broader and more drawl- 
ing intonation, the speaker's voice running up and down 
half an octave of sharp notes. Whatever may be the 
origin of these intonations, we may probably conclude 
from their variations that there were some tribal differ- 
ences in the original settlers from whom the people of 
the two counties are descended. 

Mackintosh, half a century ago, expressed his opinion 
that 'a considerable proportion of the inhabitants of 

1 Ellis, A. J., ' English Dialects, their Sounds and Homes,' p. 87. 

2 Ibid., p. 59. 

Settlers in Essex and East Anglia. 293 

the East of England present the Dutch physical and 
mental characteristics, but the more influential inhabitants 
of Norfolk and the neighbourhood are Danes.' 1 This is 
what might be expected from- a settlement of ancient 
Frisians, and the subsequent domination of the Danes is 
perhaps indicated by the records of the tenure of land in 
Domesday Book, in which it is shown that there was in 
Norfolk a much larger proportion of freemen or sokemen 
than in any other part of England. These latter were 
presumably descendants of the Danish people, who 
supplanted or partly enslaved the descendants of the 
previous settlers. Beddoe says : ' A remarkable tall 
blonde race occupies the hundred of Flegg in the north- 
east of Norfolk, where the local names are Danish. 2 
The same physical characters have been observed around 
Debenham in Suffolk. People of a blonde complexion 
form the prevailing type in both Norfolk and Suffolk.' 
' In Cambridgeshire and the north-west of Essex,' says 
Mackintosh, ' there would appear to be mainly Saxons, 
but in the east and south of Essex the mass of the people 
show very few signs of Teutonic descent.' 3 The natural 
entrance open to settlers in Cambridgeshire and north- 
west Essex would be by way of the Wash and up the 
valleys of the Cam and its tributaries. The survival 
of various tribal names among the place-names of those 
districts appears to point to a mixed population of much 
the same tribes as those indicated by the names of Sussex 
and Wessex, among which Frisian, Jutish, or Gothic, 
and some of Wendish origin, can certainly be traced. In 
the same districts customs can be recognised which 
certainly prevailed among these tribal people. 

1 Mackintosh, D., Transactions of the Ethnological Soc., i. 221. 

2 Beddoe, J., loc. cit., 254. 

3 Mackintosh, D., loc. cit., i. 221. 



IT is to Scandinavia and Denmark mainly that we must 
look for any gleams of light in reference to the suc- 
cessive settlements of tribal people in Lincolnshire. 
This county was the country of the Old English tribes 
known as the Lindisware, or the Southumbrians,the Gainas 
and the Gyrwii, or Marshmen. There appears to have been 
much that was similar in the settlement of Norfolk and 
Lincolnshire. There is a similarity in their coast, with 
the same sand-dunes and gently-sloping reaches. As 
we stand on the cliff at Hunstanton on a clear day we see 
as far as the eye can reach the low sand-hills stretching 
away towards the east, and across the Wash on the 
Lincolnshire coast we see them lying before us for many 
miles towards the north-east. These coasts must have 
appeared to the ancient Angles and Danes very homelike, 
and similar to those they had left behind them in parts 
of Denmark. The country was open to them by the 
wide estuary of the Humber on the north, giving access 
to the valley of the Trent, and by the Wash, past Boston 
and Lynn, to the great fens. The physical features of 
the coast must have been attractive to a people who had 
been accustomed to similar surroundings in their old 
homes, and who would be able to make settlements with 
environments resembling those of the Danish lands they 
had left. Fen, heath, and forest made up a large pro- 


Tribal People in Lincolnshire. 295 

portion of the area of Lincolnshire at the time of the 
coming of the Angles and Danes. The great freshwater 
swamp formed by the confluence of the Don, the Went, 
the Ouse, and the Trent, in which the Isle of Axholm rose 
like a beacon, was the barrier that divided it from North- 
umbria. 1 Lincolnshire was the early Southumbria of 
Anglo-Saxon records, and is mentioned by this name 
in 702.2 

On the south was the great fen that reached from the 
coast along the course of the Witham almost as far as 
Lincoln, also westward almost to Sleaford, and from the 
north, near Horncastle, southwards into Cambridge- 
shire. West of this was the great heath between Sleaford 
and Lincoln, on which no ancient settlement could be 
made owing to the poverty of the soil, and on which, in 
later centuries, it was a pious work to erect a land light- 
house to guide travellers at night across it. Lincolnshire 
was not wanting in woodlands and forests, a necessity 
for all primitive settlements. That of Bruneswald 
covered a large extent of country south of Bourn, and 
part of the south of the county was also called the Forest 
of Arundel as late as the time of King John. 3 

In our endeavour to trace the character of its early 
colonization, careful attention must be given to the fact 
that Lincolnshire is pre-eminent among English counties 
as the land of the -bys and the -thorpes. These -bys 
were not domains of lords with their serfs, but were the 
characteristic communities, in their origin at least, of 
freemen come from Northern lands, living under tribal 
conditions similar to those they had left behind 
them. The -by place-names in Lincolnshire end where 
the old fens began. The settlement of this county is 
typical of settlements of people of the Old Anglian, 
Danish, and Northern races. Some Saxons and Frisians 

1 Pearson, C., ' Historical Maps,', p. 3. 

2 Freeman, E., ' English Towns and Districts,' 198. 

3 Saunders, J., ' History of the County of Lincoln,' p. 281. 

296 Origin of the Anglo Saxon Race. 

there must have been among them, as the old place-names 
indicate, but the villages which the Danes established 
were clearly part of a State or States in which the pre- 
vailing type of settlement was Scandian and not Ger- 
manic. Nothing is more remarkable in considering the 
evidence which the Domesday Book affords of the different 
classes of tenants who cultivated the land on which they 
lived than the far greater proportion of freemen or socmen 
settled within the old Dane-law, as compared with those 
parts of Mercia to the west of it or with Wessex. The 
-ing place-names which are characteristic of the Saxon 
State are not conspicuous in Lincolnshire, but the -bys 
and -thorpes abound. These -bys apparently mark the 
Old English homes of men among whom the German 
system of village life was not the prevailing one, and on 
looking for their analogies in Continental lands, we must 
turn to Denmark and the Scandian peninsula. As 
already mentioned, the ancient kingdom of the Danes 
about A.D. 880 included the provinces of Skane, Halland, 
and Blekinge. 1 It will be seen, therefore, that emigrants 
from these provinces who in the ninth century would be 
called Danes were probably also called by their tribal 

If we study the settlement of England by the light of 
the very scanty historical records alone which have come 
down to us, without reference to that which may be 
derived from the archaeology and anthropology of the 
districts from which our forefathers came, we shall not 
be able to arrive at any conclusion more satisfactory than 
that which satisfied the chroniclers who copied from 
Bede. They tell us noth'ing of runes or of the parts of 
the Continent where the people lived who wrote in these 
old characters, and where they did not, which we now 
know from archaeological inquiry; nor do they tell us 
anything of the different shapes of the skulls or the com- 
plexion of the Anglo-Saxon people in various parts of 
1 Otte, E. C., ' Denmark and Iceland,' p. 69. 

Tribal People in Lincolnshire. 297 

England, but we now know from anthropological dis- 
coveries that there were important differences. We 
gather very little from the chroniclers concerning the 
Anglo-Saxon courts and judicial procedure, but we can 
learn much about these from the codes or collections of 
primitive laws which have been preserved, and by a 
comparison of them with those that have come down 
to us in other countries from which some of the Old 
English came. Similarly, the local customs which have 
survived on many manors, and in some cases in wide 
districts, are but legal curiosities until they are compared 
with similar systems of local jurisprudence elsewhere, in 
the Continental countries from which our remote fore- 
fathers came. It is by such a comparison we should 
study the Lincolnshire -bys. These -by place-names are 
commonly regarded as Danish, but they are also Northern 
Gothic, as the numerous places-names ending in -by to 
this day in Swedish Gothland prove. This shows that 
some of these places may have got their names from 
so-called Anglians. The strongest evidence as to what 
these -by places really were is found in ancient Gothland, 
the old country from which we derive so much other 
information that throws light upon the origin of the 
Anglo-Saxon race. 

The oldest legal code of any part of Sweden which has 
been preserved is the Westgota-lag, and this contains some 
references to the administration of local law in the early 
time among the Goths. It has already been pointed out 
that Anglo-Saxon legal procedure was local, that the 
Hundred Court was a very important institution, and that 
the right of proof between litigants, as to which of them it 
might be given, was a most important advantage. If the 
disputant to whom the right of proof legally belonged 
could bring forward the required number of oath-helpers, 
to declare on oath that they believed in his oath and the 
justice of his cause, he won his case. This right of proof 
is mentioned in the \\estgota-lag under the name of the 

298 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

* vita.' This old Gothic legal code contains much in- 
formation concerning the parties to disputes, and to 
which of them by ancient custom, apparently from time 
immemorial, the right of proof belonged. Thus, in a 
dispute between the Bishop and a bondi, or peasant pro- 
prietor, the right of proof belonged to the bondi. He 
had also the right of proof in any dispute between himself 
and the King, which circumstances may perhaps be ex- 
plained by the fact that the bondi as a class existed before 
either Bishop or King. 1 The value of this ancient local 
code in considering the original nature of the different 
kinds of English villages is in its reference to the by, 
the primitive village or rural community of Gothland. 
Between the bondi and anyone else, the bondi had the 
right of proof. This points to the ancient rights of the 
people, to an old democracy. Disputes might, however, 
arise between communities. Between the haeraed, or 
hundred, and the by, the hundred had the right of proof ; 
Between the by and the thorp, the by had this right, 
a circumstance which leads to two conclusions viz. : 
(i) That the right of proof given to the by was assigned 
practically to a number of freemen acting collectively as 
a community ; and (2) that the community of the by, 
having the right of proof in a dispute with the thorp, 
was the more important, and probably the earlier insti- 

All this is both interesting and important in consider- 
ing the settlement of bys and thorpes in England, and 
more especially in Lincolnshire and the East Riding. The 
people of Lincolnshire came from Anglian, Danish, and 
Scandian lands, where communities of this kind existed. 
They established settlements which they called bys anc 
thorpes on English soil, after the types of rural life to whicl 
they had been accustomed in their old countries, anc 
unless we are to believe that the English bys and thorpe; 

1 Jenks, Edward, ' The Problem of the Hundred,' Englis) 
Hist. Review, xi. 512. 

Tribal People in Lincolnshire. 299 

were different from those of West Gothland and of this 
there is no evidence we must arrive at the conclusion 
that a by was a community, and a thorpe a member of it 
or an offshoot from it or some similar community. We 
must remember also that it is not to the Saxon laws of 
Wessex, or even to the laws of Kent, that we should 
naturally look to find the early prototype of some ancient 
institution in Lincolnshire, but to laws of Danish or 
Scandian lands, such as the ancient laws of West Gothland, 
which, happily, have been preserved. In these laws the 
vita, or right of proof, belonged as here stated : 

1. Between the asserter of common proprietorship and 
the asserter of individual ownership, to the former. 

2. Between the King and the Bishop, the Bishop. 

3. Between the laender (occupant of the spare lands of 
the by) and the Bishop, the laender. 

4. Between the bondi (or peasant proprietor) and any- 
one else, the bondi. 

5. Between the by and the thorp, the by. 

6. Between the alleged heritor and the alleged pur- 
chaser, the heritor. 

7. Between the owner of the bol (homestead) and the 
owner of the utskipt (close), the owner of the bol. 

8. Between the land (the province) and the hsersed 
(hundred), the land. 

9. Between the hseraed and the by, the haerced. 1 

It should be noted also in reference to these rights to 
having the pi oof that the disputant who asserted the 
common proprietorship of anything in dispute had the 
right of proof before the asserter of individual ownership 
of the same. The rule in regard to communities, large 
and small, was in the following order : (i) The province ; 
(2) the hundred ; (3) the by or village ; (4) the thorp. 
In Lincolnshire there were all these organizations. 
Lindsey, Holland, and Kesteven were its provinces ; its 

1 ' The Westgota-lag,' quoted by Jenks, English Hist. Review, 
xi. 512. 

3OO Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

hundreds and wapentakes were numerous, and its bys 
and thorpes also numerous within these larger areas. In 
Domesday Book we find some of the hundreds, such as 
Hazebi, Alesbi, Fenbi, and Walesbi, named after some of 
the bys, apparently from the places where the Hundred 
Courts met. We find also in the Domesday account of 
Lincolnshire instances in which wapentakes are men- 
tioned, and also the hundreds contained within them. 

The -bys are much more common than the -thorpes in 
the wold district a circumstance which appears to indi- 
cate that the open parts of the county were first settled, 
the thorpes having probably had their origin as offshoots 
from the bys. 

Lincolnshire contains about sixty places whose names 
have the -by termination, and are of Scandinavian 
origin, but it also contains fifty-six places 1 whose names 
have the -ham ending, and these must be traced to 
Anglian and Frisian or other Germanic settlers. It is 
probable that the early place-names ending in -burh, -berh, 
and -berge denoted places where the people had common 
rights and privileges ; i.e., the places were folk villages, 
more or less free, rather than estates belonging to a lord, 
and the inhabitants more or less subject to him. A 
curious survival of the early burh has apparently come 
down in the name burley-men, birla-men, or by-law-men. 2 
The burley-men were inhabitants of certain manors who 
were appointed annually, with the object of settling 
disputes among the inhabitants. In some old records 
the name is spelt bye-law-men, and they existed in various 
places in Yorkshire in the seventeenth century. The 
ancient by-law was derived from the old common-law 
power to make by-laws that belonged to parishes anc 
manors. The difference between burly and by-law, says 
Skeat, ' is merely one of dialect. In Iceland people say 
beer, in Norway bo, in Sweden and Denmark by. Thus, 

1 Peacock, E., ' Scotter and its Neighbourhood,' p. 6. 

2 Smith, L. Toulmin, Athentsum, August 9, 1879, p. 176. 

Tribal People in Lincolnshire. 301 

burly-men and by-law-men are etymologically identical.' 1 
As the -by place-names in the Danish districts of England 
must be regarded by their parallelism to the bys of 
ancient Gothland to have been folk villages, we may 
reasonably conclude that those places known by the 
equivalent names berk, berge, etc., had similar common 
privileges. In Lincolnshire, at the time of the Domesday 
Survey, there were 11,503 socmen to 7,723 villeins. This 
very large number of socmen points to the existence of 
folk villages in that county containing numerous freemen. 
As regards the people at the present time, the broad fact 
at which we can arrive connected with the settlement of 
this county is that they are in complexion fairer than 
those of Leicestershire and Northamptonshire. 

If we were to confine our attention in Lincolnshire to 
the historical name Angles, that of the people by whom 
the county is usually supposed to have been originally 
settled, and to the Danes, by whom it was afterwards over- 
run and again presumably settled, we should necessarily 
look only for traces of these two nations or races. If, 
however, apart from these names and the history, more 
or less traditional, connected with their invasions, we 
proceed on inductive lines, and consider the old topo- 
graphical names of the county, we shall have no difficulty 
in finding about a dozen groups which are apparently 
tribal or national names, and these neither Anglian nor 
Danish. It is very likely, indeed, that the people of 
various tribes or nations who migrated to Lincolnshire 
came under the general names of Angles in the former 
period and Danes in the latter, but they gave their tribal 
names or personal names derived from their tribes, in 
many cases, to the new homes. they formed. Domesday 
Book tells us of a group of three names Frisebi, Frise- 
torp, and Fristune. These evidently refer to Frisian 
settlements. Among the Frisian pagi, or tribes, were the 
Hunsings, and the Domesday account of Lincolnshire tells 
1 Skeat, W. W., ' Etymological Dictionary.' 

302 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

us of places named Hunbia, Hundebi, and Hundintone. 
Among the Frisians were the Chaucians, also called 
the Hocings ; and at the time of the Norman Survey 
we find there were places in Lincolnshire called Cocrin- 
ton, Cocrintone, Hoctun, and Hochtune, probably after 
individuals who bore such names. Among the Frisians 
were also the Brocmen, or East Frisians ; and among the 
Domesday names of Lincolnshire are Broxholm and 
Brochelesbi, as if apparently named after people of this 
tribe. That there were brown people of some race settled 
in this county appears probable from the names Brune, 
Brunebi, Brunetorp, Dunesbi, Dunebi, Dunestune, and 
Dunetorp. There are seven entries in Domesday Book of 
places called Normanebi, three of Normanesbi, and others 
of Normaneston and Normenton. These must refer to 
Northmen, and not necessarily to either Angles or Danes. 
In the Lincolnshire Domesday record, we find also eight 
references to a place or places called Osgotebi, and two to 
Osgotesbi. It is difficult to understand to what people 
these can refer, except to persons or families so called 
because they were of the Eastern Goths from that part of 
Sweden east of Lake Wetter. Some settlers from Skane, 
on the Scandinavian mainland of old Denmark, are prob- 
ably indicated by the Domesday names Scantune and 

The Sweons or Swedes are perhaps represented by the 
Domesday names Suauitone, Suinhope, Suinhamstede, 
and Suinhastede. In the Orkney nomenclature, Suin or 
Swin is a form of Suion or Sweon. The name Svin 
Kunugr for one of the Kings usually called Swein occurs 
in early northern literature. 1 People of Saxon descent 
are probably represented by the Domesday names Sassebi, 
Saxebi, and Scachetorp, and the Swsefas by Svavintone and 
Svavetone. When we look among the Domesday names 
in the county for some evidence of people of Wendish 

1 Memoires de la Soc. Royale des Antiq. du Nord, 1850-1860, 
p. 405. 

Tribal People in Lincolnshire. 303 

descent, we find Wintringeha and Wintrirrtone, of which 
there are four instances ; and there are also four entries 
of places called Wilingeham. The tribal Goths are appa- 
rently also to be recognised by the people who named their 
settlements in Lincolnshire after the city of Lund in the 
South of Sweden. Of these Domesday names, there are 
Lund, Lund alter, Lundertorp, and Lundetorp. These 
names suggest, at any rate, that the Lincolnshire people 
at the time of the Norman Survey must have been a more 
mixed race than is usually supposed. Lund, in Sweden, 
is a city of great traditions. It is called also by the Latin 
name of Lundinem Gothorum, and is said to have been 
so great as to have had 200,000 inhabitants. One of the 
traditions relating to its antiquity is that when Christ 
was born Skanor and Lund were already in harvest, 
meaning that they were already prosperous. Lund was 
called the Metropolis Danise, and was the place of residence 
and coronation of many Kings x of early Denmark. 

We must bear in mind the words of King Alfred in 
describing the voyage of Othere from the Cattegat into 
the Baltic, when he had Denmark on the baecbord (the 
left), and the Danish isles and Jutland on the starbord 
(the right). ' In these lands dwelt the Angles ere they to 
the land came.' The Lund people from Southern Sweden 
may have been genuine Angles ; the Wends, Wilte, 
Frisians, Hunsings, Brocmen, Chaucians, and Saxons of 
Lincolnshire could not have been, strictly speaking, either 
Angles or Danes. If we knew the many alternative names, 
ekenames or nicknames, employed by our remote fore- 
fathers to designate people of various races and tribes, or 
to distinguish persons, we should probably be able to 
read more of the settlement of Lincolnshire in the early 
names of its -bys and -thorpes. This much we do know, 
that some of the -bys, -hams, and -tons had -thorpes pre- 
sumably named after them as local colonization went on. 
Thus we find among the Domesday names Alesbi and Ale- 
1 du Chaillu, P. B., ' Land of the Midnight Sun,' ii. 463. 

304 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

torp, Endreby and Endretorp, Frisebi and Frisetorp, 
Saxebi and Scachetorp, Bercheha and Berchetorp, Barne- 
tone and Barnetorp, Lund and Lundetorp. 

It does not appear unreasonable to adopt the view that 
many of these ancient place-names came into use through 
settlements of families of people who, or whose heads, 
were known by tribal names. Even if the original place- 
name was derived in most cases from the name of a man, 
who bore some such name as Hun, Osgod, Suen, Saxe, 
or Broc, it is difficult to see how during the settlement 
the name became attached to the place, except through 
being that of a man so called by his neighbours because 
he was of the tribe denoted by this name. An ancient 
name for the Danish islands was Withesland and Withes- 
leth, 1 and it is possible that such Lincolnshire names as 
Withern and others may be traced to this source. There 
is certainly documentary evidence of the existence of a 
tribe in England in the early Anglo-Saxon period known 
as the Witherigga. 2 In reference to the -by names, there 
is one of more than ordinary significance still surviving in 
Lincolnshire viz., that of Bonby, written in Domesday 
Book Bondebi. The name bondi for the yeoman or 
peasant proprietor still survives in Norway and also in 
Gothland, where his ancient legal status is shown in the 
old laws of West Gothland, already mentioned. Lincoln- 
shire contains also some old place-names of much interest 
relating to fields, such as the old name Waringwang, 3 wang 
being an old Northern name for field or plain. The name 
Waring may have been that of a man of the Waring tribe. 

The Trent name, whose Wendish significance has 
already been stated, found in Lincolnshire close to Winter- 
ton and Winter ingham, is remarkable. The name of this 
river probably had its origin in its lower course. The name 
Wintringa-tun, which occurs in a Saxon charter, is of 

1 Latham, R. G., ' Germania of Tacitus,' Epileg. cxxv., quoting 
Chron. Erici. 2 Cart. Sax., edited by Birch, i. 416. 

3 Streatfeild, G. S., ' Lincolnshire and the Danes,' 152. 

Tribal People in Lincolnshire. 305 

more than ordinary interest. It is similar to many others, 
such as Billinga-tun (the town of the Billings) or Wseringa- 
wic (the wic of the Waerings). Wintringatun is thus a 
word made up of Wintringa, gen. plural (of the Wintrings), 
and tun, the town i.e., the settlement of the sons or 
descendants of Wintr ; and Wintr is the old Danish word 
for Wends. The modern name is Winterton, but the old 
form of the word shows that it was derived from people. 
The district in which it is situated was subjected to great 
Scandinavian influence, and the old Norrsena dialects were 
spoken by all the Scandinavian races Norse, Swedes, 
Danes, and Goths 1 and this name Winthr for Wends 
may thus have come down to us from its use by Northern 
Goths, as well as by Norse, Swedes, or Danes. As already 
mentioned, it survives in the form of Winter in several 
English counties, notably Dorset and Wiltshire, where we 
know Gewissas or the confederate tribes settled ; and 
among these were numerous Northern Goths or Jutes, or 
others of northern speech. 

In Lincolnshire, also, the custom of inheritance by the 
youngest son survives at Long Bennington, Thoresby, 
Kirton-in-Lindsey, Keadby in the Isle of Axholm, 2 and 
other places close to Winterton a relic, probably, of an 
old Wendish custom brought in by allies of this race 
among the Danes or Angles. 

Lincolnshire people have always been regarded as more 
distinctive than other parts of England in regard to their 
Danish descent. All the people who in ancient time were 
called Danes did not, however, come from Denmark, nor 
even that greater Denmark which included part of 
Sweden. There were so-called Danes in the Danish hosts 
who did not come either from Scandinavia or Denmark and 
its islands, as the evidence already brought forward shows. 

Bearing these facts in mind, it will not be surprising to 

1 Cleasby and Vigfusson, ' Icelandic Dictionary.' 

2 Peacock, E., ' Glossary of Words in the Wapentake of 
Manley,' p. 66. 


306 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

note that, according to Mackintosh's ethnological observa- 
tions in Lincolnshire, the Danish type there appears to 
present two varieties : the Dane with convex profile and 
prominent mouth, and the Dane with sunk mouth and pro- 
minent chin. Both have high cheek-bones and a sinking 
in above the cheek-bones at the sides of the fore- 
head, long face and high nose, ruddy complexion, and 
red or sandy hair, the skull being rather narrow and 
elongated, the body tall, and the figure rather loosely 
made, with long legs and arms. 1 Beddoe tells us that in 
Lincolnshire, as far as the borders of the Fens, the Danish 
element in the physical appearance of the people is par- 
ticularly strong. 2 

The Roman road, which is part of Ermine Street, 
passing through the length of the county from Stamford 
in the south to Winteringham on the Humber, affords evi- 
dence of the manner in which part of that county was 
originally settled, and we can scarcely see so good an 
example in any other part of England. It is interesting 
to observe in connection with this ancient road that there 
are very few villages actually on it, but that there are 
many near to it on either side. When the Angles and 
their allies, whoever they were, first came to Lincolnshire, 
this road was in existence. The roads running irregularly 
in a north and south direction, which connect the chain of 
villages and extend more or less parallel to this old Roman 
way, are evidently of a later date. Their irregularity 
shows that they were originally made for local communica- 
tions to connect villages with each other, but in time 
became more or less continuous. Almost all these 
villages, however, have branch roads running east or 
west to the Roman road, which thus appears to have been 
used as the main highway by the original settlers. 

1 Mackintosh, D., Transactions Ethnological Society, i. 220. 

2 Beddoe, J., ' Races in Britain,' 252. 



THE early settlers in the kingdom of Bernicia, which 
included the country from the Firth of Forth to 
the Tees, were known as Beornicas, and those who 
occupied Yorkshire were called Deiri or Deras. These 
latter, like the Jutes of Kent, adopted the name of the 
Celtic tribe they displaced. There is strong evidence that 
Frisians settled numerously in Northumbria under the 
Anglian name, and evidence also that among the Anglian 
and Frisian settlers in Yorkshire there were Goths and 
others known by various tribal names. That some of 
the Angles were of Gothic or Scandinavian extraction is 
proved by the early runic inscriptions on fixed stone 
monuments still existing in ancient Northumbria. That 
some of the settlers on the north-east coasts were also 
known as Jutes is probable from early references to 

The descendants of these early colonists in the North 
of England and the South-East of Scotland were, in the 
seventh century, brought within the kingdom of North- 
umbria, which in subsequent centuries was conquered 
and recolonised by the Danes, Northmen, and their 
allies. The descendants of the earlier stock who survived 
these wars were absorbed among the later colonists of 
a kindred race, and the Anglian kingdom became merged 
into an Anglo-Danish kingdom. It is, consequently, hard 

307 20 2 

308 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

to find survivals distinctive of the earlier tribal settlers 
in the northern counties apart from those of the later 
Scandinavian colonists who had so much in common with 
them in ethnological characteristics, customs, and even 
in language. The Old English people of the northern 
counties had, at the close of the Saxon period, well- 
marked characters, closely approaching to the Scandi- 
navian, owing to the large immigration from Norway, 
Denmark, Sweden, and probably also from the other 
Baltic coasts, which differentiated them from the people 
of the southern and midland counties. There is little 
historical evidence concerning these counties to assist 
us in an inquiry into the successive immigrations, except 
the facts that Anglians and their allies came first, and 
that they were followed by a larger immigration of Scan- 
dinavians and their allies. 

In the evidence which the survival of old customs of 
inheritance or traces of them may supply, the existence 
of an early system of primogeniture is perhaps the most 
important. The custom of the eldest son having some 
preference or birthright existed in the North of England 
in the time of Bede, and is mentioned by him. 1 As 
already stated, it exists still in Norway, where it has come 
down in its essential features from a remote antiquity. 
Two ancient laws relating to the succession of land exist 
in that country, so old that their origin is lost. These 
are the asaedesret, or homestead right, and the odalsret, 
or allodial right. The asaedesret is the right of the eldest 
son to inherit the farm after his father, he, however, 
being obliged to pay the other heirs their share of the 
estate, the value of which is given by the father, or else 
it is estimated below its valuation. If the father has 
left no son, his eldest daughter inherits. 2 Odalsret, as 
previously mentioned, is the right when a farm has to be 
sold of any member of the family to buy it, or if sold to 

1 Beda, ' Life of St. Benedict,' s. xi. 

2 du_Chaillu, P. B., ' The Land of the Midnight Sun,' ii. 289. 

Settlers in Northumbria. 309 

a stranger, to redeem it within ten years ^.t the price paid, 
with the additional cost of any improvements that may 
have been made. We are only concerned^at present in the 
consideration of the first of these laws the right of the 
eldest son to inherit the farm. This early custom of 
primogeniture could not have been first introduced into 
the North of England by Norwegian settlers of the ninth 
century, for as it is mentioned by Bede, who died in 
735, it is clear that it existed there before they came. 
That the north-eastern counties of England and the 
Lowlands of Scotland were chiefly occupied by Anglian 
tribes is generally admitted. The Regiam Majestatem, 
or ancient laws of Scotland, tell us that succession by 
the eldest son was the custom in the case of knights, but 
among socmen the custom was to divide the heritage 
among all the sons, if from ancient time it had been 
divided. These considerations point to the probability 
that some of the Anglian tribes must have introduced 
both customs into ancient Bernicia. Northern tribes, 
who were afterwards called Norwegians, but perhaps 
earlier by some tribal name, may have brought in primo- 
geniture. In considering this we should remember that 
King Alfred tells us the Angles came from the lands on 
both sides of the passage into the Baltic. It is neces- 
sary to remember that there was a custom of rural 
primogeniture existing in England centuries before the 
feudal system prevailed. Our early chroniclers who tell 
us of Angles and Saxons say little of their customs, but 
the information they give can be supplemented by the 
traces of the customs which still exist, or which are 
known to have existed, in parts of England and parts of 
Northern Europe from which the settlers came. The 
rural primogeniture such as survives now in Norway so 
clearly resembles the old rural primogeniture of which 
traces remain in the North of England, especially in that 
it secures the succession to the eldest daughter in default 
of sons, that it cannot reasonably be doubted they had a 

310 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

common origin among the early tribes of Norway or 
adjacent parts of Scandinavia. It is unreasonable to 
suppose that a body of colonists, whether in ancient or 
modern time, would settle in any particular locality and 
afterwards proceed to invent their customs. We know 
how in the case of modern colonies the settlers take their 
laws and customs with them. So it must have been in 
regard to the customary law of rural primogeniture, 
with a reversion to the eldest daughter, among some of 
the early Anglian or Scandian colonists in the North of 
England. What the tribal names of these people were 
it is perhaps now impossible to discover. 

As we stand on one of the higher mountains south of 
Keswick, a great part of the ancient lordship of Derwent- 
water is spread out before us. In this region, which still 
retains so many characteristics of its Norse settlers, 
traces are found, in the extensive districts of Castlerigg 
and Derwentwater, of this Norwegian custom of rural 
primogeniture, under which, in default of sons, the eldest 
daughter succeeds to the inheritance. 1 The same rule 
survives, or did within recent times, in other lordships 
in Cumberland, Westmoreland, the Isle of Man, at Kirkby 
Lonsdale, and in Weardale in the county of Durham. The 
evidence of Norwegian settlements on the north-western 
coasts of England is so widely spread that the custom no 
doubt formerly prevailed on many manors of these dis- 
tricts, where its traces are now lost. Something almost 
identical with it existed in the city of Carlisle under the 
name of cullery tenure. The cullery tenants of this 
city were seised of certain customary estates of inherit- 
ance, consisting of houses and shops, etc., which they 
held of the mayor, aldermen, and citizens as the lords 
of the city. They were admitted to these estates and 
paid a small annual quit-rent. On the death of a cullery 
tenant, in the absence of sons, his eldest daughter suc- 

1 Elton, C. I., ' Law of Copyholds,' p. 134. 

Settlers in Northumbria. 311 

ceeded him as sole heiress of his customary tenement, 1 
instead of, as in the case of a freehold, all his daughters 
as coheiresses. The surviving names of places around 
Carlisle point strongly to their Norwegian origin, and 
there can be no doubt that this curious tenure which pre- 
vailed in the city is a primitive one, which, like others in 
Cumberland, can be traced to Norway. 

In considering its origin and survival, we must remember 
that customs were the laws of our Teutonic forefathers. 
To alter a custom which had come down from a remote 
antiquity was so great an innovation that it may reason- 
ably be concluded such a change would not be made 
except under the pressing needs of altered conditions of 
life. Between the custom of rural primogeniture and 
those of equal division and of succession by the youngest 
son there is so great a difference that they must have had 
separate origins among different races of people. In the 
North of England, as elsewhere, there can be little doubt 
that in many cases all traces of these early customary 
laws, which at one time prevailed in certain districts or 
manors, have now been lost. We can, however, trace 
the partible custom as having existed among the ancient 
socmen of South Scotland, and rather extensively in York- 
shire, and in Tynedale and Reedsdale in Northumberland, 2 
while that of junior right prevailed at Leeds, 3 and was not, 
apparently, unknown in ancient Bernicia over the border. 4 

It is not difficult to imagine that when a place was 
occupied at an early time by people of more than one 
race having their own different systems of inheritance, 
these customs would in the course of time become blended 
as the population became mixed in descent. This may, 
perhaps, have been the origin of the ancient system of 

1 Nanson, W., Cumberland and Westmoreland Antiquarian and 
Archaol. Soc. Transactions, vi. 305, 306. 

2 Gray, W., ' Chorographia ; A Survey of Newcastle, 1649,' 
p. 26. 3 Elton, C. I., ' Robinson on Gavelkind,' 243. 

4 Regiam Majestatem. 

3 1 2 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

inheritance which prevailed at Tynemouth. It was an 
old port to which ships of Angles, Goths, Frisians, and 
Northmen would all be likely to have come, and not 
improbably early merchants or others of these nations 
settled there. Those who were Frisians or Goths, having 
a custom of partible inheritance in their own lands, would 
naturally follow the same, and those who were Northmen, 
having some form of primogeniture and succession by 
the eldest daughter in their land, would naturally con- 
tinue to follow this custom. In process of time these 
customs, which may be supposed to have prevailed at 
Tynemonth, apparently became blended, and that of the 
Goths and Frisians, who, perhaps, were the more numerous 
section of the inhabitants, became the more prominent. 
The custom of descent in Tynemouth is, or was, partible 
inheritance among sons only ; in default of sons, the 
eldest daughter came into the inheritance for her life, 
and afterwards the next heir male who could derive his 
title through a male. 1 In considering this curious suc- 
cession it is necessary also to remember that the custom 
of inheritance among the Angles was marked by a strong 
preference for the male line, such as that which has sur- 
vived at Tynemouth shows. 

In addition to those places in Yorkshire where the 
custom of partible inheritance has survived to modern 
times, as at Pickering, Domesday Book supplies us with 
information concerning the land in Holderness and other 
parts of the county which was held in parcenary at the 
time of the Survey. By the old general law of the country 
land could only be held in parcenary by females, but by 
the custom of gavelkind males might hold their lands 
collectively by descent to all the males equally. 2 Whether 
in Kent or elsewhere, the title of parceners accrued only 
by descent. 3 To hold land in parcenary was, therefore, 

1 Elton, C. I., ' Law of Copyholds,' pp. 128, 134. 

2 Reeve's ' History of English Law,' edited by Finlason, ii., 587. 

3 Ibid., ii. 589. 

Settlers in Northiimbria. 313 


an ancient custom, and that land was held by this custom 
in many parts of the East Riding and elsewhere in York- 
shire at the end of the Saxon period is a circumstance 
which assists us in endeavouring to discover traces of 
ancient settlers of different races. In the South of 
England, as we have seen, a great deal of the land in the 
Isle of Wight and in the New Forest which was colonised 
by Jutes was held in parcenary at the time of the Norman 
Survey, and Jutes are admitted to have been Goths or 
Frisians, or both. Among the Goths, but interspersed 
by a diversity of local usages, the custom under which 
estates were administered by a single heir for all the 
heirs grew up and spread through parts of Germany 
and countries where Gothic influence prevailed. 1 

The survival of the custom in England points, therefore, 
to people of Gothic or Frisian descent, or to German people 
of some other tribe or nation. It may, however, have 
been Danish, for among Saxons and Danes the ordinary 
course of descent was to all the sons. 2 As, therefore, we 
can trace Norwegian settlements in parts of Berkshire, 
Buckinghamshire, Surrey, and Hertfordshire in the 
custom of succession by the eldest daughter in default of 
sons, so by this parcenary system in Yorkshire we can 
trace people of Gothic extraction and others who were 
Frisians or of some German race. In addition to the 
cases recorded in Domesday Book where holdings in 
parcenary were found in Yorkshire, the custom of partible 
inheritance, more or less resembling gavelkind in Kent, 
prevailed on at least some of the lands which formed the 
fees of Richmond, Pickering, and the great fee of the 
Archbishop known as that of St. Peter's, York. 3 

Pickering is mentioned in Domesday Book by the 
ancient clan-name of the people living in the district 
round it, Picheringa. On this great manor the evidence 

1 Cecil, Evelyn, ' Primogeniture,' p. 114. 

2 Ibid., 27, quoting Hale. 

3 Elton, C. I., ' Robinson on Cavelkind,' p. 157. 

314 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

of Gothic settlement is supported by another custom 
which also existed there, that of freedom from distraint. 1 
It has been mentioned that this was incidental to gavel- 
kind in Kent. The custom in that county, as already 
stated, was not merely partition among all the sons 
equally, but comprised several subsidiary privileges of 
great interest. Freedom from distress for debts was one, 
and this can be traced to the laws of the ancient Goths. 2 
By the records of the Court of King's Bench, Hiliary Term 
20 Edward III., it is shown that the lands within the Fee 
of Pickering were partible among the males, 3 and Picker- 
ing also had freedom from distraint. The old name of 
Goathland, anciently written Gothland, still survives 
on the north of Pickering Moor, and was perhaps a boun- 
dary name. It is marked Gothland on an old map of 
Pickering of the seventeenth century, published in the 
first volume of the North Riding Record Society. In the 
case of Pickering we thus have three circumstances 
pointing to a settlement of Goths viz., the custom of 
partible inheritance, freedom from the general law of 
distress, and the survival of the name Gothland. Early 
records, both English and those of kindred nations, point 
to a time when distress was almost the universal form of 
civil remedy. The laws of the Visigoths, however, pro- 
hibited this remedy, and in Kent, in London, and in 
Pickering the people enjoyed by custom freedom from 
it in the recovery of debts or rents. They were probably 
all of Gothic descent ; and here reference may be made 
to what has been said of the -by places which abound in 
the East Riding. These are Gothic as well as Danish, and 
some of them in Yorkshire may have been derived from 
settlers who were Goths. 

The earliest of all the settlements in the northern 
counties, if we may trust the account concerning it, was 

1 ' Honor and Forest of Pickering,' vol. iii. 

2 Maine, Sir H., ' Early Institutions,' 269, 270. 

3 Elton, C. I., ' Robinson on Gavelkind,' p. 33. 

Settlers in Northumbria. 315 

that of people of the same race or races as the people of 
Kent, who are said to have formed settlements on the 
north-eastern coast under their Kings Octa and Ebissa 1 
in the fifth century. There certainly were early settle- 
ments made by the Angles, and later ones by the Danes 
and Norwegians. That of the Norse in the north of 
Cumberland was probably one of the latest, for the 
northern parts of Cumberland and Westmoreland were 
still occupied by the Celts, while their southern parts and 
the districts of Furness and Cartmel had passed to Teutonic 
settlers of some kind, using the word Teutonic in its 
widest sense as including Scandinavians. The name 
Ulpha in the valley of the Duddon, and another Ulpha 
in Cartmel, near the mouth of the river Kent, appear to 
be of Gothic origin. Ulph is a Gothic word, and appears 
in the name of Ulphilas, the Bishop who translated the 
Gospels into Mceso - Gothic. The customs of Kendal 
also point to Goths among its early settlers, and as there 
were Goths in Kent, and they were skilled in navigation, 
there appears nothing improbable in a Kentish migra- 
tion, which would account for the ancient name of Kent- 
mere. Kendal is the name of the most extensive parish 
in Westmoreland, comprising twenty-four townships or 
constable wicks, among which are Kentmere and Hel- 
sington. This name Helsington in a district where there 
is other evidence of the settlement of Goths may be con- 
sidered in connection with the Helsings, the name of the 
people of Helsingja-land in Sweden. The manorial 
tenants of Kendal held their lands by military obligation 
and on payment of certain rents, but, like the ancient 
Visigoths, they were not liable to distraint for the re- 
covery of them. 2 Partible inheritance cannot be proved 
to have been the custom at Kendal, but in the will of 
Henri Fissher of that place, dated November 5, 1578, 
we appear to have a trace of it. He says : ' Mye evi- 

1 Nennius, edited by Gunn, W., p. 183, notes. 

2 Ferguson, R. S., 'History of Westmoreland,' 118-122. 

316 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

dences to be safflie kepte under twoo locks and kyes in 
my studye at Helssington, and at the full aige of my 
sonnes to be divided accordinge to their rights.' 1 

The customs relating to the widow's dower that pre- 
vailed in South Westmoreland and North Lancashire are 
varied. In the Barony of Kendal the widow of a cus- 
tomary tenant was entitled to the whole of her husband's 
customary estate during widowhood. 2 In some other 
parts of the south of Westmoreland she received half 
the estate. Similarly, at Much Urswick, Kirkby Irleth, 
Lowick, 3 and Nevill Hall in Furness, the widow was 
entitled to half the estate during widowhood. By the 
old common law of the country she was entitled to only 
a third share, and at Clitheroe to a fourth, as was the 
custom among the ancient Lombards. The Kendal 
dower custom is the same as existed so largely in Sussex 
and on manors elsewhere, as in the vale of Taunton, 
where junior inheritance prevailed. The half dower 
custom is the same as that of Kent, and points to settle- 
ments of Goths or Jutes. 

The north of Lancashire and south of Westmoreland 
were included in the West Riding at the time of the 
Domesday Survey, and apparently had been con- 
sidered a part of the kingdom of Deira, or Yorkshire, 
since the seventh century. In 685 ' the land called 
Cartmel and all the Britons there ' was given to Cuthbert 
by one of the early Kings, from which record it may be 
considered certain that Celtic people survived there 
among the early Teutonic settlers. The early church 
dedications to St. Wilfrid at Standish, Preston, and 
Ribchester, and to St. Cuthbert at Kirkby Irleth, were 
received from their Yorkshire connection. 4 The colonists 

1 ' Wills and Inventories of the Archdeaconry of Richmond,' 
edited by Raine, J., p. 284. 

2 Nicholson and Burns, ' History of Westmoreland and Cum- 
berland,' 24. 

3 Harland and Wilkinson, ' Lancashire Folk-Lore,' 281-284. 
* Fishwick, H., ' History of Lancashire,' 185, 200, 201. 

Settlers in Northumbria. 317 

of North Lancashire and South Westmoreland appear 
to have come partly from Yorkshire and partly by the 
sea. Some of them would probably be Northumbrian 
Anglians, and others of Jutish extraction. The remains 
of early stone crosses at Whalley and at Burnley, of the 
same style as those found in other parts of ancient North- 
umbria, are traces of the early Anglian connection of 
these parts of Lancashire, and the runic inscription 
found at Lancaster supplies confirmatory evidence of 
this connection. 

Close to Lancaster there are distinct traces of a later 
settlement of Norse, for around Heysham and Halton the 
hills are called fells, the pools are tarns, the streams becks, 
the farms are thwaits, and the island rocks are skears. 1 

As regards the early customs of partible inheritance 
which prevailed over large districts of Yorkshire, Glan- 
ville's remarks in the time of Henry II. must be remem- 
bered viz., that partible inheritance was only recognised 
by the law-courts of his time on those manors where it 
could be proved that the land always had. been divided. 
Consequently, as this custom was allowed to continue on 
many manors of the great lordships of Richmond, Picker- 
ing, and St. Peter's, York, it must have been a custom of 
immemorial usage, and proved to the satisfaction of the 
law in the twelfth century. This points to the conclusion 
that these areas were originally occupied by Goths and 
Frisians among the Anglian settlers of Yorkshire. The 
proof lay in an actual inspection of the subdivided lands, 
which must have borne their testimony, as well as in the 
sworn evidence of witnesses. The partible lands of the 
Dalecarlian people of Sweden, who are descendants of the 
Northern Goths, show at the present day similar evidence 
of this immemorial usage. The custom could not have 
been general throughout England, because it was allowed 
to continue in comparatively few places. If it had 
generally prevailed, its antiquity could have been proved, 

1 March, H. C., Lancashire and Cheshire Arch. Soc., ix. 50, 51. 

318 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

and the custom preserved by appealing to the evidence 
of partition on the surface of the fields themselves. 

The old place-names in the northern counties point to 
people of many tribes as having taken a part in its settle- 
ment. If we confine our attention to old Anglo-Saxon 
names of places, which had their origin in all probability 
from people bearing tribal names who settled there, we 
shall be able to make a considerable list. Such a name as 
Hunmannebi clearly points to a settler and his family or 
kindred who was a Frisian of the Hunsing tribe i.e., 
he was a man of the Hunni race mentioned by Bede. In 
the same way, other names indicate Frisians, called by 
their national name ; others who were either Frisians of the 
Brocmen tribe, or of the German tribe of Boructers, who 
are also mentioned by Bede as among the tribes from 
which the Old English were descended. Such a name as 
Boructer might easily be shortened by use into Broc. 
The Chaucians or Hocings are probably represented by 
the survival of a number of Choc- or Hoc- names of places. 
Here and there we meet with the Engle name, and a few 
which appear to have been derived from people known to 
their neighbours as Saxons. Among other places bearing 
names derived from settlers of various ancient races are 
those in Dan or Dene, which point to Danes ; Norman, 
which points to Norse; Suen, which points to Swedes; 
Goth, or Goda, which indicate Gothic people ; and Wend 
or Winter names, which indicate Vandal settlers. Among 
the old place-names in Northumberland are the fifteenth- 
century names Waringford and Wynt'ingham, denoting a 
Waring and a Wendish settlement. 1 Winterset is an old 
place-name in the parish of Wragby. 

Borough-English or junior right is known to have pre- 
vailed at Leeds, 2 the only place in the northern counties 
where it has been traced. Its prevalence there in the 
midst of a kingdom such as Yorkshire was, settled at first 

1 Placita de quo Warranto, 586, 591. 

2 Elton, C. I., ' Gavelkind,' Index. 

Settlers in Northumbria. 319 

by people called Anglians, and largely occupied later on 
by people commonly called Danes or Norse, is a very re- 
markable circumstance, for, so far as known, none of these 
had such a custom. Leeds is in Airedale, and was appar- 
ently the chief place in the old district known in Saxon 
time as Elmet. This district is mentioned by Bede as 
the ' Regio Loidis,' or the region of Leeds, Elmet being 
mentioned by the same early writer as a silva or wood- 
land. 1 If from the occurrence of the custom of junior right 
at Leeds we may consider that it prevailed elsewhere in 
this region, then, as the custom is an old one, and it could 
not have been that of Anglians or Danes or Norwegians, it 
probably was brought by a fair race of people. Seeing 
that succession by the youngest son to the whole 
inheritance is not a Welsh custom, it is not probable that 
the junior right which prevailed at Leeds could have been 
derived from a survival of the old British stock. More- 
over, the racial characters of the Airedale people, as de- 
scribed by Beddoe, point to descent from a fair race. 
This subject takes us back to the time when Elmet was 
first brought under subjection by Edwin in the seventh 
century. Beddoe considers it probable that new settlers 
of a fair stock were introduced, and it is remarkable that 
an old name, Wendel Hill, for an earthwork at Berewic, 
in Elmet, still survives. 2 There are some old place-names 
in addition to this one in the northern counties which may 
have had their origin from Wendish settlers, relatively 
few in number, but still significant. Wendesbery 3 and 
Wandesford 4 in Yorkshire, Windleton near Darlington, 
Wensley, Wendeslowe, 5 Wenslawe, and Wendeslaghe, 6 
are names of this kind. Wensleydale ai\d Old Wennington, 
in the north of Lancashire, may also be of the same origin. 

1 Beda, ' Hist. Eccles.,' lib. ii., chap. xiv. 

2 Whitaker, T. D., ' History of Leeds,' 152. 

3 Cal. Rot. Pat. (Henry III.), p. 96. 

4 Cal. Inq. Post-mortem, ii. 18. 5 Ibid., ii. 125. 
6 Ibid., ii. 72. 

320 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

There is evidence of the survival in Northumbria of 
people of Celtic descent, who were subsequently absorbed 
among the English race of the northern counties. The 
historical information on this point concerning Cartmel 
has been mentioned. The probability of a mixture of 
Celts among the Scandinavian settlers of Cumberland is 
also great. The Northumbrian Priest-law, which mentions 
the penalty for the practise of heathen rites by a King's 
thane, affords evidence of the survival of people in York- 
shire of British descent, who were known* as Wallerwente. 
Heathenism in some of its rites survived long in the North. 
A thane who was accused of heathen practices was fined 
according to the Priest-law ten half-marks, unless he could 
prove his innocence by thirty oath-helpers, ten of whom 
must be named by himself, ten by his kindred, and ten 
others must be Wallerwente. 1 These Wallerwente, as 
their oaths were taken in evidence, must have been free- 
men. They were apparently men of another race, and 
chosen for this legal process on that account, as native 
Celtic inhabitants living among others of Teutonic descent, 
and whose testimony as native Christians would be speci- 
ally acceptable in such cases. This recognition of de- 
scendants of a remnant of the old Celtic people is of 
interest, seeing that the oldest name for what is now 
Yorkshire viz., Deira is Welsh, and derived from its 
Celtic inhabitants, the Deiri, or their country. 2 

It is well known that two very remote successive 
immigrations of Celtic people into Britain can be traced 
viz., those of the Round Barrow period, who are also 
known as the men of the Bronze Age ; and the later 
Brythons, from whom in the main the Welsh are de- 
scended. From the examination of the bones of the men 
of the Bronze Age. which are met with but sparingly for 
cremation was their common mode of disposing of the 
dead they are known to have been a broad-headed and 

1 Seebohm, F., ' Tribal Custom in Anglo-Saxon Law,' 399. 

2 Rhys, J., ' Celtic Britain,' 112. 

Settlers in Northumbria. 321 

large-limbed race. The later Celts are not characterised 
by this head form. The survival among living people 
here and there of representatives of the broad-headed type 
is an interesting ethnological circumstance. As might be 
expected, it is chiefly in the most mountainous part of 
England viz., in the remote parts of Cumberland that 
traces of this race may still be met with. The type is, 
according to Beddoe and Ripley, marked by being 
* above the average in height, generally dark in com- 
plexion, the head broad and short, the face strongly 
developed at the cheek-bones, frowning or beetle browed, 
the development of the brow ridges being especially 
noticeable in contrast with the smooth, almost feminine 
softness of the Saxon forehead.' 1 In Cumberland there 
had been going on a fusion between the descendants of the 
Norse and those of these more ancient Cumbrians, some 
of the descendants of whom are now fair in complexion. 2 

1 Ripley, W. Z., ' Races of Europe,' 309. 2 Ibid. 




THE settlement of Frisians in Northumbria is 
probable from the historical evidence of Procopius, 
who says that ' three very numerous nations possess 
Brittia, over each of which a King presides, which nations 
are named Angeloi, Phrissones, and those surnamed from 
the island, Brittones.' Some of these Phrissones must 
have settled in the northern counties of England and in 
the south of Scotland, for the Firth of Forth is called by 
Nennius the Frisian Sea, and part of its northern coast 
was known as the Frisian shore. 1 The name Dumfries 
appears also to afford a trace of the same people. 

It is reasonable to conclude that in the settlement of 
the coasts of the North-east of England and the South of 
Scotland by the Angles their neighbours the Frisians took 
a large part. Even at the present time the resemblance 
between the Frisian dialects and Lowland Scotch is in 
some respects very close. As we have seen, Octa and 
Ebissa, with whom as leaders the early settlements in 
Northumbria are connected, have characteristic Frisian 
names ending in a. The early kingdom of the Beornicas 
included the Lowlands, and these people had a Frisian 
name. Halbertsma refers to the name Beornicas as 
having been derived from the Frisian word beam, 
denoting men, used possibly in the sense of descendants. 2 

1 Skene, W. F., ' Celtic Scotland,' i. 192. 

2 Halbertsma, J. H., ' Lexicon Frisicum.' 


Settlers in Northumbria. 323 

There are in Yorkshire old place-names which point 

directly to Frisians, such as Fristone in the West Riding, 
mentioned in Domesday Book ; Freswick, an old place 
in the North Riding ; and Frismarsk, or Frysemersh, a 
lost place that formerly existed in Holderness. 1 It is 
probable there was a very early colony of Frisians 
in this district, for Ptolemy mentions a race of people 
resident there whom he calls the Parisi. 2 The Teutonic 
equivalent of Parisi is Farisi, and the probability is that 
these were a colony of Frisians from the opposite coast. 
This identification of the Parisi of Ptolemy as Frisians is 
supported by some remarkable circumstances pointing to a 
Frisian migration to the country of the Humber. Holder- 
ness had an alternative name, that of Emmertland, and 
among the ancient river names of the northern part of 
Old Saxony or Frisia was the Emmer or Ambra, 3 which we 
now call the Ems. Along the course of this river the tribal 
Ambrones, or people of the Emisga pagus, lived. 4 These 
Ambrones are mentioned by Roman writers. From the 
consideration of all the circumstantial evidence connected 
with them and with Holderness, the settlement of Frisians 
of this old tribe at an early date near the mouth of the 
Humber is practically certain. It was from this tribe 
that in all probability the Humber received its name, 
after that of the Ambra in their old country. It should 
also be remembered that Paulinus is said to have preached 
for forty days among certain old Saxons. We know he 
did carry on this mission among the people south of the 
Humber, and these may have preserved their old tribal 
designation of Ambrones, or old Saxons, until that time. 
The Holderness dialect, which has probably come from 
more than one source, is one of the most interesting in 
Yorkshire, for it shows variations in vocabulary in 
different parts of the district. It has usually only one 

1 Cal. Patent Rolls, 1340-1343, p. 449. 

2 English Dialect Society, ' Glossary of Holderness,' p. 2. 

3 Monumenta Germanise, i. 166, 167. 4 Ibid., ii. 386. 

21 2 

324 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

form of the verb for the three persons, many participles 
ending in -en or -in, many adjectives ending in -ish or 
-fied, and no possessive case. 1 The pronunciation of the 
place-names in some of the northern parts of England at 
the present time strongly points to Frisian settlements. 
In Northumberland there are many places whose names 
end in -ham, but, with the exception of Chillingham, they 
are all pronounced as if ending in -um, like the terminal 
sound so common in the present place-names of Friesland. 
In the Cleveland district of Yorkshire, also, examples of the 
same kind occur, in which the local pronunciation making 
names ending in -um is very marked. Thus, Yarm is 
pronounced Jarum ; Moorsholm, Morehusum ; Acklam, 
Achelum ; Lealholm, Laclum or Lemm ; Airsome, Aru- 
sum ; and Coatham, Cotum, and so on. 2 A similar 
pronunciation of names in Sussex has been referred to in 
the chapter relating to that county. 

There can be no doubt that Frisian was one of the dia- 
lects used by the settlers in the northern counties, and that 
many Frisian words passed into the Anglian speech. As 
late as 1175 we find a Frisian dialect separately mentioned 
by Reginald, a monk of Durham. 3 In referring to the 
eider-duck, he says these birds are called lomes by the 
English, but eires by the Saxons and inhabitants of 

The dialect of Northumberland and on Tyneside shows 
important differences from that in the middle and south 
parts of Durham and Yorkshire. 4 This helps to prove that 
when the Danes overran and conquered Northumbria it 
was chiefly in Yorkshire they settled. The country north 
of the Tyne was left, apparently, more in the occupation 
of the descendants of the original colonists. The old 
Northumbrian dialect was the language of the Anglian 

1 English Dialect Society, ' Glossary of Holderness,' p. 6. 

2 Atkinson, J. C., ' Glossary of the Cleveland Dialect.' 

3 Reginald! Monachi Dunelm. Libellus, chap, xxvii. 

4 English Dialect Society, ' Glossary of Northumberland,' viii. 

Settlers in Northumbria. 325 

and Frisian settlers from Aberdeen to the south of York- 
shire. When Yorkshire was recolonised by Danes and 
their allies, a modified dialect arose. The evidence of the 
place-names affords striking testimony to the extent of the 
Danish settlements. North of the Tyne the terminations 
-ham and -ton are conspicuous, while -by, which abounds 
in the East Riding, does not occur. The streams in 
Northumberland are called burns, and not becks, as in the 
Scandinavian districts of the northern counties. The 
pronunciation of the word ' the ' is not clipped in North- 
umberland into ' t',' as it is in the Danish districts of 
Yorkshire and Lancashire. The contrast in this respect 
between Northumberland and Tyneside on the one hand, 
and the south of Durham and East Riding of Yorkshire 
on the other, is very marked. 1 There are, however, some 
traces to be found in Northumberland of Norse colonists 
of a kind different from those of the Danes in the East 
Riding, although traces of Angles and Frisians are most 
in evidence. 

The Firth of Forth, mentioned by Nennius as the 
Frisian Sea, and a part of its northern shore known as the 
Frisian shore, must have had an early connection with 
the Frisians, although, as Skene says, ' the great bulk of 
immigrants are Anglians.' 2 This is of interest in reference 
to the people of Northumberland, a county in which traces 
of Frisian occupation are strong. It is known that 
Frisians came to Britain among the Roman military, 
and Skene says that ' of the Saxons who settled in Britain 
before the year 441, the colony which occupied the 
northern district about the Roman wall were probably 
Frisians.' This may well have been the case, and the 
traces of people of this race which the Northumberland 
place-names supply may therefore be of older date than 
the time of Hengist and Horsa. There may, indeed, have 
been settlements in the time of the Roman Empire of 

1 English Dialect Society, ' Glossary of Northumberland,' ix. 

2 Skene, W. F., ' Celtic Scotland,' ii. 192. 

326 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

both Frisians and their allies the Chaucians. This view 
possibly receives support from the discovery in Northum- 
berland of a Roman altar, 1 bearing the inscription ' Deo 
Cocidi ' a reference, perhaps, to a supposed Chaucian 

The name of the river Coquet and others, apparently 
connected with Chaucians, may be traces of a settlement 
before the end of the Roman rule in Britain. A garrison 
of Frisians was certainly located on Hadrian's Wall early 
in the fifth century. 2 

The Roman place-name Hunno 3 has been identified 
with Sevensdale in Northumberland, and that named 
Cocuneda civitas 4 with Coquet in the same county. 5 In 
the Boldon Book relating to the tenancies held under the 
Bishop of Durham in the eleventh or twelfth century we 
find old place-names that are apparently traces of settlers 
who had Frisian names, such as Hunwyk and Hunstan- 
worth. The same record also affords instances in which 
brothers held land jointly, and of other parceners 
more or less resembling the holdings in Kent. In con- 
nection with these Hun names, it is of special interest 
to note the existence of a Roman station called Hunnum 
in Northumberland. As an old tribe called Phundusii is 
mentioned by Ptolemy living near the mouth of the Elbe, 
not very far from the later Frisian districts, inhabited by 
the Hunse or Hunte, the name Hunnum may have been 
one used in Roman time in connection with the Frisian 

If further proof were wanted of Frisians among the 
Angles of this part of England and the adjacent coast of 
Scotland, the remarkable inscribed stone found at Kirklis- 
ton, Edinburghshire, would supply it. Stephens describes 
it as a heathen stone of the fourth or fifth century, bearing 

1 Ferguson, R., The River-names of Europe,' 85. 

2 Notitia Imperil, and Wright, T., Lancashire and Cheshire 
Historic. Soc., viii. 141. 

3 Notitia Imperii. * Ravennas. 

5 Pearson, C. H., ' Historical Maps,' quoting authorities. 

Settlers in Northumbria. 327 

Roman letters and words to commemorate a fallen chief- 
tain, with a name so rare that it has only been found three 
times in English literature and once in Northern. It has 
also his father's name, a rarer one still. Both these names 
are Frisian, and are still found among modern Frisian 
personal names. 1 The inscription, by dividing the letters 
into words, reads : ' In oc tumulo iacit Vetta f (ilius) Victi.' 
The name Wyttenham in Northumberland, apparently 
derived from a similar name Witte, is mentioned in the 
Hundred Rolls. Sweet has pointed out another linguistic 
connection of the Anglians of Northumbria with the 
Frisians. He says that the Anglian dialect was character- 
ised by a special tendency to throw off the final n in 
names. 2 Of this many examples may be found among old 
place-names of the Northern counties, and the early per- 
sonal names connected with them, some of which have 
been referred to. It was also a Frisian characteristic. 

In his ' History of Cleveland,' Atkinson tells us of four 
places whose ancient names were Englebi, of two whose old 
names were Wiltune, and of two named Tollesbi. They 
may have been so named after heads of families who bore 
tribal names. The Tollenzi on the Tollensee were a 
Wendish tribe. 3 

In considering the evidence relating to the settlement 
of people of different races in the North of England, that 
afforded by the runic monuments is of the first importance. 
The Anglian runes are the older Gothic with modifications, 
and their modifications were made on English soil. This 
points to Goths among the so-called Anglian settlers, or 
Angles from Swedish Gothland. In any case, the know- 
ledge of runic writing must have been brought into 
Northern England by early settlers from Gothland or 
the countries near it. The Frisians who formed settle - 

1 Stephens, R. G., ' Old Northern Runic Monuments,' i. 60. 

2 Sweet, H., ' Dialects and Prehistoric Forms of Old English,' 
PhiloL Soc. Transactions, 1875-6, 560, 561. 

3 Latham, R. G., ' Germania of Tacitus,' Prolegomena, xvii. 

328 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

ments in Northumbria, on the contrary, had no knowledge 
of runes. 

In one of the old Norse records we are told of Old 
Northumbria, that ' Nord-imbraland is for the most 
part inhabited by Northmen. Many of the names are 
in the Norrsena tongue Grimsbser (Grimsby), and 
Hauksfljot (Hawkflot), and many others.' 1 This refers 
to the older and larger Northumberland, and includes, 
apparently, part of South Humberland or Lincolnshire. 
The earliest runic inscriptions of old Northumbria are 
not within the limits of the present county, but are 
within the kingdom of the Northumbrian Anglians. 
Among them are those on the Bewcastle column in north- 
west Cumberland, and on the Ruthwell cross in Dumfries. 
The date of the Bewcastle 2 monument is about A.D. 670, 
and the words used in the inscription on the Ruthwell 
cross show that it cannot well be later than the middle 
of the eighth century, 3 The inscriptions on the Colling- 
ham cross in Yorkshire, and on a slab found at Lancaster, 
have been assigned to the seventh century. 4 All these 
and others are inscriptions of the Anglians, and not of 
the later Danes or Norse, whose runic letters differed in 
some instances from those of the earlier Anglian. 

One of the Old English tribes that can be clearly 
recognised in Northumbria is that of Lindisfarne. This 
name was not originally given to the island off the North- 
umbrian coast, but to a strip of country along it. Lindis- 
faran was part of the mainland along the courses of two 
rivers the Lindis, which was the old name for the Low, 
and the Waran, that ran into the sea a little north of 
Bamburgh.5 This island was the island of the Lindis- 
farne people or territory, as mentioned by Bede. This 
small Anglian tribe is one of the most interesting of which 

' The Heimskringla/ by Sturluson, trans, by Laing, ii. 6. 

2 Stephens, G., loc. cit., vol. i., 398. 

3 Sweet, H., ' Oldest English Texts,' 125. * Ibid., 124-130. 
5 Proceedings Soc. Antiquaries, Newcastle-on-Tyne, iii., p. 401. 

Settlers in Northumbria. 329 

any trace has come down to us. Its rulers derived their 
origin from Woden, through a line of mythological 
ancestors of their own, 1 and it is not improbable that 
their island was known as Halig or Halige, the Holy 
Isle, before they became Christians, for the Continental 
Angles and Frisians had a Holy Isle off their coast, and 
it still retains the name of Heligoland. The Wends of 
the Baltic coast also had their sacred island viz., 
Riigen where their chief pagan temple was situated. 
The possession of a sacred or holy isle for their pagan 
rites was, therefore, probably considered by the pagan 
Angles who settled in Northumberland as part of their 
religion ; and after their conversion the sacred isle of 
the pagan time was selected for the site of the Christian 

Some of the old shire and district names in the northern 
counties were apparently derived from Scandinavian 
and other tribal names. Hallamshire appears to have 
got its name from a manor mentioned in Domesday Book 
as Hallun. As this district is called a shire, and this 
as a designation for a district is Scandinavian, Hallun 
may not improbably have been connected in ks origin 
with people from Halland, in the South-west of Sweden, 
and within the limits of Old Denmark. Gillingshire, also, 
for Gilling Wapentake in Yorkshire, appears to be a 
Scandinavian name. Gylling, an island in Halogaland, is 
mentioned in the Northern Sagas. 2 One thing, therefore, 
is certain in reference to old settlements in the northern 
counties, that we find districts which contain many traces 
of Norse near others in which traces of Anglians have 
survived. There may have been a connection between 
the name Rossendale in Lancashire and the Wrosn tribe 
of the Pomeranian coast. As the settlement of Norse 
and their allies in Lancashire was probably late, the 
possibility of such a connection is strengthened by the 

1 Grimm, J., 'Teutonic Mythology,' iv. 1711. 

2 ' The Heimskringla,' by Sturluson, trans, by Laing, ii., 180. 

330 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

known association of Danes and Norse with the Jomberg 
Wends of Pomerania. 

The Yorkshire Domesday names Scotona, Scotone, 
Englebi, and Engleston, point to family settlements of 
people who were Scots and Engles. Similarly, there 
can be little doubt that the Domesday names Danestorp, 
Danebi, Wedrebi, Leccheton, and Lecchestorp, point to 
settlers who were Danes, Wederas or Ostrogoths, and 
Lechs, who were their allies. Traces of Swedes are met 
with in the old names Suanebi in Yorkshire and Suenesat 
in Agremundreness in Lancashire, 1 and other names 
similar to those of tribal allies of the Danes may be 

The name Wensleydale and the old Semer names which 
it contains suggest some connection with Wends, and 
this is strengthened by the folk-lore. A special char- 
acteristic in the folk-lore of the Northern Slavs is that of 
magic horses, of which many examples occur in Russian 
folk- tales. 2 In Wensleydale folk-lore the kelpie or water- 
horse comes up occasionally out of the water, 3 and, like 
the Russian horses, is a wonderful beast. The place- 
name Semer also occurs in Cleveland, near Stokesley, 4 
and Domesday Book tells us of Semser in the North 
Riding and Semers in the West Riding, these names 
being, apparently, of old Wen dish origin, from zieme, 
the land. Their parallels may be found in Slavic 
countries, and other examples of their occurrence in 
Wiltshire and Sussex have already been mentioned. 

The earliest frontier between the kingdoms of North- 
umbria and Mercia on the west of the Pennine Range, along 
the Mersey, appears to have been subsequently altered to 
the Ribble. There is some documentary evidence relating 
to this later boundary. In 923 KingEdward ordered a body 

1 Dom. Bk. 

2 Ralston, W. R. S., ' Russian Folk-Tales,' 243-258. 

3 Gomme, G. L., ' Ethnology in Folk-Lore,' 78. 

4 Abbrev. Rot. Originalium, vol. i., i8i : 

Settlers in Northumbria. 331 


of Mercians to take possession of Manchester, and to repair 
and fortify it. 1 We read, also, that the northern limit 
of Mercia was Hwitanwylles geat, 2 which may be identified 
with Whitwell in the upper part of the valley of the 
Kibble. Whitaker's researches point to the Ribble as 
having been an ethnological frontier. 3 The Fylde, 
between the mouths of the same river and the Lune, 
exhibits evidence of Scandinavian settlements. Its 
name may be compared with the Norse Fjelde, the name 
for the Norwegian wastes. The Lancashire Fylde con- 
sists even at the present time of a great extent of more 
or less peaty soil, commonly called moss. Danes pad, 
or path, the name for an old road across it, Angersholm, 
Mythorp, Eskham, and other place-names in the district, 
are distinctly Scandinavian. 

When we remember that the Anglian kingdom of 
Northumbria was conquered by Northmen, and was a 
Danish kingdom for about 200 years, until reduced in 
status to one of the great earldoms of the later Saxon 
period, we naturally expect to find more characteristic 
remains of Danes and Northmen than of the earlier 
Anglians. Some interesting evidence of the agricultural 
customs of Northmen connected with the old farm- 
houses called onsteads survived in Northumberland as 
late as 1827, and may still survive in part. The customs 
may be ancient, even if the farms are comparatively 
modern. They are scattered over a large part of that 
county, at a distance of two or three miles from each 
other, and from the villages or towns. In these onsteads 
the farmers resided with their dependents. Immediately 
adjoining them a number of cottages were situated, pro- 
portionable in some degree to the size of the farms. They 
are, or were, inhabited by the steward, the hinds, and in 
some instances by the bondagers, who have, or had, their 
cottages at a small rent, and are entitled to a certain 

1 Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. * Ibid., A.D. 941. 

3 Whitaker, T. D., ' History of Whalley,' 4th Ed M i. 52. 

33 2 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

quantity of potatoes. The wages of the steward and 
hinds were chiefly paid in kind, and they had their \ 
cottages rent free, with hay or grass for one or two cows 
and other privileges, and a small sum of money .1 

The system in Norway is very similar to this. The 
farms have houses for housemen, with enclosed land to 
each, that extends to the keeping of two cows and six 
sheep all the year round, and to the sowing of a certain 
quantity of corn and potatoes. A small general rent 
is paid for these holdings. In this system the main object 
provided for is that the labourer may be able to live on 
the produce of the land. 2 

We may recognise the Scandian or Danish influence in 
the northern counties in some of the ancient designations 
of the tenants mentioned in the Boldon Book of Durham, 
such as Cotmanni and Malmanni, the former corresponding 
to the cottars of southern counties. The Danes commonly 
used the word manni 3 in names of this kind. The char- 
acteristic Scandinavian termination -hope or -op in place- 
names is found in many instances in the west of North- 
umberland Bowhope, Ramshope, Wickhope, Blenkin- 
sop, Killhope, and Hawhope being examples. The 
significance of these -hope names will be discussed in the 
chapter relating to the Welsh border. The word -side, 
also, which is a characteristic in the Cumberland names, 
is found in the western parts of Northumberland, such 
as Hesleyside, Whiteside, Wheelside, and Monkside. 
These point to a similarity in dialect, and hence prob- 
ably in race. The place-names originally derived from 
shelter names, such as booth, shield, and scale, are more 
frequently met with in the northern counties than else- 
where. They had their origin, probably, in summer 
huts, commonly erected by pastoral people among the 

1 Mackenzie, E., ' View of the County of Northumberland,' 
ii., pp. 52, 53. 

2 Laing, Samuel, ' Journal of a Residence in Norway.' ed. 1851, 
pp. 101, 102. 

3 du Chaillu, P., ' Viking Age,' i. 23. 

Settlers in Northumbria. 333 

hills or on the upland wastes, for temporary abodes 
while pasturing their cattle away from their permanent 
homesteads, as is the custom in Norway at the present 

The descendants of Danish or Norse settlers may be 
distinguished in Lancashire as late as the time of Domesday 
Survey by the statements that some of them paid their 
rents in the Danish computation. Thus, in many places 
between the Ribble and the Mersey each carucate of land 
paid a tax or tribute of two ores of pennies. 1 The ore 
was a Danish coin of the value of sixteen pence, and later 
of twenty pence. Similarly, it may be noted in the 
ancient Northumbrian Priest-law that the fines men- 
tioned are in half -marks, also of old Northern origin. 

People of the same descent may be recognised in the 
land register of the monastery of Hexham, which tells 
us of ' husbands ' and ' terrae husband.' 2 These husbands 
were no doubt descended from Northern settlers known 
as bondi, a name still used for the peasant proprietors 
of Scandinavia. 

The race characters shown at the present time by the 
people of Northumberland are, according to Beddoe, 
strongly Anglian, and can be well seen in the rural 
population around Hexham. 3 The Northumberland 
people are, in the main, above the average English size. 
It is on evidence that a regiment of men of that county 
standing in close formation occupies more space than an 
average regiment of the same number. The old race 
in north Durham is also Anglian in the main. The 
North and East Ridings of Yorkshire have an Anglo- 
Danish population, the prevailing types being Anglian 
and Danish. Phillips describes these people as tall, 
large-boned, and muscular, with a visage long and 

1 Domesday Book, quoted by Fishwick, H., ' History of 
Lancashire,' 54. 

2 Nasse, E., ' The Agricultural Community,' translated by 
Oudry, p. 71. 

3 Beddoe, J., ' Races in Britain,' 249. 

334 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

angular, fair or blonde complexion, blue or gray eyes, 
and light-brown or reddish hair. 1 In the more elevated 
districts of the West Riding he describes the people as 
robust in person, of an oval, full, and rounded visage, 
with a nose often slightly aquiline, a complexion some- 
what embrowned or florid, brown or gray eyes, and 
brown or reddish hair. This brown, burly breed Phillips 
thought to be Norwegian, but Beddoe considers it to be 
a variety of the Anglian race, as it abounds in Stafford- 
shire, which is a very Anglian county. 

In the plains of Yorkshire, Durham, and Northumber- 
land the old agricultural arrangements of the townships 
appear to have been largely those of the nucleated 
villages or collected homesteads. This system corre- 
sponds to that now prevailing in Holstein, part of Schles- 
wig, which was within part of the Anglian country, a 
circumstance that points to the plan of collected home- 
steads having been introduced into these parts of the 
northern counties by people of that race. On the other 
hand, on both sides of the Pennine Range isolated home- 
steads have largely survived in both west Yorkshire 
and east Lancashire, and these are probably traces of 
ancient Celtic occupation. The homestead arrange- 
ments in these districts have much in common with those 
found in Cumberland and in Wales. 

1 Beddoe, J., ' Races in Britain,' 250. 



IN some of the counties which were comprised within 
the kingdom of Mercia we meet with remarkable 
traces of old tribal customs. There is a charter 
relating to the borough of Leicester granted by Simon de 
Montfort, and dated October 25, 1255. In this docu- 
ment he ordered, apparently as Earl of Leicester, that 
the burgage tenements of the people of that town which 
by custom descended to the youngest son should there- 
after follow the course of common law and go to the eldest. 
This charter never received the King's ratification, but 
its validity does not seem to have been questioned. 1 
By similar arbitrary measures changes were probably 
made in other places. Junior right is known to have 
existed in Derby, Nottingham, Stamford, and Stafford, 
in addition to a considerable number of rural manors in 
the Midland counties. It could not have been spon- 
taneously developed in these towns, nor at the other more 
numerous places in which traces of it can be found, and 
was probably brought in by the early settlers. 

Partible inheritance, more or less resembling the gavel- 
kind custom in Kent, as well as junior right, can be traced 
unmistakably in the counties of Leicester and Notting- 
ham. To what extent they prevailed originally it is not 
possible to say, for in some places customs may have 
1 Elton, C. I., ' Robinson on Gavelkind,' p. 66. 

336 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

been changed and all traces of them lost, either by the 
later settlements of Danes or by compulsory orders like 
that made at Leicester. In Leicestershire, partible 
inheritance is known to have been the rule in the soke of 

This place is situated in the north of the county, and 
at the time of Domesday Survey included twenty-one 
members or subordinate manors, among which were 
Allexton, Baresbi, Segrave, Markfield, Halstead, Frisby, 
Saxelby, Bagrave, and Gaddesby. 1 It comprised at that 
time 204 sokemen, 157 villeins, and 94 bordiers, who 
together formed an administrative district apart from 
the hundreds of the county. In this liberty the lands 
held by a sokeman, and presumably also by the other 
tenants, were on the death of the holder parted between 
his sons, or in the absence of sons, among his daughters. 
If he left only one son and one daughter, the son took the 
whole. If he left a widow, she held the land for her life, 
provided she remained single, but if she married again 
she kept only a third as her dower, and the rest passed 
to the heirs. 

There is much similarity between this custom and that 
of Kent. There can thus be little doubt that Leicester- 
shire received among its Anglian colonists some settlers 
who migrated from Kent or came from Gothland and 
Frisia. It should be noted that Frisby and Gaddesby 
are among the names of ancient places which were 
included within the Soke of Rothley. The early Anglo- 
Saxon inhabitants of Leicestershire were known as the 
Middle Angles, but the laws of the Angles of the Conti- 
nent were especially marked by preference for male 
inheritance in the time of Charlemagne. If we may 
assume that this was an earlier custom characteristic of 
the race, as it was among the Continental Saxons, it 
would not be likely that the Angles of Leicestershire 

1 Domesday Book, and Maitland, F. W., ' Domesday Book and 
Beyond,' 114. 

Settlements in Mercia. 337 

brought in a custom which recognised daughters such 
as prevailed at Rothley. To account for it we must 
conclude that there must have settled among these 
Middle Angles people who had a custom of female in- 
heritance at least, in default of sons. As the burgesses 
of Leicester had another custom that of junior inherit- 
ance which was different altogether from what pre- 
vailed generally among the Saxons or Angles, we are led 
to the conclusion that the original settlers at Leicester 
must have come from some other part of the Continent 
where this custom prevailed ; and there is reason to 
believe it did prevail among the Burgundians of the 
Baltic or people of Slavic or mixed Slavic descent. Such 
tribes may have been allies of the Danes who settled in 
Leicester, Nottingham, and other towns before the end 
of the ninth century. 1 

The evidence that the five Danish towns of Leicester, 
Lincoln, Nottingham, Stamford, and Derby, were per- 
manently occupied by Northmen of some kind during 
the earlier Danish conquests, in or before the time of 
Alfred, appears conclusive from the reference to these 
places in the Saxon Chronicle in the year 941. This was 
the time when Eadmund succeeded /Ethelstan, and his 
various territories are stated. We are told that he sub- 
dued Mercia and the five towns ' that were ere while 
Danish under the Northmen.' This statement places 
the antiquity of the Danish settlement in these towns 
beyond doubt, and the custom of junior right which is 
known to have prevailed in four of them, but not in 
Lincoln, is significant, as pointing to people who had 
different tribal usages having probably settled in them, 
although all called Danes. There is, indeed, some evi- 
dence that under the pressure of population which urged 
them to the west, Slavs ' established themselves in parts 
of the southern isles of Denmark, Laaland, Falster, and 
Langeland, where their traditions and place-names bear 

1 Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A.D. 941. 


338 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

witness to their settlements.' 1 If this migration took 
place at an early date, as is probable, some of these 
Danes of Wendish descent may well have come into 
England with other Danes during their earlier as well 
as their later incursions. 

Beddoe tells us that as a result of his observations on 
the people of Leicestershire and Northamptonshire, 
compared with those of Lincolnshire and Nottingham- 
shire, he found a considerably higher percentage of dark 
hair and eyes in the two former counties than in the two 
latter. From observations on 540 persons in Leicester- 
shire and 300 in Northamptonshire, he found the index 
of nigrescence to be 20-8 in the county of Leicester and 
31-2 in that of Northampton ; while of 500 persons 
observed in Lincolnshire, it was only 12-3 ; and of 700 
observed in Nottinghamshire, it was 14-1. Regarding 
Leicestershire and Northamptonshire, he says : ' There 
is, if I may judge by the colour of the hair and eyes, a 
strong non-Teutonic element.' 2 In order to account for 
this darker character of the people we must assume either 
a" survival of people of a darker British race, or that a 
considerable proportion of brown or dark people settled 
in these counties with the fairer Angles and Scandi- 
navians. It has already been shown in reference to 
similar observations in Hertfordshire and Buckingham- 
shire that there are Continental areas within the parts 
from which Anglo-Saxon settlers came where people of 
a darker complexion still live, and apparently have from 
time immemorial. 

The original Mercians formed a comparatively small 
State, which absorbed the Gyrwas, or Fen people of Lin- 
colnshire, Northampton, and Huntingdon ; the Lindis- 
ware of north Lincolnshire ; the South Humbrians, or 
Ambrones, in the north of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, 

1 Reclus, E., ' Nouvelle Geographic Universelle,' v. 25, quoting 
Schiern, ' Om Slaviscke Stednavne.' 
3 Beddoe, J., ' Races of Britain,' p. 24. 

Settlements in Mercia. 339 

and part of Lincoln ; the Middle Angles of Leicester ; and 
the Pecsetena of Derby. The Mercians acquired the 
southern part of their territory around Bedford and west- 
ward from the West Saxons. The Hwiccii of Gloucester- 
shire and part of Worcestershire were also originally under 
Wessex. The Hecanas of Herefordshire, the Maegasetas 
of west Gloucestershire and part of Hereford, the Wrocen- 
setnas and other tribes of Shropshire, were probably 
always Mercian. The Derbyshire people appear to have 
been annexed from Northumbria, as later on were the 
Lancashire people south of the Ribble. Under the year 
941, as already mentioned, the Saxon Chronicle describes 
the Mercian boundaries as extending from Dore to Whit- 
well's Gate and the Humber i.e., from Dore Valley, in 
Herefordshire, to near Whitwell, north-east of Clitheroe, 
in Lancashire, and thence south and east to the Humber. 
The ancient Diocese of Lichfield, which also extended to 
the Ribble, appears to confirm this identification of the 
north-west extension of Mercia. 

The river Trent was apparently a boundary between 
people of different tribes at the time of the settlement, 
and even at the present time a fairer population is found 
in Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire than in Leicestershire. 
The most probable view of the settlement of these parts 
is that the British people in the country north of this 
river as far westward, at least, as Staffordshire, the 
Derbyshire mountains, and Cannock Chase were expelled 
or enslaved by an extension of the settlers from what is 
now Yorkshire, or an extension up the Trent valley of the 
Gainas and Lindiswaras from North Lincolnshire. In 
this way it is probable that a compact Anglian State, 
which was at first dependent on Deira, was formed. 1 In 
any case, anthropological research has shown that both 
Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire have a population at the 
present time which is distinctly fairer than that of 
Leicestershire. Beddoe says of Derbyshire : ' The type of 
1 Beddoe, J., loc. cit., p. 66. 

22 2 

340 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

the population is certainly Anglian. My own observa- 
tions, the military statistics, and those of the Anthro- 
pometric Committee, all agree in representing the Derby- 
shire people as having lighter hair than all but very few 
English counties. East Staffordshire is also very Anglian, 
but no wise Danish.' 1 It is in Staffordshire and the parts 
of other counties adjoining it on the west and south, of 
all the counties in England, that traces of any Danish or 
Norse settlements are the least. 

One of the most interesting of the old frontiers in 
England is that between Northamptonshire and Oxford- 
shire. The former county was within the later Danelaw, 
the latter was not. The Danish territory, as settled 
between Alfred and Guthrum, had Watling Street for its 
boundary north of Stony Stratford. As extended a 
century later, it included the counties of Northampton, 
Buckingham, Middlesex, and Hertford. There must have 
been a reason for this extension of Danish law over the 
parts of Northampton and Buckingham which are west 
of Watling Street, and this probably was the settlement 
of Danish subjects in these counties between the time of 
Alfred and the end of the Danish rule in England. They 
were forest counties, and Danes were probably given 
settlements in them. The old place-names in the south 
parts of Northamptonshire bear witness to this. We find 
Aynho, Farthingho or Faringho, Furtho, Grimsbury, 
Overthorp, Astrop, W 7 arkworth, Thorpe, Byfield, Ab thorp, 
Wicken, Badby, Barby, Farendone, Ravensthorp, Kings- 
thorp, Catesby, Kilsby, and other characteristic Scandian 
names. On the Oxfordshire side of this frontier names of 
this kind are scarcely met with. The names ending 
in -o may be compared with those still in use in Norway, 
where they are very numerous. This Scandian settle- 
ment in the south-west of Northamptonshire was probably 
a late one. This extension of the Danelaw frontier is 
significant of a change in the general population, as is also 
1 Beddoe, J., loc. cit., p. 253. 

Settlements in Mercia. 341 

the circumstance that as late as the time of the Domesday 
Survey payments to the royal revenue from this county 
were made in Danish money, twenty silver pennies being 
reckoned to the ora. The survival of the custom of in- 
heritance by the eldest daughter in the absence of sons 
at Middleton Cheney, 1 in the south-west of the county, 
is confirmatory evidence of Norse colonists. 

In Northamptonshire we find also a trace of the Frisians, 
under the Northern name Hocings, in the name of the 
Domesday hundred Hocheslau. 

There are reasons for believing that Northamptonshire 
was partly occupied by immigrants into it from the north- 
east, as well as others from the south-west. Steinberg, 
who wrote many years ago on its dialect and folk-lore, 
says that two distinct and opposite modes of speech may 
be observed among the rurul population of the two ex- 
tremities of the county. 2 This immigration from two 
directions would probably be up the river valleys from the 
Wash, and along the Roman roads from the south and 
west. Among its immigrants, earlier or later, some Wends 
must have been included. It has already been pointed 
out that in the old place-names Wendlingbury, or Wendles- 
berie and Wansford, also called Wandlesworth, 3 in the 
Nen valley, we have traces of Wendish settlers, and 
these people have also apparently left other traces in the 
folk-lore. The most remarkable instance is that of the 
May-trees, which at the present time are such a character- 
istic custom in Russia. In Northamptonshire a young 
tree ten or twelve feet high used to be planted in some 
villages before every house on May Day, so as to appear 
as if growing. 4 This custom does not apparently prevail 
except in Slavonic counties, and where old Wendish settle- 
ments were made. / 

1 Elton and Mackay, ' Law of Copyholds," 134. 

2 Sternberg, T., ' Dialect and Folk- Lore of Northamptonshire, ix. 

3 Camden, W., ' Britannia,' 1722,, Ed. by Gibson, 192. 

4 Frazer, J. G., ' The Golden Bough,' 1890 Ed., i. 75. 

342 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

Another example of Northamptonshire folk-lore which 
points to Wendish influence is that concerning Bogie. 
This name in reference to a ghost is common, but in this 
county the word was used in a somewhat more personal 
sense. ' He caps Bogie ' was a proverbial expression, 
often amplified to ' He caps Bogie, Bogie caps Redcap, 
and Redcap caps Nick.' 1 Boge is the Wendish equivalent 
for a god, and the word is common in Slavonic languages 
for a deity. Northamptonshire being within the later 
Danelaw, the old dialect, in common with that of the East 
Midland counties, points to a Danish influence. In these 
counties the Southern expressions ' I be,' ' we be,' etc., are 
not heard ; but ' I are ' for ' I am,' analogous to the 
Danish jeg er, is not uncommon. Sternberg says that 
' he are ' for ' he is,' analogous to the Danish han er, was 
used in north and east Northamptonshire. 2 When 
Sternberg wrote, the legend of the Wild Hunt had not 
quite died out in this county. In Pomerania and Mecklen- 
burg, Wode (Woden) is said to be out hunting 3 when 
stormy winds blow through the woods, and formerly the 
wild huntsman was heard along the gloomy avenues of 
Whittlebury Forest. 4 

As mentioned in a previous chapter, the county of Buck- 
ingham shows traces of settlements by Northmen* Danes, 
and their allies, including Wends, in various parts of it. 
One of the historical facts bearing on this settlement is the 
Wendish connection of Cnut. 5 He was King of Vindland, 
as well as of Denmark, and Vindland was the name of 
Mecklenburg and Pomerania in the Old Norrsna language. 
In the early part of the eleventh century, consequently, 
when England had a King who was also King of the Wends, 
it is certain that a considerable immigration of Danes and 

1 Sternberg, T., loc. cit., 128. 

2 Bonaparte, Prince Louis L., ' English Dialects,' Philol. 
Soc. Transactions, 1875-1876, p. 573. 

3 Wagner, W., ' Asgard and the Gods,' 71, 72. 

4 Sternberg, T., loc. cit., 131. 

6 Seebohm, F., ' Tribal Custom in Anglo-Saxon Law,' 34. 

Settlements in Mercia. 343 

Wends into England took place. The formation by Cnut 
of the body of huscarls, many of whom were Wendish 
exiles from their native land, is historical. In the north 
of Buckinghamshire the name Wendover, which still sur- 
vives, is suggestive of some Wendish connection with that 
part of the county, and Domesday Book contains other 
similar names, among which are Weneslai, now Winslow, 
and Wandene. The same record tells us that in the time 
of King Edward the manors of Senelai, Achecote, Stanes, 
Hamescle, Haiscote, and Lauendene, had all been held 
by huscarls of King Edward, who had continued the body 
of men Cnut had established. The land they occupied 
appears to have been held by huscarl service, for in one 
instance Domesday Book tells us it was held by one 
described as son of a huscarl. It is worth noting also that 
the name Lauendene, now Lavendon, closely resembles 
the Wendish name of Lauenberg, and that Lauendene 
was held by a huscarl in King Edward's time. 

In the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Buckingham is written 
Buccinga-ham, a name clearly referring to a kindred 
called Buccings. A pagus of a similar name is also known, 
that of the Bucki in Saxony, mentioned in the time of 
Charlemagne. 1 This or another pagus of the same name 
is mentioned as the ' Bucki, pagus Angariorum ' in the 
eighth century. 2 The Angarians of the Carlovingian 
period are the same as the Angrivarii mentioned by Taci- 
tus, who pressed upon and well-nigh exterminated the 
Boructarii in the Engern district, which lies between 
Westphalia and Hanover i.e., the country anciently 
known as Ostphalia. 3 By looking at a map of Germany, 
we shall see that this ' Bucki, pagus Angariorum ' must 
have been located not far from Brunswick, and near the 
western border of the more extended Saxony of the eighth 
century. Tacitus says the Angrivarii were an intrusive 

1 Monumenta Germanise, Scriptores i. 155. 

a Ibid., 154, 155. 

3 Latham, R. G., ' Handbook of the English Language,' 24-26. 

344 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

people, and as the advance in his time was from the east, 
they probably came from that direction, as their name 
still lingers in the old Wendish parts of Germany. The 
places whose names begin with the word Buk- are almost 
all, as far as Germany is concerned, found in its eastern or 
ancient Slavic parts. 1 Some are also found in the Slavic 
parts of Austria. West of the Elbe, Buchau is the name of 
a suburb of Magdeburg in Prussian Saxony, a district 
which was close to, or within, the ancient Slav frontier. 
It must therefore be allowed that the evidence, both ancient 
and modern, which connects the name of the people known 
as the Bucki with the old country of the Wends in Eastern 
Germany is by no means slight. 

The traces of people of different tribes which the 
Domesday names in Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire 
exhibit are of interest. Danais and Daneslai, in Hertford- 
shire, point in all probability to Danish settlements, 
while Wenriga and Wenrige probably denote Wendish 

The fact already mentioned that there is in Bucking- 
hamshire a higher percentage of brunettes at the present 
time shows that there was some unusual element among 
the people. 

In Bedfordshire there were at the time of the Survey 
two hundreds which had the significant names Weneslai 
and Wilga. It is difficult to see how they could have 
arisen except from settlements of people with Wendish 
names. The name Wilga seems to denote a community 
of the Wilte or Wiltzi, the largest known tribe of the Wends. 

Among the old Mercian shires, Bedfordshire and Buck- 
inghamshire are remarkable for the various kinds of land 
tenure which prevailed in them at the close of the Saxon 
period. In the former there were land-holders who could 
let their land to whom they pleased, others who could sell 
their land, others who could both let and sell, and others 
who could neither let nor sell without license from the 
1 Rudolph, H., ' Orts Lexicon von Deutschland.' 

Settlements in Mercia. 345 

superior lord. Some tenants in these counties were very 
differently circumstanced in other respects in regard to the 
land they held, the privileges they enjoyed, or the obliga- 
tions they were under, and these facts point to differences 
in tribal custom extending back to an early period. 

The Anglo-Saxon names Huntandune and Huntedune, 1 
for Huntingdon, like that of Buckingham, were probably 
given to it from the name of the head or chief of its original 
family community. There was a pagus of the Huntanga 
known in Frisia in the eighth century. 2 The eastern part 
of Groningen in Holland appears to have been its western 
boundary, and the river Hunte, a branch of the Weser, to 
be a survival of this tribal name. As the evidence of the 
settlement of Frisians in England is unshakable, and the 
Huntanga were a Frisian tribe, the old name Huntandun 
may reasonably be connected with it, as derived from a 
settler of that tribe with his family or kindred. 

There are traces of Frisians to be found in Hertfordshire 
and the valley of the Lea. Such names as Broccesborne 
(now Broxbourne), Brockhall, and Brockmans, an ancient 
manor connected with North Mimms, 3 suggest the settle- 
ment of Frisian Brockmen ; and those of Cockernoe, 
Cochehamsted, an old part of Braughing, and Hockeril, 
close to Bishop's Stortford, suggest similar settlements of 
Chaucians or Hocings ; while Honesdon, or Hunsdon, is 
suggestive of a settler of the Hunni tribe. The parish of 
St. Margaret, near Ware, was formerly known as Theele, 4 
which, like Mimms and others, are manorial names sugges- 
tive of Frisian origin. Like the custom on the Theel- 
lands in part of Frisia, that of inheritance by the youngest 
son has survived until modern time at Much Hadham and 
at Cheshunt in this county. 5 

Although we cannot trace the survival of junior in- 

1 Codex Dipl., 575, 579. 

2 Monumenta Germanise, Annales Weissem., A.D. 781. 

3 Chauncy, Sir H., ' Historical Antiquities of Hertfordshire,' 
p. 530. * Ibid., p. 284. 

6 Notes and Queries, Seventh Series, ix. 206. 

346 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

heritance over any considerable districts in the Midlands, 
as we can in Sussex, and some counties on the eastern or 
south-western coasts, yet examples of its existence have 
been found in a few manors of nearly all the old Mercian 
shires. It may have existed among copyholders in other 
manors only known locally. Elton says that although in 
the Midland counties it is comparatively rare, yet it has 
been found at the rate of about two or three manors to a 
county. 1 From its survival on a comparatively large scale 
in some of the maritime counties and on numerous manors 
around London, and its rarity in the Midlands, we appear 
justified in drawing the conclusion that this custom, as it 
existed in England, was brought by maritime settlers, 
and that, as some of their descendants migrated farther 
inland, they carried it with them. In Huntingdonshire 
borough-English was the customary law of inheritance 
at Gumecester, or Godmanchester, 2 and at Eynesbury. 3 
The name Gumecester, or Gumycester, may be traced to 
the Gothic guma (a man), so that the settlement of 
northern Goths at Godmanchester, close to Huntingdon, 
appears to be shown by both its ancient and modern 
names. Some of their allies who settled there with them 
may have brought in the junior right. 

In the custom that prevailed at Godmanchester we 
appear to have an example of the blending of those of two 
races viz. : (i) That in favour of the youngest son, which 
was not Anglian ; (2) that in favour of males in preference 
to females, which was Anglian. By the laws of the Con- 
tinental Anglians, males were preferred to females as far 
as the fifth generation. The custom of Godmanchester 
provided ' that if a man have two sons by his wife, and 
one of these have an heir masculine and the other an heir 
feminine, and if after these sons do depart and die, the 
father of them being alive, and after it chances the father 

1 Elton, C. I., ' Origins of English History,' p. 184. 

2 Fox, R., ' History of Godmanchester,' p. 92. 

3 Hundred Rolls, ii. 669. ' 

Settlements in Mercia. 347 

of them do die, then the same heir masculine shall be the 
heir, and not the heir feminine, though she be of the 
younger son.' 1 

In the manor of Liddington-cum-Caldecot, in Rutland, 
the junior inheritance custom that prevailed was that the 
land descended to the youngest son, and if no son, to the 
daughters in parcenary. 2 

At Kimbolton the custom in regard to succession was 
division among the sons, the whole estate being kept 
together under one, as the nominal head. This was a 
family or tribal arrangement, the parage or parcenery 
tenure. The Domesday account tells us that the manor 
was held by six socmen Alwold and his five brothers 3 
and the entry probably points to descendants of North- 
men of some tribe who had retained a custom of their 
forefathers. Two of the hamlets at Kimbolton bore the 
names of Wormedik and Akermanni, as shown by the 
Hundred Rolls, both apparently of northern origin. 

The chief districts in the midland counties where 
partible inheritance prevailed were the soke of Rothley 
in Leicestershire, and the soke of Oswaldbeck 4 in Notting- 
hamshire. The continuance of the custom to modern 
time shows that it must have been of immemorial usage 
to have satisfied the courts of the twelfth century, when 
primogeniture had become the general law. Oswaldbeck 
soke comprised the area of country in the north-east of 
Nottingham between the river Idle and the Trent. The 
soke was a separate administration, and apparently was 
bounded on the south by places now called East and West 
Markham. It comprised the old Domesday manors of 
Sutton, Lound, Madressi, Crophill, Laneham, Ascham, 
Bolun, Bertun, Waterlege, Leverton, North Muskham, 
and Scrobi. Most of these old manors can still be 
identified, but the district contains at the present time 

1 Fox, R., loc. cit., p. 94. 

2 Elton, C. I., ' The Law of Copyholds,' 130. 

3 Domesday Book, i. 206. * Elton, C. I., ' Gavelkind,' 32. 

348 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

many newer villages and hamlets. The old list shows 
which places in the district were probably settled first. 
The custom of partible inheritance in Oswaldbeck was 
limited to males, 1 whereas that of Rothley in Leicester- 
shire provided for the inheritance to be divided among 
daughters in default of sons. 2 This latter custom points 
to Goths and Frisians, while that of Oswaldbeck points 
to Angles or Saxons, among whom male inheritance was 
the rule. The country of the South Humbrians, or 
Ambrones, a tribe of Old Saxons, may have included 

In reference to the missionary works of Paulinus or 
one of his contemporaries among these people, Nennius 
tells us that he was engaged for forty days in baptising 
the Ambrones. 3 As they were in all probability a tribe 
of Old Saxons, the statement must refer to some of them 
who had settled in England, and had brought their tribal 
name from the borderland of Frisia and Old Saxony. The 
old name for the river Ems, as already mentioned, was 
Emmer or Ambra ; the country near the Humber was 
Ymbraland, and an old Continental tribe called the Ymbre 
is mentioned in the ' Traveller's Song.' 4 Under the year 
697, there is a reference in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle to 
the South Humbrians, and there are traditions of Paulinus 
baptising in the river Trent. In Derbyshire there is, or 
was, a river named the Amber, from which Ambergate 
takes its name. 5 The thirteenth-century records show also 
that there was a place named Ambresbur' in Derbyshire, 
and another of the same name in Nottinghamshire. 6 
These old names and the circumstances mentioned appear 
to denote that the settlements of the tribe called Am- 
brones extended to some parts of these counties. 

In the borough of Nottingham two ancient customs of 

1 Elton, C. I., ' Gavel kind,' 32. 2 Arch&ologia, xlvii. 97. 

3 Nennius, ' Historia Britomim,' i. 117. 

4 Latham, R. G., ' Germania of Tacitus,' Epil. cix. 

5 Derbyshire Arch&ol. and Nat. Hist. Soc., ii. 33. 

6 Placita de quo warranto, pp. 154, 659, Calendar. 

Settlements in Mercia. 349 

succession at one time prevailed, those connected with its 
English and French inhabitants, respectively called by 
the Norman-French names Burgh Engloyes and Burgh 
Frauncoyes. The borough-English custom by which the 
youngest son succeeded also prevailed at Southwell, 1 
which was a soke having twelve berewicks, or sub- 
ordinate manors, belonging to the Archbishop of York, 
at the time of the Domesday Survey. Its connection 
with that See was very ancient, going back to the early 
days of Christianity in York. Here it should be noted 
that the custom at Southwell was different from that of 
Oswaldbeck, the Archbishop's extensive district in the 
north of the county. It also differed from the general 
custom which prevailed on that prelate's Yorkshire land. 
It could not, therefore, have been owing to uniformity of 
tenure on those lands that junior right prevailed and sur- 
vived at Southwell. The custom was continued probably 
because it was the custom of the early settlers at that place, 
and if so, it points to people of a different race or tribe to 
those in the soke of Oswaldbeck to some tribal allies of 
the early Angles or later Danes. 

In Leicestershire the Domesday place-name Brochesbi 
may refer to the by or settlement whose chief was one 
Broche, so named from being either a Frisian of the 
Brocman tribe, or possibly a Boructer of the tribe of the 
Boructware, from whom, Bede tells us, some of the 
English of his time were known to have descended. In 
Leicestershire, also, the Domesday place Frisebi must 
have been the settlement of a Frisian, as Hunecote 
probably was of a Hunsing named Hune ; Osgodtorp was 
the thorp of Osgod i.e., an Eastern Goth; Suevesbi 
that of one of the Suevi, and Saxebi that of a Saxon, 
the early settlers from whom the places originally derived 
their names being probably so named in each case after 
the name of their tribe or nation. The Domesday 
name Cuchenai, in Nottinghamshire, points to one or 
1 Elton, C. L, ' Gavelkind.' 

350 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

more settlers of the Chaucian tribe, and may be com- 
pared with that of Cuxhaven at the mouth of the Elbe, 
which has come down to us in the old Chaucian country 

Such old place-names as these in parts of the old 
kingdom of Mercia show that among the so-called Angles 
that settled in the Mercian States there must have been 
people of other tribes. The Angles of these States may 
have been more Germanic than those of Northumbria. 
That there were differences is certain from the large 
number of runic inscriptions on monuments in the 
northern counties, while only two appear to have been 
discovered in the Mercian shires viz., at Bakewell in 
Derbyshire, 1 and at Cleobury Mortimer in Shropshire. 2 

The old Mercian counties present a remarkable con- 
trast in the manner in which the original homesteads of 
the settlers were arranged. In the east midland coun- 
ties villages of collected homesteads must have very 
largely prevailed, for this is the common type of village 
met with in these counties. The old villages with 
the homesteads more or less collected always was the 
system in these shires since the coming of the Anglo- 
Saxon people. They are especially noticeable in North- 
amptonshire, Leicestershire, Huntingdonshire, Bedford- 
shire, and Buckinghamshire, and they may be commonly 
seen to have roads leading to them from various direc- 
tions, originally the ways from the villages to the common 
fields that lay around them. At the beginning of the 
nineteenth century 130,000 acres in Huntingdonshire, 
out of a total of 240,000, were open commonable lands, 3 
chiefly pasture. On the other hand, in the west midland 
counties, such as Gloucestershire, Worcestershire, and 
Shropshire, the old Celtic arrangement of isolated home- 
steads has survived much more largely, especially in the 

1 Stephens, G., ' Old Northern Runic Monuments,' i. 373. 

- Ibid., iii. 160. 

3 Maine, Sir H., ' Village Communities,' 88, 89. 

Settlements in Mercia. 351 

vale of the Severn, and more particularly in the parts 
east of that river. The collected homestead system 
which now prevails over so large a part of Holstein is 
probably due to the survival of the Anglian type of 
village in one of the homelands of the Angles, and so 
many of the collected villages of the East Midland counties 
are probably survivals, in plan, of the Anglian immigrants. 

As regards possible British survivals among the Anglo- 
Saxon people of the old Mercian shires, we must look 
for any traces of them, apart from the country along the 
Welsh border, in those districts which were chiefly char- 
acterized by forests and fens. In the fen district of 
Huntingdonshire we meet with traces of people of British 
descent as late as the beginning of the eleventh century, 
for the early historian of Ramsay alludes to ' Britones 
latrones,' or Welsh robbers, as still possible in that part 
of the country as late as the time of King Cnut.i The 
Fen country was long a stronghold of Britons, as of Anglo- 
$axons after them. 

There are incidental traces showing that during the 
Anglo-Saxon period some Wilisc men i.e., Welsh or 
British lived in Mercia, as well as in Northumbria and 
Wessex. These were treated as strangers, and their 
wergeld was only half that of others of the same class. 
They were outside the kindred organization, so that in 
the case of crime being imputed to them they could only 
prove their innocence by the ordeal, the oaths of their 
family relations not being acceptable, as they were not 
accounted freemen. 2 

1 Freeman, E. A., ' Norman Conquest,' i. 477, note. 

2 Seebohm, F., loc. cit., 403, 499. 



WE can trace the expansion of the older settlements 
in the south-western counties. Somersetshire 
obtained its name from its original settlers, the 
Sumersaetas. These, as the name implies, probably first 
formed summer settlements on its marshes, hill pastures, 
and in its forests. To have used these parts of the 
county for summer purposes at first the Sumersaetas must 
have come almost wholly from Wiltshire and Dorset. 
Their pasturage places were probably of the same kind 
as the Scandinavian saeters or summer pasture houses, 
often many miles from the permanent homesteads, are 
at the present time. As the population increased the 
summer settlements became permanent, and in various 
portions of the country, as in the Vale of Taunton, 
immigrants from more distant parts were no doubt 
located. Somerset was not conquered by the West 
Saxons until after their conversion to Christianity, or 
at least until subsequently to the conversion of the royal 
house. This probably explains the continuous existence 
of Glastonbury and its abbey from the British period 
into that of the Saxons. A fusion of some of the British 
people with the Saxons went on in this county, and in 
this the influence of the abbey, whose estates were appar- 
ently at least, in part confirmed to it, must have been 
very considerable. This fusion probably explains Beddoe's 


Settlements in the South-Western Counties. 353 

conclusion that ' almost everywhere in Somerset the 
index of nigrescence is greater than in Wiltshire or in 
Gloucestershire east of the Severn. 5l 

It is of some interest to note that among the early 
settlers in Somerset there were colonists from Sussex. 
In the great manor of Taunton Dean the customs which 
prevailed were almost identical with those in the Rape 
of Lewes. This great liberty in Somerset resembled in 
its constitution a Sussex rape in containing hundreds 
within it. These hundreds were Holwey, Hull, Nailsborne, 
Staplegrove, Taunton Borough, and Taunton Castle. 2 

The chief customs of the tenants within the barony of 
Lewes and within the manor of Taunton Dean may be 
compared under the following heads, 3 in which they 
were practically the same : 

1. The tenants were able to alienate their land, and 
so to dispose of it by a process of surrender in court, and 
this privilege extended in both districts to parcels of the 
land as well as the whole. 

2. The lands passed from a tenant to his heir at his 

3. By the custom both at Lewes and at Taunton the 
widow inherited the estate for her life. She was admitted 
for life by the court. 

4. On both manors if the husband made a surrender 
in favour of some other person than his wife, even if 
done on his deathbed before legal witnesses, the widow 
lost her right to succeed. 

5. The guardianship of infant heirs, at Lewes and at 
Taunton, was, by the custom of both places, entrusted 
to one or more of the next of the infant's kindred, to 
whom the land could not descend. 

6. By the custom of both manors the youngest son 

1 Beddoe, J., ' Races in Britain,' 258. 

2 Shillibeer, H. B., ' History of the Manor of Taunton Dean,' 
Appendix, xxvii. 

3 Ibid., pp. 31-67, and Horsfield, T. W., 'History of Lewes,' 
178, 179. 


354 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

succeeded to the estate, and if there was no son, the 
youngest daughter. If there were no children, the estate 
was similarly inherited by the youngest relative collater- 

7. The customary tenants on both manors had to keep 
their houses and other customary tenements in repair. 

8. The tenants on both manors were unable to let or 
farm their copyholds for a longer time than a year and 
a day without license from their lord's court. 

9. The customary tenants both at Lewes and Taunton 
were required to do their suit at the lord's court held 
from three weeks to three weeks. There were also similar 
regulations by which defaulters were essoyned or fined. 

10. A reeve was appointed in every manor of the barony 
of Lewes and in every hundred of the manor of Taunton 
Dean to collect the rents and to act as the lord's im- 
mediate officer. 

When we consider that junior inheritance and the other 
customs incidental thereto were not part of the common 
law of the country, but prevailed only in certain dis- 
tricts, having apparently come down from very ancient 
time, the similarity of these customs must be allowed to 
be very remarkable indeed. 

The earliest historical references to Taunton connect 
it with Sussex. The conquest of the country around it 
was effected by Ine, King of Wessex, in alliance with his 
kinsman Nunna. This, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle tells 
us, took place in the year 710, when Ine and Nunna fought 
against Gerent, King of the Welsh. In a charter of a later 
date Nunna styles himself ' King of the South Saxons.' 

The Chronicle tells us also that in the year 722 Queen 
^Ethelburh, wife of Ine, destroyed Taunton, which her 
husband had built. It was probably owing to disloyalty 
or rebellion by the colonists from Sussex that this destruc- 
tion was necessary. This event agrees exactly in date 
with that of Ine's war against his former allies the 
South Saxons. It is difficult to see why it became 

Settlements in the South- Western Counties. 355 

necessary to destroy Taunton during a South Saxon 
war unless there had been a South Saxon colony in 
and around it. On the very probable supposition that 
the people in and around that town took part against 
Wessex in the South Saxon war its destruction becomes 
intelligible. It is difficult to see how the remarkable 
similarity in the customs of the people around Lewes 
and Taunton can be explained except by a South Saxon 
migration. It is difficult also to see why Taunton should 
have been destroyed in 722 except as part of the military 
operations of a South Saxon war. 

The evidence which appears to connect the settlers 
around Lewes with the Wendish Lutitzer or Wilte tribe 
has been stated, and whether a coincidence or not, we 
find a place named Wilton was an old suburb of Taunton. 1 
The Saxon charters 2 also tell us of a stream named 
Willite and of a place named Ruganbeorh, or Ruwanborg, 
apparently named after one or more settlers of Rugian 
descent, in the Vale of Taunton. The old place-names 
of Somerset afford traces of settlers of various races : 
Godeneie 3 and Gateneberghe 4 are apparently old names 
denoting Goths or Geats i.e., Jutes. Godeworth, 5 
Godecumbe, Guttona, 6 and Godele 7 point also to settlers 
of the same name and probably the same race. 

The hundred of Winterstoke, named after a decayed 
village so called, was one of the old hundreds of the 
county extending along the coast from Clevedon to 
Weston-super-Mare, and inland to Axbridge. On the 
north this hundred adjoined that of Portbury, which 
contained the district known now as Gordano. In the 
north-east of Somerset a range of hills extending generally 
from east to west finds its western termination near 
Clevedon. From this place another hilly ridge stretches 

1 Collinson, J., ' History of Somersetshire,' iii. 294. 

2 Codex Dipl., Nos. 1052, 1083. 

3 Ibid., Nos. 73 and 567, 

4 Collinson, J., loc. cit., iii. 61. 5 Taxatio Eccl. P. Nich., 179. 
* Testa de Nevill, 416. 7 Domesday Book. 


356 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

along the coast in a north-easterly direction and ends at 
Portishead. The intermediate country between these 
ranges has been known for many centuries as Gardinu' or 
Gordano. The name appears in the records in the thir- 
teenth century, where it is stated that certain land in 
Gardinu' was held at a quarter of a knight's fee. 1 Later 
on we find a record of Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March, 
holding the manor of Easton in Gordon in the time of 
Henry VI., 2 and others stating that Emma Neuton held 
the manor of Walton in Gordano, and that Richard 
Percy vale held Weston in Gordano, both in the time of 
Edward IV. 3 This district is separated by the river 
Avon from Gloucestershire, and among the thirteenth- 
century list of land-holders in that county was Thomas 
de Gardino, who held a knight's fee in Side and Gardino. 4 

As we stand on the hills near Weston in Gordano the 
Steep Holme and Flat Holme may be seen rising above 
the water of the Bristol Channel, and on the coast near 
by are places called Blacknore and Capenore. All these 
are certainly Danish place-names. When we consider 
the strong evidence which exists of Scandinavian settle- 
ments on the Somerset coast and up the Wye and Severn, it 
does not appear unreasonable to connect this Gordano dis- 
trict with the Danes, and more particularly with that tribe 
of them known as the Gardene or Gardanes mentioned 
in Beowulf. Four places at the present time viz., 
Easton, Weston, Walton, and Clapton have ' in Gor- 
dano ' attached to their names, the district name being 
evidently an old territorial one. 

The name Winterstoke may have been connected with 
this Danish settlement, and derived from Winthr or 
Windr settlers, or Wends, who were allies of the Danes. 
In such a settlement some dialect of the Old Danish 
tongue, in which Wends were called Windr, would cer- 
tainly be spoken. 

1 Testa de Nevill, 1 59&. 2 Cal. Inq. Post-mortem, iv. 85. 

3 Ibid., iv. 311, 374. * Testa de Nevill, 82 

Settlements in the South-Western Counties. 357 

The country around Glastonbury was not added to the 

West Saxon kingdom until the time of Cenwealh, who 
in 658 extended his frontier as far as the Parret. He, 
a Christian King of the Gewissas, began to build at 
Winchester the old church of St. Peter on the site prob- 
ably of the present cathedral. His successor, Centwine, 
drove the Welsh to the sea in 682, and added the Quan- 
tock district to his kingdom. Thus, before the end of 
the seventh century Saxon Christians were settled in 
parts of Somerset. We cannot doubt that the profession 
of a religion common to both races must have had a 
great influence in preventing a war of extermination in 
this county. Then, no doubt, began that blending of the 
two races which can be traced by ethnological observa- 
tion in the county at the present day. Fair and dark 
haired people may be observed among the natives in 
almost every village. 

The dialect of Somerset, and particularly that of the 
western part of the county, points to a commingling of 
different tribal people among the original settlers. In 
the west, Elworthy has found eight forms of plural 
terminations, and in a small district containing two or 
three villages, among which is Kingsbury, the word 
utch for / is still used. 1 The use of this word utch or 
itch as a survival of the Anglo-Saxon ic for / was for- 
merly common in the dialect of various parts of the 
county. The dialect of west Somerset thus clearly 
points to colonists of various origins. 

The ancient ports of Somerset were Watchet and 
Portlock, and through them we may trace the immigra- 
tion of early settlers, among whom probably came the 
colony from Sussex. One of the peculiarities of the 
settlement of the south-western counties is the evidence 
pointing to the establishment of colonies on the coasts 
before the occupation of the interior of these counties 

1 Elworthy, F. T., ' Grammar of the Dialect of West Somerset,' 

358 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

or the subjugation of the whole British population within 
them. Beddoe's researches have shown that a popula- 
tion much fairer than that in the interior exists along 
the Devonshire coast. 1 

At Exeter the custom of partible inheritance prevailed, 
the estate of the father being divided among both sons 
and daughters. This might well have been brought 
there by a colony of Goths and Frisians, as the custom 
can be traced among both these ancient races. This 
could not have been a British survival, for in Wales 
daughters had no share in the paternal estate. 

There are in Cornwall traces of Norwegian settlements 
in the survival on some manors of the custom by which in 
default of sons the eldest daughter succeeded to the whole 
estate. In Cornwall, also, the ancient divisions were called 
shires instead of hundreds, corresponding to the names 
used in those parts of the northern counties where Scandi- 
navians settled, and to the names of ancient divisions in 
Norway itself, which were also called shires. 

The settlements that were formed on the south-western 
coasts of England resembled on the one hand those early 
colonies of Teutonic people on the southern and eastern 
coasts in the earliest Anglo-Saxon period, and on the 
other the later settlements of maritime people, including 
Danes and Northmen, on the coasts of Wales. The 
existence of colonies of Saxons on the eastern coasts 
before the end of the Roman rule can scarcely be open to 
doubt, from the historical mention of the Saxon shore 
and the ethnological evidence afforded by the people of 
the maritime parts of north-eastern France at the 
present time, the coast of which had a similar name. 
Similarly, some of the coast settlements of the south- 
western parts of England were probably of the nature of 
migrations from Kent and Sussex, in association with 
people of the same racial descent from Northern Europe. 
It must be remembered that the maritime skill of the 
1 Beddoe, J., loc. cit., p. 258. 

Settlements in the South- We stern Counties. 359 

people of the east coast of Kent and East Sussex appears 

always to have been great. They were the ancestors of 
the people of the Cinque Ports, and by them communica- 
tions with the Continent during the Saxon period must 
have been largely maintained. When a migration be- 
came necessary for such a population, a maritime colony 
would naturally suggest itself, in which people of the 
same races would also probably take part. At the time 
of the Domesday Survey the burgesses of Dover by old 
custom supplied the King with twenty ships for fifteen 
days in the year, each with twenty-one men, and they did 
this because he had released to them his sake and soke. 1 
The maritime facilities of the Kent and Sussex ports 
must have been formerly relatively great. 

In the west of England we can trace the probability 
of Kentish settlers by the survival here and there of the 
custom of dividing the lands among all the sons, although 
the divided parts were taxed collectively, and by the 
survival here and there of the name Kent. Kent is 
written in Domesday Book as Ghent, and in the same 
record we find Ghent, now Kenn, Chentone,now Kenton, 
and Chentesbere, now Kentisbear in Devonshire. In 
the Exon Domesday, Kenn on the Somerset coast, is 
also written Ghent, 2 and Kentisbere is written Chentes- 
beria. Caninganmaersces is mentioned as an old name for 
the Kentish marshes, and Caninganmaersces in Somerset 
as an old name for Cannington Marshes. 3 

It is difficult to see how these coincidences can be 
explained except on the supposition of Kentish settle- 
ments. Among other Kent names in Devon are those of 
Kent's Cave at Torquay, and Kentsmoor, near Honiton. 
The place-name Hengestecote, in the parish of Brad- 
ford, 4 Devon, occurs in Domesday Book, and Kentish 

1 Maitland, F. W., ' Domesday Book and Beyond,' p. 209. 

2 Exon Domesday, p. 132. 

3 Camden, ' Britannia,' edited by Gough, i. ex. 
* Cal. Close Rolls, 1323-1327, p. 597. 

360 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

people, or Jutes and Frisians, are the only races whose 
history and traditions tell us of Hengist, or among whom 
the personal name of the hero would be likely to survive. 
There was probably an early settlement at Crediton, as 
shown by the birth of Winfrith, the missionary Bishop 
of Germany, better known as Boniface, at that place in 
the seventh century. 

That the early colonies of Teutonic people on the south 
Devon coast appear to have been either migrations from 
Kent or settlements of people of the same race as the 
Jutes i.e., Goths and Frisians is supported by 'the 
survival of the custom of gavelkind in Exeter and 
Totnes, 1 by the names of settlers in the district around 
Honiton, of the Hunni tribe of Frisians, mentioned by 
Bede as among the ancestors of the English race, and by 
the survival of the Kentish name in certain places along 
the Devon coast. As regards the custom of partible 
inheritance at Exeter, it was the Kentish custom, under 
which daughters divided the patrimony if there were no 
sons, and not the Welsh, under which they had no inherit- 
ance. This is a remarkable fact, and the prevalence of 
the gavelkind custom also at Totnes adds to its signifi- 
cance. The custom of the Goths and Frisians in respect 
to inheritance extended the shares to daughters as well 
as to sons, as previously mentioned. 

In a grant by King ^Ethelstan in A.D. 9382 to Earl 
yEthelstan of land at Lyme Regis, which is not far from 
Honiton, the name Huneford occurs as one of the boun- 
daries. The Saxon names Hunespil, Honelanda, Hone- 
chercha, and Honessam, also, are met with in the Exon 
Domesday record. The Domesday name Hunitone for 
Honiton can scarcely have come from any other source 
than the head of a family named Huni, of the Hunni tribe, 
or from a kindred of Hunni or Frisian Hunsings. Another 
Domesday name in Devon is Friseha, or Friseham, which 
appears to have been derived from the home of an original 

1 Devonshire Association, Report and Trans., vol. xii., 193, 
quoting Hoker's MS. 2 Cart. Sax., ii. 438. 

Settlements in the South- Western Coiinties. 361 

Frisian settler. Similarly, the names Brocheland and 
Godescote probably denote a family of the Brocmen or 
Boructers and of Goths. Galmentone points to British 
people, Danescome to Danes, and Essemundehord 1 possibly 
to one or more Eastmen. There are also names in the Exon 
Domesday which point to the settlement in Devonshire 
of other Danish allies from some of the tribal people of 
the Baltic. Weringehorda and Wereingeurda appear to 
be named after one or more families of Warings, and the 
place-name Wedreriga, which is found in the same record, 
similarly denotes people from the Wedermark i.e., 
Ostrogoths from the east of Lake Wetter in Sweden. 
The Anglo-Saxon Curi names in Somerset Curi and 
Curesrigt, and Curylond, and Curymele, as well as others 
of the same kind in Cornwall, derived, apparently, from 
settlers' names, are peculiar among English place-names, 
and may reasonably be connected with the Curones or 
Curlanders, who were allies of Danes and Northmen 2 
in some of their wars, and may have had representa- 
tives among Danish settlers in England. 

The earliest settlements of Devonshire and Cornwall 
were probably all formed from the sea. In this they dif- 
fered from Somerset, where the parts adjoining to Wilts 
and Dorset most likely received their earliest permanent 
colonists from the Wilsaetas and Thornsaetas of Wilts 
and Dorset. The Devonshire settlements began on the 
coast like the earlier ones of Kent, Sussex, and Wessex. 
It is no doubt owing to this that the Devon people along 
the south coast and banks of the navig'able rivers are of 
fairer complexion at the present time than the people of 
the interior. 3 

Of all the south-western counties, Devonshire and Corn- 
wall afford perhaps the best example of the blending of 
the Teutonic and Celtic races. Herefordshire and Shrop- 
shire afford similar examples on the border of Wales. 
The old Cornish people differed from the Welsh in being 

1 Dom. Bk., Index. 2 Saxo Grammaticus. 

3 Beddoe, J., loc. cit., p. 49. 

362 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

probably of a darker complexion, owing to their descent 
more largely from an ancient darker stock. The same 
process that went on in Devon and Cornwall went on, 
apparently, in South Wales, but with a difference. In the 
south-western counties the Teutonic element absorbed 
the Celtic to a great extent. In South Wales the Teutonic 
element was to some extent absorbed in the Celtic. There 
is a considerable percentage of people in Cornwall who 
have red hair, and among the country people of South 
Wales there are some with red hair. It is certain that 
this is not a common characteristic of either the Cornish 
or the Welsh. It probably came in through settlers of 
another race in each case. 

The custom of junior right prevailed on the three 
manors of Braunton, near Barnstaple. The place was no 
doubt originally one settlement, and the Domesday name 
Brungarstone may refer to it. In the mediaeval period it 
became parcelled out, apparently, into three manors, all 
having the same custom of inheritance. The widow of a 
tenant had her customary dower of the whole of her 
husband's land for her life, if she remained chaste and 
single, and the youngest son succeeded. If there were no 
sons, the daughters shared equally. 1 This custom was not 
Welsh ; it was not Saxon or Jutish ; it was not Anglian. 
Unless the settlers at Braunton invented it a most un- 
likely proceeding they must have brought it with them, 
and as it did not prevail among the Britons or Scandi- 
navians, or generally among the Frisians, it must have 
been brought into Devonshire by Wendish settlers, or 
perhaps in this instance by settlers from the hinterland 
of Frisia, or by a migration from the vale of Taunton. 
The common name, used locally, of Barum for Barnstaple, 2 
points, in reference to the common Frisian termination 
-urn, to Frisian settlers in this neighbourhood. 

Of all the counties in England at the present time, 
Cornwall has the darkest people. Its pre-Saxon inhabi- 

1 Devonshire Association, Report and Transactions, xx. 278, 255. 

2 Gribble, J. B., ' Memorials of Barnstaple,' pp. i, 2. 

Settlements in the South-Western Counties. 363 

w ' 

tants do not appear to have been all of one race. Some 
were descendants probably of the Neolithic or old Iberian 
stock, and some of the people of the Bronze Age. The 
former were long-headed ; the latter were broad-headed. 
Beddoe recognises three race types among the Cornish 
people : (i) The Neolithic or Iberian ; (2) the British or 
bronze broad-headed ; (3) the Saxon or other Teutonic 
invaders. The physical type which struck his eye most 
in Cornwall was the first crossed by the second. 1 
Topinard, who also made observations in Cornwall, found 
there many people of a fair, tall type, with blue eyes, 
blonde hair, and a reddish complexion. 2 These are clearly 
descendants from Teutonic or other settlers. A reddish 
complexion of some kind is, according to Ripley, one of 
the most general characters of the Slavs of Russia. 3 
Beddoe says also of the blue eyes : ' I am not ready to 
admit that pure blue eyes are more common in the Teu- 
tonic than in the Slavonic or any other race.' 4 There is, 
however, another trace of this racial character among the 
Cornish people, which is locally connected with a settle- 
ment of Danes, and survives to the present time. In all 
the western parishes of Cornwall there has existed time 
out of mind a great antipathy to red-haired families, who 
are popularly supposed to be descendants of Danes, and, 
much to their own disgust, are often called Danes or 
Deanes. As late as 1870 this local prejudice came out 
in a magisterial inquiry at Penzance. 5 

The possibility that the Danes and Northmen who 
settled in parts of Cornwall had some Wendish allies 
among them finds support in the folk-lore of the county. 
Lach-Szyrma 6 has drawn attention to the remarkable 
resemblance that exists between Slavonic and Cornish 
folk-tales, and has mentioned instances in which practi- 

1 Beddoe, J., Journal of the Anthropological InsL, New Series, 
i. 328. 2 Ibid., i. 329, quoted by Beddoe. 

3 Ripley, W. Z., ' Races of Europe,' 346, 361. 

4 Beddoe, J., ' Races of Britain,' p. 76. 

5 Bottrell, W., ' Traditions of West Cornwall,' 148. 

6 Lach-Szyrma, W. S., Folk-Lore Record, iv. 52. 

364 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

cally the same superstitions and omens prevail. Some of 
these relate to witches, omens connected with luck, storm 
myths, transfixing the fiend in mid air, the enchained 
spirit neither saved nor lost, the mermaid and the lady 
of the lake, the river claiming its yearly tribute of a life, 
etc. It is not improbable that these Cornish tales may 
have been introduced when the Scandinavians, who 
formed settlements on the coast, were in alliance with the 
Wends, as they were both before and during the time of 
Cnut. West Cornwall has apparently some traces of the 
mythology of these Wendish allies of the Danes. The 
Wendish word for Thursday is Periindan, after Perun, the 
thunder god, corresponding to the Norse Thor, and the 
Cornish place-name Men Perhen and others may be 
traces of him. 

Near Penzance, also, the Cornish black spirit of evil omen 
called Bucca, Bugga, or Buccaboo, is still remembered, 
and he may probably be traced to the old Slavic Boge, 
the general name for a deity, which after the Christian 
conversion became degraded to that of a hobgoblin. The 
most notable of the folk-tales common to Scandinavia 
and Pomerania on the one hand and to Cornwall on the 
other is probably that of ' Jack and the Beanstalk,' 
which is found with but slight variations, and does not 
appear to have been a native folk-tale in intervening 
countries. In Norway, the Cornish Jack the Giant- 
killer is also known. 

The common personal names ending in -o among Cornish 
family names, such as Pasco, Jago, also point, apparently, 
to Scandinavian colonists. 

The very old place-name Ruan, near the Lizard, is, of 
course, commonly derived from the saint so called, but, 
like some old names found in Anglo-Saxon charters, 
it is identical with the Latin Ruani used in old German 
records for the people of Riigen. The name of the Scilly 
Isles is Scandinavian, as is Grimsby, one of the places 
in the islands. St. Agnes, also, may not improbably 
be" traced to Hagenes, a common name among the 

Settlements in the South-Western Counties. 365 

Norsemen. 1 The Devonshire names ending in -beer, such 
as Rockbeer, Houndsbeer, Aylesbeer, Lungabeer, are 
perhaps of Norse origin, derived from the Old Norrsena 
word byr, corresponding to by, the ending so common in 
the Lincolnshire place-names. 

Those tenants who are entitled to common rights .on 
Dartmoor are known as Venville tenants. The ancient 
form of this name was Wengefield or Vengefield, and it 
was applied to those free settlers in the villages around 
Dartmoor who had summer pasture rights upon it. In 
Lincolnshire there are many fields known as the wong, 
the older form of which was wang, such as Waring- wang 
and Quenildewang. 2 The Old Norse word ' vangr,' or 
' vengi,' appears to denote an enclosure. 3 The word 
* wang ' or ' wong ' for a field or plain may not improbably 
be traced to an old Northern dialect, and so be another 
trace of Scandinavian settlers in Devon. 

The settlement of Danes and Northmen, probably in 
alliance with Wends or Frisians, in parts of Cornwall is 
shown by evidence of several kinds : (i) The Scandinavian 
place-names along the coast. Among these are Helston, 
which may have had some connection with a settler from 
Helsingland. All the chief harbours in Cornwall are or 
were' anciently called havens, from the Danish havn 
viz., Falmouth Haven, Helford Haven (leading to Helston), 
Bude Haven, and Fowey Haven. (2) The survival here 
and there in Cornwall of certain customs of inheritance 
which are not Celtic. On the manor of Blisland the 
tenant's land, in default of sons, was inherited by the 
eldest daughter, a custom pointing to Norwegian settlers. 
On the other hand, at Helston the tenant's customary 
heir was the youngest son, which points either to Wendish 
settlers or some of the tribal Frisians. Frisic is an old 
place-name near the Lizard. (3) There is also the evidence 
of the remarkable parallelism between some of the folk- 
lore of Cornwall and that of Pomerania, which points to 

1 Streatfield, G. S., ' Lincolnshire and the Danes,' 28. 

2 Ibid., 152. 3 Ibid. 

366 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

Wendish allies among the Norse settlers. (4) The exist- 
ence of fair people at the present time among those de- 
scended from old Cornish families. 

The ancient circles of stone in Cornwall have no 
counterpart in the purely Celtic districts of Wales, but 
very much resemble those in Scandinavia and the parts 
of Britain occupied by the Northern race. The remains of 
numerous small camps or earthworks for defensive pur- 
poses along the coasts of Devon and Cornwall, close to those 
rivers which might afford protection to the ships of an 
invader, 1 point to enemies by sea, as do similar earth- 
works on the coasts further eastward. The most remark- 
able of these in Devon is Grimspound, in the parish of 
Manaton, which is a curious amphitheatre having within 
it no fewer than twenty circles, none of them more than 
5^ yards in diameter. At the present time two of these 
circles have stones set up as pillars on their circumfer- 
ences thirty-five in one and twenty-seven in the other. 2 
All the circles appear to have originally had similar erect 
stones. The area of the whole enclosure is only 4 acres. 
This remarkable monument may mark the site of a Scan- 
dinavian battlefield. A battle is commemorated by a 
number of similar stone circles on Bravella Heath in 
Ostergothland in Sweden. 3 At Mortura in Ireland, 
also, two battles in which Northmen, called in the Irish 
records Tuatha de Dananns, are said to have been engaged, 
are similarly commemorated by stones arranged in circles 
spread over a large area. 4 

There is evidence of early Scandinavians in Devon and 
Cornwall in the stones which have been discovered 
marked with ogham characters. 5 There is further 
evidence of these settlements in Cornwall in inscriptions 
in the Northern language which have been found. The 
discovery of a block known as a pig of tin, now in the 

1 Polwhele, R., ' History of Cornwall,' iii. 20. 

2 Devonshire Association, Report and Trans., v. 41. 

3 Fergusson, J., ' Rude Stone Monuments,' 281. 

4 Ibid., 176-183. 5 Taylor, I., ' Greeks and Goths,' no. 

Sett foments in the South-Western Counties. 367 

Truro Museum, with a runic figure stamped on it, proves 
that among the metal-workers in that county during the 
Anglo-Saxon period there must have been some to whom 
the runic letters were known. The figure on this block is, 
Stephen says, a well-known character of the English type, 
and has the equivalence of the letters s^. 1 It must be 
remembered, as already mentioned, that the Goths of 
Scandinavia, who first wrote in runic letters, were the 
most skilled metal-workers in Europe during the centuries 
immediately after the fall of the Roman Empire. Runic 
letters similar to those on the block of tin now at Truro 
have lately been discovered in an inscription found at 
Odemotland in Norway, the identification of which was 
one of the last made by Stephens before his death. 2 
Another discovery pointing to Scandinavians or their 
descendants in Cornwall is that of the inscribed slab found 
at Lanteglos between Bodmin and Camelford, and now, or 
lately, in the rectory grounds at Lanteglos. It is not in runic 
letters, but in an old dialect resembling a Scandian dialect, 
and identified by Stephens as about A.D. noo in date. 3 

There can therefore be no doubt that people speaking 
dialects of the Old Norraena or Danish language were 
settled in isolated colonies at an early period on the 
coasts of the south-western counties, or that in the tenth 
century, when King Edgar ordered his laws ' to be common 
to all the people, whether English, Danes, or Britons, on 
every side of my dominions,' he had in view these 
maritime settlements in the south as well as the great 
Danish settlements in the north and east. 

The arrangement of the homesteads over a great part 
of the south-western counties, more particularly in the 
hilly parts, is even at the present time largely that of iso- 
lated farms and hamlets. This is probably a survival of 
that of the Celtic tribesmen, 4 who had both permanent 
and temporary homesteads, feeding their herds in summer 

1 Stephens, G., Old Northern Runic Monuments," i. 372, 

2 Ibid., iv. 25. 3 Ibid., iv. 102. 

4 Seebohm, F., ' Tribal Custom in Wales,' 46, 47. 

368 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

on the higher ranges of the hills and in winter in the 
villages, as is the case in the Highlands of Scotland and 
in Switzerland. The same homestead arrangement pre- 
vails in Scandinavia. 

The settlement of the south-western counties was 
accompanied by a migration of some British people, and 
perhaps by a reflux of descendants of the same race. As 
Wales was the refuge of those who were driven from the 
old homes in the midland counties, and Cumberland their 
refuge in the north, so there is both historical and archae- 
ological evidence that Brittany received Celtic refugees 
from probably the south-western parts of Britain. We 
are told that ' Britons who dwelt as early as the sixth 
century beyond the sea were passing over into Lesser 
Britain ' i.e., Brittany. 1 At that time Armorica, 
although diminished from its ancient extent, still existed 
as a separate State, extending as far south as Nantes. 2 
There is evidence in relation to South Wales, as will be 
stated in the next chapter, to show that some very early 
Teutonic settlements were established in Pembrokeshire, 
and equally early colonies may have been formed on the 
south-west coast of England. Ermold, a French monk 
who wrote in the early part of the ninth century, records 
the arrival in Brittany of Britons fleeing from their 
Teutonic enemies, 3 and he lived sufficiently near to the 
time in which this migration is said to have occurred 
for the traditions concerning it to have been local history 
when he visited Armorica in 824. In connection with this 
migration, we must consider also the interesting contem- 
porary statement of Asser, that in King Alfred's time 
Armoricans were among those people of foreign birth 
who voluntarily placed themselves under his rule. In 
Alfred's time some of the descendants of the former 
British refugees may well have returned, and if so, the 
south-western counties probably received them. 

1 Boase, W. C., ' The Age of the Saints,' 165, quoting ' Chron. 
in Morice,' i. 3. - Ibid. 

3 Ermoldus, Nigellus, Monumenta Germaniae, ii. 490. 



AT an early time in the Saxon period the district which 
is now Gloucestershire became a frontier country. 
It was opened to settlement on the east of the 
Severn by the victory of Ceawlin, King of Wessex, at 
Deorham in 577. The Severn then became the boundary 
between the Britons and Saxons, and the county was down 
to a late period considered to be within the Marches of 
Wales. The Gloucestershire country east of the Severn, 
which was originally part of Wessex, became later on 
separated from it under the rule of Ceolric of the West 
Saxon royal house, and was subsequently absorbed by 
Mercia. This is of interest in pointing to the direction 
from which this county probably received its earliest 
Saxon settlers. The early administration of this district 
appears to have been connected with Gloucester, Berkeley, 
Tewkesbury, and Cirencester. There was an extensive 
administrative area attached to Tewkesbury as late as 
the Norman survey. The Berkeley administrative area 
was also large, and was known for many centuries as 
Berkeley-herness. This name appears to be Scandinavian, 
and, like those of Inverness in Scotland, Agremundreness 
in Lancashire, and Holderness, the Berkeley district as a 
separate area may have had a Scandinavian origin. 

In Gloucestershire, as in the northern counties, the evi- 
dence of earlier Scandinavian settlers is much mixed with 

369 24 

370 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

that of the later, so that it is not possible in some 
localities to distinguish the earlier from the later. 

The evidence of Northern settlers, whether of earlier 
or later date, is remarkable. Near Bristol is a place 
called Yate, the Geate mentioned in several Saxon 
charters. Another old name, probably denoting the 
settlement of a Goth, is Mangotsfield ; Hacananhamme, 
or Hacon's ham, the old name 1 for Hanham, near 
Bristol, is clearly Scandinavian. In Gloucestershire, 
and close to it along the Wye, there were small areas 
called shires, corresponding to hundreds similar to 
the shires in the northern counties, and to the shires 
of ancient Norway. There are old records relating to 
Blakeborneshire and Pignocshire, near the Severn and 
the Wye. Huntishamshire was the name for a de- 
tached part of Monmouthshire, near Welsh Bicknor. 
In the south of the county, also, is an old hamlet called 
Kendalshire. The name Scir-mere occurs in a Saxon 
charter, and the modern name Shirehampton, nee 
Bristol, may be a survival of one of these old names. 

The name Berkelai-erness, as already mentionec 
clearly corresponds to those of Holderness and Agremi 
dreness, both of which received Northmen among thei 
colonists. The termination -czrnes is common among 
the place-names of Scandinavia. The tidal bore in the 
Severn at the time Camden wrote still retained its Scan- 
dinavian name Hygre, derived from the Norse mytho- 
logical name Oegre, the Neptune of Northern tribes. The 
Scandinavian name Brostorp is a Domesday name neai 
Gloucester, south of which place are also Brookthorp anc 

The dialect of the vale of Berkeley differs both ii 
words and pronunciation from that of the vale of Glou 
cester, higher up the river. 2 As already noted in relatioi 
to Somersetshire, the Scandian name Holm appears ii 

1 Cart. Sax., ii. 588. 

2 English Diaelct Society, ' Glossary,' by D. Robertson, 194. 

Settlements on the Welsh Border. 371 

the names Great Holm and Flat Holm for. islands at the 
mouth of the Severn. It occurs also in Holm Lacy, near 
Hereford. Some remarkable Scandinavian names are 
found along the lower course of the Severn. Sanagar, 
anciently written Sevenhangar, is that of one of the old 
tythings of Berkeley, and Saul, also near the river, 
reminds us of the Saul district and the Saulings, whose 
name is mentioned in a runic inscription at Glavendrup 
in Scandinavia. 1 The forest district of Dean between the 
Severn and the Wye was, apparently, named after Dene, 
for Dane, and not den, a wood. Giraldus Cambrensis, 
writing in the twelfth century, tells us that the Dean 
Forest was known in his time as Danubia and Danica 
Sylvia, or Danes' Wood. 2 The name Danube for the 
country of the Danes is an old one. Asser, in his ' Life of 
Alfred,' says that hi the year 866 a large fleet of pagans 
came to Britain from the Danube. The old name Dene 
for this forest district appears thus to be that of Dene, 
the Danish name, and it is still called Dane in the local 
pronunciation. The language of the ancient Northmen 
has survived to the present day in the name Aust, 
anciently Austrecliue, 3 or Aust cliff, on the east side of 
an ancient ferry across the Severn, near Bristol, austr 
being the Old Northern word for east. 4 Mona is a 
variation of the name of the stream called Monow, which 
joins the Wye at Monmouth, and Mona is the latinised 
form of the name of the Danish island Moen, or Mon. 

Ethelweard tells us in his Chronicle that in 877 the 
Danes made a settlement of some kind in Gloucester. 
The custom of borough-English still survives there, as 
it did at Stamford, Nottingham, Derby, and Leicester, 
all of which were Danish towns, and we may reasonably 
connect the custom at Gloucester with some of the so- 
called Danes who may have settled there. The custom 

1 Stephens, G., ' Old Northern Runic Monuments,' ii. 1009. 

2 Archcsological Journal, xviii. 342. 

3 Domesday Book. * Cleasby and Vigfusson, Icel. Diet. 

24 2 

372 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

was probably brought by some allies of the real Danes, 
perhaps people of the Wendish or a mixed race. The 
custom of the real Danes of Old Denmark was that of 
partible inheritance. 

Gloucestershire had a custom that resembled one of 
those of Kent viz., that under which the lands and 
tenements of condemned felons were not forfeited. They 
were only held by the Crown for a year and a day. In 
this we may see a resemblance both to the custom of 
Kent and that of the Archenfeld part of Herefordshire. 

The settlements in the lower parts of the valleys of the 
Severn and the Wye appear to have been effected by 
direct maritime migrations. The ships of the period 
could ascend these rivers by aid of the strong tide which 
flows up them to the neighbourhood of Gloucester and 
Monmouth. Goths or Kentish colonists on the Wye 
have not only left a trace of their name in that of Gode- 
rich, now Goodrich, but also in some of their customs 
in the district known as Ircingafeld 1 or Archenfeld. It 
comprised the south part of Herefordshire, having the 
Wye on the east and Monmouthshire on the south. 
Some remarkable old Kentish place-names can be traced 
within or near it, such as Kentchurch, Kenchester, 
Kentyshburcote, 2 and Kenthles. 3 These names, together 
with the customs which prevailed, show that the Hereford- 
shire province of Archenfeld must have received Kentish 
people among its Gothic or Jutish settlers, who had no 
doubt inferior Welsh tenants under them. The local 
customs of Archenfeld closely resembled those of Kent. 
That of partible inheritance, of the same nature as 
Kentish gavelkind, survived in the district until it was 
abolished in the reign of Henry VIII. This Kentish 
custom differed from the partible custom that prevailed 
in Wales in three essential particulars, which will beai 
repetition : (i) By the Kentish custom in Archenfelc 

1 Anglo-Saxon Chron., 2 Testa de Nevill. 

3 Cal. Inq. p.m., ii. 34, 196. 

Settlements on the Welsh Border. 373 

only legitimate sons inherited the paternal 'estate. By 
: 'the Welsh custom all sons, legitimate or otherwise, had 
their shares, or in early centuries fought for them. 
Giraldus, writing in the twelfth century, tells us of the 
contention of legitimate and illegitimate sons for shares 
of the paternal estate. (2) By the custom of Archenfeld, 
like that of Kent, daughters inherited if there were no 
sons. Under the Welsh custom they did not. (3) By 
the custom of Archenfeld, like that of Kent, widows 
were entitled to their dower of half their husbands' custom- 
ary estate. Under the Welsh custom they had no dower. 

The resemblances between the other local customs are 
also remarkable. In Kent, if a tenant in gavelkind was 
convicted of crime and executed, his land was not for- 
feited, but went to his heirs. This was known as ' the 
father to the bough, the son to the plough ' custom, 1 
and was a rare privilege, 2 which the people of Archenfeld 
also had. In Kent, a tenant in gavelkind had the power 
of bequeathing his land to whom he pleased, and the 
people of Archenfeld had a similar privilege in respect 
to land they acquired. 

The most remarkable of these parallel customs is, how- 
ever, that under which the men of Kent claimed as their 
immemorial right the privilege in war of being marshalled 
in front of the King's army, a claim that was recognised. 3 
The men of Archenfeld claimed and had allowed to them 
the same honourable distinction. 4 These remarkable 
coincidences clearly indicate a Kentish colony. 

This district of Herefordshire appears to have been in 
any case occupied by Teutonic settlers at an early period, 
and to have become an outlying part of Mercia by the 
end of the seventh century. Ceolred, King of Mercia^ 
dated a charter ' in loco Arcencale,' probably only a 
variation of the name, early in the eighth century. 

1 Elton, C. I., ' Gavelkind,' p. 176. 2 Ibid., p. 192. 

3 Ibid., p. 229, quoting Camden and Gervase. 

4 Hazlitt's ed. of Blount's ' Tenures,' p. 173. 

374 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

The Scandinavian evidence already mentioned points 
to a later settlement between the Severn and the Wye, 
and also in the north of Monmouthshire. This country 
and that near the west of Herefordshire was part of the 
district of the Dunsetas, where English settlers of some 
kind lived side by side with the Wealas or Welsh. In 
Ethelred's ordinance relating to the Dunsetas x provision 
is made for diffusing among them a knowledge of the 
laws they were required to obey, and it is expressly stated 
that twelve lahmen shall explain the law to both the 
Wealas and the English, of whom six shall be English 
and six Welsh. The significance of this ordinance is 
in the legal terms used 2 lahcop, Old Norse logkaup, and 
witword, Old Norse vitorth. The term lahmen is also 
Danish, and is mentioned in Domesday Book in connec- 
tion with the administration of the Danish towns, such 
as Stamford. The names lawrightmen and lawmen 
survived in Shetland until comparatively modern times. 3 
There is also a reference to the twelve lahmen in the 
' Senatus consul turn de Monticolis Walliae,' 4 who were, 
apparently, the successors of those appointed for the 
Dunsetas a century earlier. If the English people among 
the Dunsetas had not been of Danish or Northern descent, 
Norrena or Danish names for legal officials and legal 
terms would not have been used in this ordinance. 
Sweden and Gothland in olden time were the land of 
lagmen or lahmen, for the whole territory was a con- 
federation of commonwealths, each with its assembly 
of freemen, law-speaker and laws. 5 

From the evidence relating to Archenfeld there can be 
little doubt of an early settlement of Kentish colonists 
or Goths in that district, as there was, perhaps, in other 
parts of the same county, and a later settlement of 

1 Laws of Ethelred. 

2 Worsaae, J. J., ' Danes and Norwegians in England.' 

3 Proceedings Soc. Antiq. Scot., xxvi. 189, 190. 

4 Domesday Book, General Introduction, by Sir H. Ellis. 

5 Cleasby and Vigfusson, ' Icelandic Diet.,' see log-mathr. 

Settlements on the Welsh Border. 375 

Northmen. The only record of any political connection 
between Kent and Herefordshire occurs in the seventh 
century, when Merewald, viceroy of the Hecanas, or 
tribal people of that county, and brother of Wulfhere, 
King of Mercia, married Eormenbeorh, a princess of 
Kent. She was a granddaughter of King ^Ethelbert, 
and a cousin of Eormengild, who married King Wulf- 
here. Between the royal houses of Kent and Mercia 
there was by these marriages a double alliance. Mere- 
wald was also called ealdorman of the West Angles. In 
the eighth century we read of Arcencale as apparently 
part of Mercia, and by that time it had perhaps already 
received its Kentish or Gothic settlement, of which 
Goderich became the administrative centre. It is prob- 
able also that before the time of Ethelred II., King of 
Wessex, there had been a further settlement of Danes 
or Northmen along this Welsh border, seeing that officials 
with old Danish titles were appointed to explain the laws 
to the Dunsetas. 

One of the proofs of Scandinavian settlements in the 
border counties is the hope place-names. Among the 
names on the coasts of Scotland and in the parts occupied 
by Scandinavians in that country are a large number 
of hope names. There were sea-shelters so named by 
them, such as Long Hope, Kirk Hope, Pan Hope, and 
St. Margaret's Hope, in the Firth of Forth, another in 
the Orkneys, and Gray Hope in Aberdeen Bay. The 
Norse settlers in the south of Scotland also gave the 
name hope to inland places which were shelters between 
hills. There are sixty hopes in the counties of Peebles 
and Selkirk alone, and many more in Roxburghshire and 
the Cheviot country. 1 The derivation from h6p, Ice- 
landic, an inlet of water, is clear for the sea hopes, and 
in the sense of land havens in exposed hilly regions for 
the inland places so named. The termination -hope is 

1 Christison, D., ' Place-Names in Scotland,' Proceedings 
Soc. Antiq. Scot., xxvii. 269. 

376 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

often pronounced -op and -up. The place-names along 
the Welsh borderland show some remarkable examples 
of this kind i.e., places with names ending in -op and 
-hope. In the east of Radnorshire we find old places 
named Cascop, Augop, and Hope ; in Shropshire, Hope 
Bagot, Hope Bowdler, Hope Hall, and Hope Sey ; in 
Herefordshire and along the Gloucestershire border, 
Hopend, Faunhope, Woolhope, Hope, Hope-Mansel, 
Longhope, Arcop or Orcop, Brinsop, Seller's Hope, and 
the Domesday name Gadreshope. 

Wigmore, Wormsley, and Ross appear to be names of 
Northern origin. The old district shire names already 
referred to are also remarkable. The Scandian termina- 
tion -ore appears in the names of English and Welsh 
Bicknor, Yasor, Eastnor, and Radnor. 

The Herefordshire Domesday hundred names include 
those of Radelau, Thornlau, and Wermlau, which appear 
to be of Northern origin, and at Harden in this county 
the old Norse custom survived by which in default of sons 
the eldest daughter succeeded to the whole inheritance. 1 

The Teutonic colonies on the coast of South Wales 
have been commonly ascribed to the Flemings settling 
there in the late Norman period. The dialect of Gower 
and Pembrokeshire, which resembles the West Saxon, 
shows, however, no trace of Flemish influence. A. J. 
Ellis, who investigated this subject, says that at most 
there could only have been a subordinate Flemish 
element, which soon lost all traces of its original but 
slightly different dialect, while the principal elements 
must have been Saxon, as in Gower and the Irish baronies 
of Bargy and Forth, in the south-east corner of Ireland. 2 
A Flemish settlement in South Wales is historical, but 
the loss of all linguistic traces of it shows that the descen- 
dants of these settlers were absorbed among the much 
larger population of Saxon and Scandinavian descent 

1 Elton, C. I., ' Law of Copyholds,' 134. 

2 Rhys, J., ' The Welsh People,' p. 29. 

Settlements on the Welsh Border. 377 

previously located there. This view is supported, first, 
by the place-names which are of the West Saxon and 
Scandinavian types ; and, secondly, by the customs of 
a large number of manors in Glamorganshire, which are 
different from the Welsh, and bear a close resemblance 
to those in west Somerset, to which locality the dialect 
also points. There must have been a connection between 
the settlers on both sides of the Channel, as the dialect, 
customs, and general character of the old names show. 

There is also evidence which shows that the coast of 
Wales and its border near the sea was occupied by 
Anglian settlers at an earlier period than that of the main 
settlements by Northmen, and this may be summarised 
as follows : The topographical name Angle survives on 
the coast, and can be traced also in old records on the 
north-east border of Wales. There are Anglesea on the 
north-west, Angle and Angle Bay in Pembroke Harbour, 
and Pen Anglas, a promontory west of Fishguard Bay. 
In the Patent Rolls 9 Edward I. and other documents we 
read of the cantred of Ross and Englefeld, in or very near 
the county of Chester. It may be considered certain 
that these Angle place-names were not given to the dis- 
tricts to which they refer by the Welsh. Their name 
for Angles, Saxons, and Jutes alike was Saxons, similar 
to the popular Irish name for the English at the present 
time. These old place-names must have originated at a 
time when Angle was in use as a distinctive name for 
people who migrated from England or for settlers from 
the North of Europe. During the Viking period such 
settlers would be known as Northmen and Danes. It is 
not at all probable that the Angles of Northumbria or 
parts of Mercia formed new settlements on the Welsh 
coast while the Danes were establishing others on their 
own, and it must be remembered that after the Danish 
period the name Angle or Engle passed out of use, and 
the English name became solely used. It is difficult, 
therefore, to avoid the conclusion that these Angle 

378 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

names on the Welsh coast must have arisen some time 
before the earliest Danish inroads. 

The probable Anglo-Saxon occupation of parts of the 
coast of South Wales before the period of settlements 
by the Northmen is confirmed by the prevailing dialect. 
Ellis says : ' The south-west of Pembrokeshire, or 
two peninsulas at the south-west, form an old English 
colony.' 1 He points out that the character of the dialect 
of this part of Pembrokeshire is decidedly southern, 
having such examples as dr for thr in three, through, and 
threaten ; having v for / in fair, farm, fast, feel, fiddle, 
fox, flail, from, and furrow ; having z for s in say, self, 
seven, sick, six, soon, and Sunday ; while s remains with 
less regularity in sad, sand, saw, so, and sweet. He 
likewise says : ' The peninsula of Gower is also a very old 
English colony, consisting of seventeen English parishes.' 
He remarks that the reverted r is inferred from the word 
drou for through, and that there is an occasional use of 
z as an initial sound for s, and un as an unaccented word 
for him. These examples are distinctly southern English, 
but the dialect in Gower seems to have much worn out. 
With this evidence, side by side with the English place- 
names, and the prevalence of manorial customs in the 
vale of Glamorgan identical with those in the vale of 
Taunton, the supposition that the English characteristics 
of the people in these parts of South Wales are due to the 
Flemings entirely breaks down. 

One of the most interesting of all the English district 
names is that anciently given to Pembrokeshire, Anglia 
Transwalliania, or ' England beyond Wales.' That it 
must have been a very old designation is probable from 
the surviving Angle place-names in this county, which 
clearly point to early settlements. 

Isaac Taylor says : ' The existence of a very early 
Scandinavian settlement in Pembrokeshire is indicated 
by a dense cluster of local names of the Norse type which 
1 Ellis, A. J., ' English Dialects,' p. 23. 

Settlements on the Welsh Border. 379 

surrounds and radiates from the fiords of Milford and 
Haverford.' 1 There is other evidence pointing strongly 
in the same direction, which the same author has men- 
tioned. This refers to the inscriptions known as oghams. 
The ogham inscriptions which have been found in Wales 
are about 20. Of these, 17 have been discovered in the 
counties of Pembroke, Cardigan, Carmarthen, and 
Glamorgan, 9 out of the 17 having been found in Pem- 
brokeshire. In Devon, 2 ogham inscriptions have been 
discovered, and i in Cornwall. In Ireland they are 
much more numerous, 155 having been found, but of 
these, 148 belong to the four counties of Kilkenny, Water- 
ford, Cork, and Kerry i.e., roughly speaking, they 
fringe the line of coast which stretches between the two 
Scandinavian kingdoms of Waterford and Limerick, 2 
thus clearly showing their Scandinavian origin. Oghams 
are, indeed, a variation of runic writing. 

The custom of borough-English is certainly not a relic 
of Welsh law. 3 In parts of South Wales it prevailed, 
with similar privileges to widows as in the vale of Taun- 
ton and on so many manors in Sussex. This custom of 
some manors in Glamorganshire and Pembrokeshire, by 
which the youngest son succeeded to the whole of the 
father's land, must have been introduced by settlers of 
another race. It prevailed on many lands in Gower ; 4 
it was the custom of the manors of Llanbethan, 5 Merthyr 
Mawr, 6 Coity Anglia,? and others. It was also the custom 
on some of the manors of the Bishop of St. David's. 8 
The resemblance between this custom as it prevailed at 
Coity Anglia and the many manors of Taunton Dean in 
Somersetshire is very close practically identical. The 
name Anglia attached to this manorial name is of special 

1 Taylor, Isaac, ' Greeks and Goths,' no. 2 Ibid., in. 

3 Cobbett, J. A., Journal Cambrian Arch. Assoc., vi. 76. 

4 Ibid., Fifth Series, x. 5. 5 Ibid., vi. 76. 

6 Ibid., Fourth Series, ix. 20. 

7 Ibid., Fourth Series, viii. 13, 14. 

8 Ibid., Fifth Series, ii. 70. 

380 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

significance, for here we find a name with a special Old 
English designation, having an Old English custom. The 
custom points to Somersetshire, the dialect of Pembroke- 
shire and Gower point to the same part of southern 
England, and there are traditions which indicate this 
locality as the district whence the Old English colonists 
of South Wales largely came. Gower is visible in clear 
weather from the West Somersetshire coast looming in 
the distance across the Severn Sea. Rhys has drawn 
attention to a tradition 1 in connection with the Welsh 
Arthurian legends, which makes Melwas king or lord of 
a winterless glass island. This he identifies with Glaston- 
bury in the JEstivo regio, or summer region i.e., Somer- 
setshire. Another and a different tradition makes Melwas 
king of Goire, or the peninsula of Gower seen from the 
Somerset coast. Thus, by mixing the two versions of the 
myth, the writers of romances came to speak of the king- 
dom of Melwas as Goire, and of his capital as Bade or 
Bath. The curious aspect of these traditions is that 
there may have been a basis for connecting Gower with 
Somerset; and, as Max Miiller says on the growth of 
myths, there may have been circumstances or words, 
' understood, perhaps, by the grandfather, familiar to 
the father, but strange to the son, and misunderstood by 
the grandson.' 

As regards the settlement of north-east Gloucester- 
shire, Beddoe has observed the blonde character of the 
population in the country around Moreton-in-the-Marsh, 
and considers it evidence of West Saxon colonisation 
northwards. 2 He notes that the distribution of colour 
of hair and eyes in this district resembles that found in 
other Saxon districts in England, and also in parts of 
Flanders, Holland, Friesland, and Westphalia, with the 
same tendency to the conjunction of hazel and dark eyes 
with lightish hair, rather than of light eyes with dark hair. 

1 Rhys, J., ' Studies in the Arthurian Legend,' 330, 346. 

2 Beddoe, J., Journal of the Anthropological Inst., xxv. 19. 

Settlements on the Welsh Border. 381 

The head form also he judges to be mostly of the two types 
found at Bremen, which are also those commonly found in 
Anglo-Saxon graves. He says that the West Saxons 
appear to have settled numerously in the Upper Thames 
districts before they began to interfere with the inhabi- 
tants of the valley of the Bristol Avon i.e., they 
pushed their settlement northwards at first rather than 

In the same district, near Bourton, in north-east 
Gloucestershire, the Anglo-Saxon place-names Cwentan 1 
and Cwenena-broc 2 occur, referring to Quinton and to 
a stream which is named as a boundary. 

The name Cwenena-broc brings us to a curious diffi- 
culty viz., to determine whether Cwenena is the genitive 
plural of Cwen, a Fin, or Cwen, a woman. It has been 
explained as the women's brook, 3 but the name Cwentan, 
now Quinton, mentioned in a Saxon charter, is in the 
same locality. There is a well-known story of Adam of 
Bremen being present at a conversation during which 
one of the old Scandinavian kings spoke of Quenland, or 
Quena,-land, the country of the Quens or Quains. As 
the stranger's knowledge of Old Danish was very im- 
perfect, he supposed the king had said Quinna-land, 
the country of women or amazons. Hence arose the 
absurd story of the terra feminarum, or amazons' 
country, which spread through the whole of Europe, 
' through mistaking the name for that of a woman.' 4 
The name Cwenena-broc must mean either the brook of 
the Quens or Fins, as allies of Scandinavia and their 
descendants, or that of a community of women. Which 
is the more probable ? It is a boundary name, apparently 
a boundary of Cwentan, and we must either recognise 
a settlement of Fins or a settlement of women. During 
the period when the dialects of many tribal people were 

1 Codex Dipl., No. 244. 2 Ibid., Nos. 426, 1359, 1365. 

3 Bosworth and Toller, ' Anglo-Saxon Diet.' 

4 Ibid., and Latham, ' Ger mania of Tacitus,' 174, 179. 

382 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

being assimilated into one form of speech it is not difficult 
to suppose that Cwenena may have been written for Cwena, 
the usual form of the genitive plural of Cwen, a Fin. 

In east Gloucestershire there were also two distinct 
places called Quenintune at the time of the Domesday 
Survey one near Fairford, the Domesday Fareford, and 
the other in the north-east, apparently the Cwentan of 
the Anglo-Saxon period, of which Cwenena-broc was a 
boundary. It thus appears probable that there were 
two settlements of Quens. That there were Scandinavian 
settlers with whom they probably came as allies, and in 
whose language Fins were called Quens, also located on 
this borderland of Gloucestershire and Oxfordshire, is 
certain from the old place-names of the district. There are, 
or were, not less than nine places with the characteristic 
-thorp or -throp names in this locality. In Domesday 
Book, Dunetorp, Duchitorp, and Edrope, now Heythrop, 
are mentioned on the Oxfordshire side. In Gloucestershire 
there are Addlestrop, Hatherop, Southrop, and Wiiiiams- 
trop. Tadilsthorpe, the Domesday Tedestrop, and Bur- 
drop, are also old place-names. Among others of Scandi- 
navian origin in the district are Wickenford or Wickham- 
ford ; Meon, the Domesday Mene, which may be compared 
with the Jutish places called Meon in Hampshire ; Fare- 
ford, Wormington, Guiting, and Sclostre, now Slaughter. 
Rollright, the Domesday Rollendri, also occurs on the 
Oxfordshire side of the border, and at this place there is 
a rude circle of stones of the Scandinavian type. These 
names, together with that of the Domesday hundred 
name Salemanesberie, apparently derived from the 
Salemen or Salings of one of the Danish islands, in which 
hundred Bourton, Broadwell, and Slaughter were 
situated, are evidence that there must have been in this 
district of north-east Gloucestershire many settlers who 
spoke the old Danish or Norrena language, in which 
Quen is the name for Fins. Moreover, at Sclostre, now 
Slaughter, at the iimc of the Domesday Survey, the 

Settlements on the Welsh Border. 383 

rents of two mills were paid in Danish money compu- 
tation. When King Eadgar promulgated his laws in 
these words, ' Let this ordinance be common to all the 
people, whether English, Danes, or Britons, on every side 
of my dominions,' he must have had in mind settlements 
of Danish-speaking people in the south and west of 
England, such as this in Gloucestershire, as well as the 
greater Danish settlement in the northern and eastern 

There is evidence, in addition to that of existing place- 
names, which points to the settlement of some Hunni 
or Hunsings in the valley of the Worcestershire Avon. 
There are two Saxon charters relating to grant of land 
at Hampton, close to Evesham, which in the eighth century 
bore the name of Huntena-tun, the -tun of the Hunte or 
Hunsi, the name being mentioned in the genitive plural 
in both charters one a grant by Aldred with leave of 
King Offa, dated 757-775 x ; the other a grant by King 
Acgfrid, dated 790.2 In a charter of Eadgar, dated 
969, relating to land at Witney, 3 there is a reference 
to the same settlement in the boundaries, the name 
* huntena weg ' being mentioned i.e., a road that led 
to the Huntena district, or Huntena-tun. A few miles 
east of the Anglo-Saxon Huntena-tun is Church Honey- 
bourne, with its hamlets Cow Honeybourne and Honey- 
bourne Leasows. These surviving names and the refer- 
ence to the Huntena show that there was a settlement of 
people who bore that name in this district, and it should 
be remembered that in the old country of the Hunsings and 
Frisians there is a river called Hunte, as well as the Hunse. 

Reference has already been made to the fair aspect of 
the people of east Gloucestershire at the present time. 
The circumstantial evidence of the place-names points to 
the settlement of tribal people of various blonde races 
in this district. Among such races are the Fins, con- 
cerning whose aspect the proverbial expression ' as 

1 Cart. Sax., i. 306. 2 Ibid., i. 369. 3 Ibid., iii. 520. 

384 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

blonde as a Fin ' is in use among the Russians of the 
parts adjoining Finland at the present day. 1 The Fins 
that settled in England must have come as allies of the 
Danes, and it is interesting to note that by the Roman 
road east Gloucestershire was in direct communication 
with Lincolnshire. 

One of the peculiarities of the topography of Shropshire 
and Worcestershire is the considerable number of old 
names we can trace that apparently denote tribal settle- 
ments, as if a number of different people were settled 
on this borderland in large communities for defensive 
purposes. Among these, the following are mentioned in 
the Anglo-Saxon charters 2 : Wrocensetna and Scrobsetan 
in Shropshire, and the Tonsetan or Temsetan somewhere 
west of the Severn. The latter may be the settlers on 
the river Teme, whose name can still be traced in that 
of the ancient manor of Tempsiter, which included 
twenty- three townships of the Honour of Clun, and 
through which Off as Dyke passes. 3 The river Clun is 
the longest tributary of the Teme, the latter name being 
now applied to the stream only after its junction with 
the Onny near Ludlow. The Tonsetan or Temsetan 
appear to have been the settlers on the Welsh border 
near Clun. Another Worcestershire settlement which is 
described as a province was that of the Usmere people, 4 
whose name appears to have been lost. In Herefordshire 
and a part of north Gloucestershire the tribe known as 
the Magesaetas were located. We read of a grant of 
land at Hay ' in pago Magesaetna ' as late as A.D. 958. 5 
This tribe must have been a large one, and Maisemore 
near Gloucester may have been its eastern limit. May 
Hill near Ross, and another May Hill near Monmouth, 
are probably places where the name survives. 

1 Reclus, E., ' Nouvelle Geographic Universelle,' v. 334. 

2 Codex Dipl., Index. 

3 Shropshire Archaological and Nat. Hist. Soc. Trans., xi. 244.. 

4 Codex Dipl., Nos. 127, 143, 1251. 5 Cart. Sax., Hi. 242. 

Settlements on the Welsh Border. 385 

The settlements of Gewissas,by the victories of Ceawlin 
in the Severn Valley, extended not only over parts of 
East Gloucestershire, but probably further northwards. 
Ceawlin's victories opened the country more or less as 
far as Shropshire. The earliest colonists into this part 
of England must have come either up the river or along 
the Roman roads, the Fosse way from the north-east, 
the Watling Street from the south-east, or from Wessex 
by the road from Winchester to Cirencester, and thence 
by the Fosse way to the north-east of Gloucestershire, 
and northwards by the Ryknield Street. It was probably 
about A.D. 583 that the Roman city of Uriconium was 
destroyed. It was situated where Wroxeter now is, 
close to the lowest ford across the Severn, south of Shrews- 
bury, where Watling Street crossed the river. Its 
remains show its importance, and probably many build- 
ings of the Saxon time in its neighbourhood were con- 
structed from its ruins. In the Severn Valley there is 
historical evidence of the settlement of West Saxons, 
and that about 590 an independent State of Gewissas 
was formed in Gloucestershire under Ceolric, a nephew 
of Ceawlin. 1 The dialect also points to its settlers having 
largely come from Wessex. Ellis groups it with Wilts, 
Berks, and parts of Hants and Dorset, as districts having 
much in common. 2 

Anglian settlers from Mercia or others who had a know- 
ledge of runic letters appear to have reached the south- 
east of Shropshire by the end of the sixth century, for a 
runic inscription discovered at Cleobury Mortimer has 
been assigned by Stephens to that period. 3 

It may have been from the circumstance of the ruined 
condition of the Roman city Uriconium that the Saxon 
colonists near it got their name of Wrocensetna, as 
Camden suggested. It may, perhaps, have arisen partly 

1 Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 

2 Ellis, A. J., ' English Dialects,' 24. 

3 Stephens, G., loc. cit., iii. 160. 


386 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

from the settlers having made a quarry of the ruins. 
Almost all the stones in the walls of Roman Uriconium 
were removed, as well as the ruins of its buildings, and 
from the wrecked city there can be no doubt many a 
house, or even in later centuries a church, was partly 
built, as may be traced around Silchester, where the 
destruction was less complete. The Wrocensetna have 
either left their name in that of Wroxeter, the village 
on the site of Uriconium, or derived their name from it, 
the wrecked ceaster. The name survives also in those 
of Wrockwardine and the Wrekin. The pagus or pro- 
vince of the Wrocensetna is mentioned in a charter of 
Burgred, King of Mercia in 855, 1 and in one of Eadgar, 
dated 963.2 The survival of the word ' wrocen ' or 
* wrekin,' as probably a reference in Saxon nomenclature 
to the ruins of a Roman city, is unique among English 
topographical names. 

The ancient name Ombersley in Worcestershire, whose 
early settlers are called the Ombersetena, is as old as 
the Saxon period. 3 These people, whose name has come 
down to us in the genitive plural, are probably the same 
as the Ymbras or Ambrones i.e., the tribe of Old 
Saxons south of the Humber. This colony of them in 
Worcestershire was probably a migration from their 
district on the Amber River in Derbyshire, from Notting- 
hamshire or Lincolnshire, along the Roman roads that 
passed from Chesterfield through Lichfield into Worcester- 
shire. They apparently gave their new settlement the 
same name, which some of the tribe had brought from 
the Ambra River in Old Saxony. 

In Shropshire an interesting peculiarity has been ob- 
served in the country dialect. This, according to Prince 
L. L. Bonaparte, is the verb plural ending in n, as ' we 
aren ' for ' we are,' and also the form ' we bin ' for ' we 
are.' This he points out as an interesting instance of the 

1 Codex Dipl., No. 277. 2 Ibid., No. 1246. 

3 Ibid., Nos. 637, 1366. 

Settlements on the Welsh Border. 387 

shading of the southern dialects, in which ' I be ' and 
' thou bist ' are common, into the north-western. 1 That 
some settlers in Shropshire came up the river is probable 
from the dialect and from some of the customs. Borough- 
English, which still survives at Gloucester, prevailed in the 
English part of Shrewsbury. 2 In this county also there 
were, at the close of the Saxon period, tenants called 
coscets, few in number ; but as coscets are peculiar to 
Wiltshire, these may have been descendants of Gewissas 
who had migrated. 

Along the border counties of Wales there was necessarily 
going on during the Anglo-Saxon period some racial 
fusion between the tribal people respectively of the 
Teutonic and Welsh races. As the Welsh were driven 
westward from the Midland counties, their agricultural 
system of isolated homesteads appears to have been 
commonly adopted. Villages of collected homesteads, 
like those between the Elbe and the Weser, or east of the 
Elbe, and such as are found in Northamptonshire and 
the adjacent counties, are comparatively rare along the 
Welsh border. Giraldus tells us that in the twelfth 
century the houses of the Welsh tribesmen were not built 
either in towns or villages. Like other pastoral people, 
they had two sets of homesteads, feeding their herds in 
summer on the higher ranges of the hills and in winter in 
the valleys. The Old English settlers along the border 
counties adopted this system, or brought it with them> 
and many of the isolated hamlets on the higher slopes 
of the hills were probably in their origin only summer 

The original settlement of Cheshire must have been, 
at least in part, a direct one, and not wholly an extension 
of local colonies from the Staffordshire side. A similarity 
has been noted between the Cheshire dialect in some 
respects and that of Norfolk, while the intervening 

1 Transactions Philological Soc., 1875-1876, p. 576. 

2 Bateson, M., English Hist. Review, 1901, p. 109. 


388 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

counties differ. 1 This may have arisen from Danish 
influence, and be a result of direct settlements on the 
coast. The maritime parts of North Wales have many 
old place-names to attest their settlements, and Chester 
appears to have been largely a Danish town during the 
later Saxon period. It was governed by twelve judges 
or lahmen, who were chosen from among the vassals of 
the King, the Bishop, and the Earl. 2 As the institution of 
lahmen is Scandinavian, it is clear that there must have 
been a population of that race at Chester. Other circum- 
stances that point to Northmen are the prevalence of 
family names ending in -son, corresponding to the Norse 
-sen, which survive in Cheshire, and the mention in 
Domesday Book of certain fines in the city of Chester 
being paid in orae or by Danish money computation. 
The place-names of the Wirral district between the 
Mersey and the Dee show that it was occupied by the 
later Northmen. The discovery, however, of a runic 
inscription, which Stephens assigned to the seventh cen- 
tury, 3 at Overchurch in the Wirral, proves that Anglians 
advanced into this district soon after the Battle of Chester 
in 613. Among the Domesday place-names that were 
apparently derived from those of early tribal settlers in 
Cheshire are Englefeld, Englelei, Inglecrost, Wareneberie, 
Leche, and Cocheshalle. 

The Cheshire dialect, as spoken in different parts, shows 
certain well-marked differences in respect to vocabulary, 
pronunciation, and grammar. 4 In the formation of place- 
names in the south of the county there was apparently 
little or no Danish influence. The speech in this part is 
broad and rough, differing in pronunciation from that of 
the northern part, and approaching more to that of north 
Staffordshire and Derbyshire. These are the counties in 

1 Beddoe, J., ' Races of Britain,' p. 70. 

2 Lappenberg, J. M., ' History of England under the Anglo- 
Saxon Kings,' ii. 354; and Domesday Book. 

3 Stephens, G., loc. cit., iv. 53. 

* Darlington, T., ' Folk-Speech of South Cheshire.' 

Settlements on the Welsh Border. 389 

which the descendants of the early Anglian settlers were 

least disturbed by subsequent Danish inroads, and south 
Cheshire appears somewhat to resemble them. On the 
other hand, there is a clear line of difference between the 
local talk in south Cheshire and Shropshire, where the 
highly-pitched tone, the habit of raising the voice at the 
end of a sentence, the sharp and clearly-defined pronuncia- 
tion, probably marks a Welsh element among the Shrop- 
shire people which is absent in south Cheshire. 

As the settlement proceeded from east to west in the 
Mercian States, some of the Welsh people must have 
been allowed to exist among the newcomers. As far 
east as Buckinghamshire there was in the Anglo-Saxon 
period a place called Wealabroc, and in the south-west of 
' Northamptonshire there exists still an old way called the 
Welsh Road. These names probably imply old frontier 
lines. As the advance was continued towards the present 
Welsh border, it is certain that here and there small areas 
inhabited by Welsh people in the midst of Old English 
settlements were left. Beyond the present border, as 
around Radnor, settlements of Old English or Scandian 
folk surrounded by Welsh people were formed. Offa's 
Dyke, thrown up in the eighth century to divide the Welsh 
from the English, was not a strict ethnological frontier. 
There were some English to the west of it at the time it 
was made, or soon afterwards, and some Welsh to the 
east of it, as at Clun, Oswestry, and Cherbury, at which 
places early Welcheries existed, which were not governed 
by English customs. 

It was along this border that the customs of the Old 
English settlers were brought into contact with the tribal 
customs of the Welsh. The various English customs of 
inheritance derived from tribal settlers have been de- 
scribed. In some important respects the Welsh differed 
from all of these. The land of the Welsh tribesmen was 
held by families and allotted to members of the family. 
On the death of the head of the family, it was first divided 

39O Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

among all the sons. This, however, was not a final 
division. On the death of the last of these brothers, the 
land was again divided among all their sons 'per capita, 
each first-cousin taking an equal share. On the death of 
the last of these first-cousins, the land was again divided 
as before, each second-cousin taking an equal share. 
Land could be inherited, consequently, only by direct 
descent. 1 There was no inheritance by daughters. 
There was no widow's dower. No man was his brother's 
heir. If a man left sons, they inherited ; if he left none, 
the land was shared according to the tribal custom. This 
is of interest in reference to the custom of Dymock in 
west Gloucestershire, which was apparently left as an 
ethnological island of Welsh people. Its name is Welsh, 
and its custom was Welsh, for the land at Dymock 
passed on the death of the holder to the heirs of the body 
only ; otherwise it reverted to the community or the lord. 2 
The place-names Welsh Hampton, east of Ellesmere, 
and Welsh Bicknor and Welsh Newton, near Monmouth, 
tell the same story of mixed settlements. There was both 
an Englecheria and a Walecheria, of ancient origin, at Clun 
and at Cherbury in west Shropshire. 3 There were English 
landholders and Welsh subtenants of ancient date in 
the great district of Archenfeld, west of the river Wye. It 
was owing to such conditions as these that the blending 
of race between the Old English and Old Welsh people 
went on. Then, as generations passed, English folk 
arose along the Welsh border who were partly of Welsh 
descent, having complexions somewhat darker than their 
forefathers a physical characteristic they have trans- 
mitted to their descendants at the present day. 

1 Rhys, J., and Jones, D. B., ' The Welsh People,' 221, 222. 

2 Pollock and Maitland, ' History of English Law,' ii. 272. 

3 Plac. de quo warr., 68 1. 



ONE of the conclusions to which the evidence that 
has been brought forward leads us is that the Old 
English or Anglo-Saxon race was formed on 
English soil out of many tribal elements, and that the 
settlers who came here were known among themselves by 
tribal names, many of which still survive in those of some 
of the oldest settlements, where they lived under cus- 
tomary family and kindred law. Under the general names 
Jutes, Angles, Saxons, Danes, and Northmen, came 
numerous allies. It appears certain that Frisians of 
various tribes were, in regard to number, as important as 
any settlers, and that they came among the Angles as 
well as among the Jutes and Saxons. Under the Saxon 
name there can be very little doubt that colonists were 
settled on the east coast of England before the withdrawal 
of the Romans. 

In reference to Danes and Scandinavians, it appears 
from the evidence adduced that they brought with them 
many allies from various countries on the Baltic coasts 
on which they had previously formed settlements, or 
which they had brought under subjection. The evidence 
appears conclusive that there was a Wendish, and con- 
sequently a Slavonic, element among the earlier tribal 
immigrants as well as among the later. It has also been 
shown that some Celtic people must have been absorbed 
into the Anglo-Saxon stock. 

39 2 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

The Old English race grew by the absorption into it 
of tribal people descended from various ancient races. 
It assimilated to a great extent their dialects, and the 
Old English speech, as it prevailed in various parts of 
England, was formed by this process. No example of 
an Anglo-Saxon language has even been found out of 
Britain itself. 1 It arose here, like the race itself, by the 
blending of tribal dialects, of which those of northern 
origin are important. From the traces we find of Danish 
or Scandian settlements in nearly all parts of England it 
appears that the Scandinavian influence in the origin 
of the Anglo-Saxon race has been underestimated. 

In tracing the assimilation of the dialects, as far as it 
is possible to do so, we trace the formation of the race. 
As regards those of Scandinavian origin, Stephens says : 
' Manifold dialects were in continual growth and change 
through the Northern lands, though in the oldest time 
they all agreed in their bolder features. But local 
developments and fluctuation of population and settle- 
ment went on unceasingly both on the Scandian main 
and in the English colony. ... In Scandinavia itself, 
as in England, the languages and dialects differ. The 
spoken dialects are many in each Scandian land, and 
the folk of one district often cannot understand the 
natives of another. But the Scandian talks in general, 
especially the Danish, greatly liken the English (especi- 
ally the North English), and a farm labourer from 
Jutland, for instance, can after a couple of days be hob-a- 
nob with the peasantry of northern England and southern 
Scotland. In the Old Northern Runic Age all these 
folkships could get on very well together, while they were 
also very closely allied in speech and blood with the 
Frisic and Saxon clans, some of which took part in the 
settlement of England.' 2 In the Old English speech, as 

1 Marsh, G. P., ' Lectures on the English Language,' First 
Series, p. 43. 
3 Stephens, G., ' Old Northern Runic Monuments,' iii. 396. 

Conclusion. 393 

it has come down to us, there are as many as ten words, 
more or less synonymous, for the word man, and as many 
for woman. 1 The language abounds in synonymous 
words, thus showing a commingling of elements from 
many sources. Its obscure etymology, its confused and 
imperfect inflections, and its anomalous and irregular 
syntax, point to the same conclusion, and indicate a 
diversity of origin. 

It does not appear that the Old English, as the speech 
of a nation, existed until towards the later Anglo-Saxon 
period. ' We are all weary,' says the distinguished 
author of the great work on the Old Northern Runic 
Monuments, ' of an Anglo-Saxon language that never 
existed. The Old English in its many dialects we know, 
and if we know anything we are aware that it is of a 
distinctly Northern character, whenever Northern writ' 
ings as old as the Old English can be found to be com- 
pared with it.' 2 The oldest remains of Old Saxon, says 
Marsh, ' are not Anglo-Saxon, and I think it must be 
regarded, not as a language which the colonists or any of 
them brought with them from the Continent, but as a 
new speech resulting from the fusion of many separate 
elements.' 3 There is, says the same American philo- 
logist, ' linguistic evidence of a great commingling of 
nations in the body of the intruders.' 

All the available evidence, the dialects of the period, 
the surviving customs, or those known to have existed, 
and the comparison of place-names with those of ancient 
Germany and Scandinavia, point to the same conclu- 
sion, that the English race had its origin in many parent 
sources, and arose on English soil, not from some great 
national immigration, but from the commingling here 
of settlers from many tribes. 

The many traces that remain of the mythology of the 

1 Turner, Sharon, ' History of the Anglo-Saxons,' ii. 379. 

2 Stephens, G., loc. cit., ii. 516. 

3 Marsh, G. P., loc. cit., pp. 42, 43. 

394 Origin of the Anglo-Saron Race. 

early settlers in England point in the same direction. As 
York Powell has said, 1 ' There is one fact about Teutonic 
mythology as we have it which has never been brought 
out quite clearly. The mass of legend in more or less 
simple condition that has come down to us is not the 
remains of one uniform regular religion . . . but it is 
the remains of the separate faiths, more or less parallel, 
of course, of many different tribes and confederacies, 
each of which had its own several name for each several 
mythic being, and its own particular version of his or 
her adventures and affinities.' The old German world, 
with its secrets and wonders, and the views of its ancient 
people regarding their gods and heroes, were, as Wagner 
says, formerly lost in the darkness of the past, and are 
now visible in the light of the present. 2 The same may 
be said of the old Scandinavian world, and the modern 
light in which we may view their mythology is due to the 
long labour of German and Scandinavian scholars. The 
results of their researches point to the existence of many 
tribes having differences in their mythological names, 
beliefs, and practices. 

It is to the Old English race more than any other 
that we must look for the most remarkable examples of 
the absorption within it of people of many various tribes 
and nations. It is probably largely owing to this absorp- 
tion within itself of people of other descent that the race 
owes much of its vigour. In all ages of the world and 
in all countries it is and has been the strongest and 
ablest of a tribe or nation that has been selected by 
natural circumstances or political considerations for 
conquest and colonization. Those who have gone to 
the wars, or have become successful colonists, have been 
among the ablest of the race. England, during the 
centuries in which her settlement went on, received and 

1 Saxo Grammaticus, translated by Elton, introduction by 
York Powell, cxv. 

2 Wagner, W., ' Asgard and the Gods,' p. 2. 

Conclusion. 395 

absorbed into the Anglo-Saxon stock immigrants from 
probably almost all the tribes of Northern Europe. As 
the newer and greater Anglo-Saxon stock in Britain, 
America, and the British colonies is at the present time 
constantly absorbing into itself people of all European 
races, so during the centuries of its growth tribal elements 
were constantly becoming blended and assimilated in 
the old English nation. 

As it was in the Old English time, so it has been more 
or less continuously throughout the course of our national 
life ; streams of immigrants, now many, now few, have 
found in England a refuge from oppression, or homes 
when driven from their own lands. They have been 
absorbed among the people of England. Streams of 
colonists for more than three hundred years have 
gone out from our shores, and have formed new nations 
in the Western and Southern hemispheres, and these, 
repeating the old story, have absorbed and are absorbing 
into the newer and greater Anglo-Saxon race immigrants 
from all European countries. 



Acklam, 324 

Acton, 256 

Addlestrop, 382 

jEdulfness, district, 279, 280 

jSiduves-nasa, district, 279 

^Ethelwulfmgland, 4 

Agremundreness, 369, 370 

Ainsty, woodland, 246 

Airsome, 324 

Aldborough, 285, 289 

Alesbi, hundred, 300 

Aletorp, 303 

Amber, river, 348, 386 

Amberdon, 281 

Ambergate, 348 

Ambresbur', 348 

Andover, hundred, 219 

Angemare, 198 

Angermanland, 198 

Angermer, 151, 200 

Angersholm, 331 

Angle Bay, 377 

Anglesea, 377 

Angleton, 203 

Anglia Trans walliania, 378 

Angmering, 203 

Angre, hundred, 174 

Angrices-burne, 281 

Appleton, 195 

Archenfeld, district, 372 et seq. 

Arcop, 376 

Arreton, 219 

Arrow, stream, 230 
Astrop, 340 
Augop, 376 
Aust, 371 
| Avon, river, 243 
Aylesbeer, 365 
Aynho, 340 

Badby, 340 

Bakewell, 350 

Barby, 340 

Barnes, 256, 257 

Barnetone, 304 

Barnetorp, 304 

Barnstaple, 362 

Barrington, 14 

Basing, 172 

Batrices-ege, 260 

Battersea, 256, 257, 260 

Beacon Hill, 180 

Beaumond, 152, 259 

Bercheha, 304 

Berchetorp, 304 

Berkelej', vale of, 369, 370 

Berkeley-herness, Berkelai-erness, 

3<5Q. 370 
Berwicktye, 205 
Bexelei, hundred, 174, 207 
Bexley, 198 

Bexwarena-land, 198, 207 
Bicknor, 376 
Billing, 143 
Billockby, 290 


; 9 8 

Index of Place-Names. 

Binsey, 276 

Blacanden, in 

Blacandon, in 

Blachemanestone, in 

Blachemene, in 

Blachemenestone, in, 113. 192 

Blachene, 1 1 1 

Blachenhale, 1 1 1 

Blacheshale, in 

Blachingelei, in 

Blackemanstone, 6 

Blacknore, 356 

Blacmannebergh, 1 1 1 , 113 

Blakeborneshire, 370 

Blakemere, 112 

Blakeney, 112 

Blakenham, 112 

Blakesware, 112 

Bleccingdenn, 142 

Blechingley, 206 

Blechington, 203 

Blechworth, 205 

Blenkinsop, 332 

Blewbury, hundred, 274, 275 

Blidinga, 174 

Blisland, 365 

Blitberie, 274, 275 

Boddingc-weg, 93 

Bodebi, 93 

Bodeha, 93 

Bodele, 93 

Bodesha, 93 

Bodeskesham, 93 

Bodeslege, 93 

Bodetone, 93 

Bodiam, 208 

Bodrica, 93 

Bodrog, 93 

Boggele, 241 

Bognor, 198 

Bokerly dyke, 241 

Bonby, 304 

Bormer, 151 

Bosgrave, 203 

Bosham, 93, 203 

Bourton, 382 

Bowhope, 332 

Brachinges, hundred, 174 

Braintree, 282 

Brambletye, 205 

Braunton, 362 

Bray, 153, 266, 267 
Bredon Forest, 242 
Bridport, 227 
Brighthampton, 273 
Bright-well, 211 
Brinsop, 376 
Broad well, 382 
Broad Windsor, 229 
Broccesborne, 345 
Brocheland, 361 
Brochelesbi, 302 
Brochesbi, 349 
Brockford, 289 
Brockhall, 345 
Brockmans, 345 
Brocton, hundred, 219 
Brookthorp, 370 
Brostorp, 370 
Broxbourn, river, 230 
Broxbourne, 345 
Broxholm, 302 
Brune, 302 
Brunebi, 302 
Brunesford, 108 
Brunesham, 107, 108 
Bruneswald, 295 
Brunetorp, 302 
Brungarstone, 362 
Bruningafeld, 107 
Buccham, 283 
Bucchesteda, 283 
Buccinga-ham, 343 
Bucham Regis, 283 
Buchebi, 23 
Buchenham, 23, 284 
Buchenho, 23 
Bucheside, 23 
Buchestuna, 23, 283 
Buchesworth, 23 
Buchetone, 23 
Buckingham, 23, 103, 198 
Bucktorp, 23 
Bude Haven, 365 
Burbage, 228 
Burdorp, 228, 382 
Burfield, 276 
Burgemere, 151 
Burghclere, 180 
Burnham, hundred, 268 
Burnley, 317 
Buttermere, 228 

Index of Place-Names. 


Butterwike, 227 
Byfield, 340 
Byrport, 227 

Cale, stream, 231 
Calthorp, 370 
Camelford, 13 
Candel, 227 

Candleshoe Wapentake, 227 
Caninga, hundred, 174 
Caninganmaersces, 359 
Canington, Somerset, 359 
Canonbury, 251 
Capenmore, 356 
Carlisle, 310 
Cartmel, 315, 316, 320 
Cascop, 376 
Cashiobury, 153 
Castlerigg, 310 
Catesby, 340 
Celvedune, 235 
Ceokan-ege, 260, 268 
Cerney, 276 
Cetendone, 134 
Charing, 173 
Ghent, 359 
Chentesbere, 359 
Chentesberia, 359 
Cherbury, 389 
Chertsey, 152, 259 
Cherwell, river, 269 
Cheshunt, 1 16, 345 
Chessell Down, 214 
Chesterfield, 289 
Chillingham, 324 
Chipshire, 177 
Cholsey, 274 

Christchurch, hundred, 219 
Church Honeybourne, 383 
Cirencester, 277 
Clapton-in-Gordano, 356 
Clauelinga, hundred, 174 
Cleobury Mortimer, 350 
Clipsby, 290 
Clun, river, 384 
Coatham, 324 
Coccetley Croft, 272 
Coccham, 268 
Cocheham, 26$ 
Cochehamsted, 345 
Cocheshale, 388 

Cocheha, 201 

Cockernoe, 345 

Cockhais, 201 

Cocking, 20 1 

Cockshut, stream, 201 

Cocrinton, 302 

Cocrintone, 302 

Cocuneda civitas, 326 

Coggeshall, 281 

Cogham, hundred, 268 

Coity Anglia, 379 

Cokeham, 201 

Cokethorpe, 272 

Cokkefeld, 201 

Collingbourn, stream, 230 

Compton-Westbury, 205 

Cookham, 268, 274 

Cooksbridge, 201 

Coquet, river, 230, 326 

Cotenore, 204 

Cow Honeybourne, hamlet, 383 

Coxwell, 268, 272 

Cranborne, 234 

Crane, stream, 234 

Cranley, 205 

Creodan hylle, 241 

Crondal, hundred, 153 

Crondall, 224, 225 

Croydon, 205, 256, 257 

Crowmarsh, 276 

Cuceshamm, 272 

Cuchenai, 349 

Cuckfield, 20 1 

Cuckmere, 151, 201 

Culham, 265 

Curesrigt, 361 

Curi, 361 

Curylond, 361 

Curymele, 361 

Cuxham, 268, 272 

Cwenena-broc, 381 

Cwentan, 381 

Cwuenstane, 131, 198 

Cymenore, 204 

Danais, hundred, 121, 173, 344 

Danebi, 330 

Danescome, 361 

Danesey, 282 

Daneskoven, 122 

Daneslai, 344 


Index of Place-Names. 

Danes pad, 331 

Danestorp, 330 

Danica sylvia, 371 

Danubia, 371 

Dean Forest, 122, 371 

Debenham, 293 

Denceswyrth, 121 

Dene, North, South, East, West, 


Denesig, 121 
Denetun, 121 
Dengey, 121, 282 
Denisesburne, 121 
Denton, 121, 203 
Dentuninga, 121 
Deorham, 242 
Derby, 337 
Derwentwater, 310 
Derwinston, 235 
Devizes, 242 
Dochinga, hundred, 174 
Dorchester, 228 
Dorking, 205, 258 
Dover, 143 
Dray ton, 263 
Droxford, 179 
Duchitorp, 382 
Duddenhoe, 282 
Dumfries, 322 
Dunebi, 302 
Dunesbi, 302 
Dunestune, 302 
Dunetorp, 302, 382 
Dunsford, 206 
Dunstable, 9 

Ealing, 256, 257 
Bashing, 259 
East Holm, 227 
Eastmanton, 5 
Eastnor, 376 
Easton-in-Gordano, 356 
Eastry, hundred, 132 
East Thorp, 228 
Edrope, 382 
Eldsberga, 143 
Elga, 288 
Elmanstede, 8 
Elmenham, 6, 8, 287 
Elmet, 319 
Elmham, 8 

Elmstead, 8 

Elmswell, 289 

Ems, river, 215 

Emsworth, 215 

Endreby, 304 

Endretorp, 304 

Enfield, 263 
i Englecheria, 390 
| Englebi, 327, 330 
j Englefeld, 388 
| Englelei, 388 

Eoccen, river, 268, 269 

Eoccen-ford, 268, 269, 274 

Eskham, 331 

Essemundehord, 361 

Essete, 199 

Estmere, 55 

Estrei, hundred, 174 

Etchingham, 208 

Evesham, 383 

Exeter, 358, 360 

Eye, 286 

Eynesbury, 346 

Falmer, 151, 200 
Falmouth Haven, 365 
Fareford, 382 
Farendone, 340 
Farnham, 227, 259, 282 
Farthingho, 340 
Faunhope, 376 
Felesmere, 200 
Fenbi, hundred, ^00 
Ferring, 199 
Finbeorh, 132 
Finborough, 132 
Finningham, 132 
Finset, 132 
Fintune, 198 

Flamindic, hundred, 290, 291 
Flat Holm, island, 356, 371 
Flegg, hundred, 293 
Fordingbricige, 219 
Fowey Haven, 365 
Framfield, 201, 202 
Fressingfield, 286, 289 
Freswick, 323 
Frisby, 336 
Frisebi, 349 
Friseha, 360 
Friseham, 360 

Index of P lace-Names. 


Frisetorp, 301, 304 
Frisic, 365 
Frismarsk, 323 
Friston, 201, 287 
Fristone, 323 
Fristune, 301 
Fulham, 263 
Furtho, 340 
Fylde, district, 331 

Gaddesby, 336 
Gadreshope, 376 
Galmentone, 6, 361 
Gamensfeld, 274 
Gardinu', 356 
Garford, 276 
Garinges, 199 
Gateneberghe, 355 
Geate, 370 
Geatescumbe, 265 
Gedding, 262 
Geslingham, 289 
Ghestelinges, 207 
Gilling, 143, 329 
Gillingham, 227, 231, 242 
Gillingshire, 329 
Gippeswich, 288 
Glastonbury, 352, 357, 380 
Gloucester, 146, 371 
Godalming, 259 
Godan pearruc, 265 
Goddards tything, 265 
Godecumbe, 355 
Godefordes Eyt, 265 
Godele, 355 
Godelei, hundred, 174 
Godeneie, 355 
Goderiston, 227 
Goderthorn, hundred, 227 
Godescote, 361 
Godeslave, 265 
Godeworth, 355 
Godington, 195 
Godliman, 259 
Godmanchester, 346 
Godmaneston, 227 
Godmanston, 6 
Godstone, 206 
Godstow, 265 
Goduic, 287 
Goldentone, 174 

Goring, 173 

Great Holm, island, 371 
Greenford, 263 
Grimsbaer, 328 
Grimsbury, 340 
Grimsby, 328 
Grimsby, Scilly Isles, 364 
Grimsditch, 227, 241 
Grimstede, 228 
Grinsted, 143 
Guiting, 382 
Gumecester, 346 
Guttona, 355 

Hacananhamme, 370 
Hackney, 251 
Hadham, 116 
Haiscote, 343 
Hafeltone, 234 
Hallamshire, 329 
Hallun, 329 
Halton, 317 
Hame, 235 
Hamescle, 343 
Hanham, 370 
Hanwell, 263 
Hapinga, hundred, 174 
Hardicote, 228 
Harlinges, 203 
Harmondsworth, 263 
Harrow, 260, 261 
Haslemere, 200 
Haslingefeld, 291 
Hatford, 276 
Hatherop, 382 
Hauelingas, 92, 283 
Hauksfljot, 328 
Haverill, 282 
Hawhope, 332 
Hawkswell, 272 
Hawkflot, 328 
Hazebi, hundred, 300 
Hearge, 261 
Helford Haven, 365 
Helsington, 140, 315 
Helston, 365 
Hengestecote, 359 
Hengestes-geat, 215 
Hengestesrig, 215 
Hengesteston, 291 
Hengesthescumb, 266 



Index of Place-Names. 

Hengistesege, 266 

Heortha', 240 

Hertha', 240 

Hertham, 240 

Hertford, 103 

Hesleyside, 332 

Heslitesford, 274 

Hevaford, 276 

Heysham, 317 

Heythrop, 382 

Hexham, 333 

Highbury, 251 

Hinksey, 266 

Hinxton, 291 

Hocan-edisce, 272 

Hocceneretune, 273 

Hocheslau, hundred, 174, 341 

Hocheston, 268 

Hochtune, 302 

Hochylle, 272 

Hockeril, 345 

Hockeswell, 272 

Hockington, 291 

Hocsaga, 273 

Hocslew, 272 

Hoctun, 302 

Hokemere, 272 

Holderness, 323, 369 

Holm Lacy, 371 

Honechercha, 360 

Honelanda, 360 

Honesberie, 173 

Honesdon, 345 

Honeslau, hundred, 174 

Honessam, 360 

Honeybourne Leasows, 383 

Honeyburn, river. 230 

Honinberg, hundred, 190 

Honiton, 360 

Hook Norton, 273, 274, 276 

Hope, 376 

Hope Bagot, 376 

Hope Bowdler, 376 

Hope Hall, 376 

Hope Mansell, 376 

Hopend, 376 

Hope Sey, 376 

Horcerde, 235 

Hornsey, 251 

Horntye, 205 

Horsey Island, 280 

Horsham, 201 
Horton, 233 
Houndsbeer, 365 
Hoxne, 286, 289 
Hoxton, 268 
Humber, river, 323 
Humbresfelda, 288 
Hunbia, 302 
Hundintone, 302 
Hunecote, 349 
Huneford, 360 
Hunesberge, hundred, 174 
Hunesbiorge, 190 
Hunespil, 360 
Hunitone, 360 
Hunmanby, 15 
Hunmanbie, 6 
Hunmannebi, 318 
Hunno, 326 
Hunnum, 326 
Hunsdon, 345 
Hunstanton, 285 
Hunstan worth, 326 
Huntandune, 345 
Huntena-ton, 383 
Huntingdon, 345 
Huntishamshire, 370 
Hunwyk, 326 
Hursley, 151 
Hurstbourn, 220 
Hurstbourn Tarrant, 220 
Hwitanwylles geat, 331 

Ibthorpe, 174 
Icenore, 204 
Ingelbourn, river.^o 
Inglecrost, 388 
Inverness, 369 
Ipswich, 255, 288, 290 
Isleworth, 256, 257 
Islington, 251, 263 

Jerchesfont, 240 
Jonsmer, 151, 200 

Keadby, 305 
Kempton, 265 
Kenchester, 372 
Kendal, 315 et seq. 
Kendalshire, 370 

Index of P lace-Names. 


Kenn, 359 
Kennington, 256 
Kentchurch, 372 
Rentes, 265 
Kenthles, 372 
Kentisbere, 359 
Kentish Town, 253, 263 
Kentmere, 315 
Kenton, 261, 265, 359 
Kent's Cave, 359 
Kent's Hill, 259 
Kentsmoor, 359 
Kentswood, 265 
Ken twines treow, 265 
Kentyshburcote, 372 
Kcston, 4 
Keymer, 151, 200 
Killhope, 332 
Kilsby, 340 
Kimbolton, 347 
Kingsthorp, 340 
Kirby-le-Soken, 279 
Kirkby Irleth, 316 
Kirkliston, 326 
Kirkshire, 177 
Kirton-in-Lindsey, 305 
Kynnore, 204 

Lambeth, 256, 257 
Lancaster, 317 
Lanteglos, 367 
Lauendene, 343 
Launditch, hundred, 287 
Launston, 234 
Lavendon, 343 
Lawingham, 287 
Lealholm, 324 
Leccesham, 287 
Lecchestorp, 330 
Leccheton, 330 
Leche, 388 
Leeds, 318 
Leicester, 337 
Leverington, 291 
Lewes, 196, 353 
Liddington-cum-Caldecot, 347 
Liddon, stream, 231 
Lillington, 201 
Limpsfield, 206 
Linby, 143 
Linchmere, 200 

Lindis, river, 328 
Lindisfarne, district, 328 
Lingfield, 206 
Little Wilbraham, 286 
Liuerington, 291 
Long Bennington, 305 
Longhope, 376 
Lothninga, hundred, 174 
Low, river, 328 
Lowick, 316 
Ludinga, 174 
Lund, 124, 303, 304 
Lund alter, 303 
Lundetorp, 303, 304 
Luridertorp, 303 
Lungabeer, 365 
Luseberg, hundred, 234 

Maiden Castle, 170, 180 
Maidenhead, 170 
Maidstone, 170 
Maisemore, 384 
Maiden, 289 
Mailing, 172 
Mangotsfield, 370 
Maniford, 228 
Mapledre, 235 
Marden, 153, 376 
May Hill, 170, 384 
Mellinges, hundred, 174, 207 
Mendlesham, 289 
Men Perhen, 364 
Meon, 213, 217, 230, 382 
Merdon, 151 
Morton, 259 
Middleton, 289 
Middleton Cheney. 153. 
Monkside, 332 
Monow, stream, 371 
Moorsholm, 324 
Much Hadham, 345 
Much Urswick, 316 
Mythorp, 331 

Nadder, river, 243 
Naelesbroc, stream, 169 
Nailbourn, stream, 169 
Nailsea, 169 
Nailsworth, 169 
Nettley, 205 
NevillHall, 316 

26 2 


Index of Place-Names. 

Newington Barrow, 251 
Normanebi, 302 
Normanecross, hundred, 174 
Normandy, 260 
Normaneston, 302 
Normanton, 5, 228, 302 
Northiam, 208 
Nottingham, 337 

Ock, river, 268, 274 
Ockementone, 6 
Ockemere, 272 
Offa's Dyke, 384, 389 
Oke, stream, 273, 274 
Old Wennington, 319 
Ombersley, 386 
Ongar, 281 
Ore, 227 

Oseney, river, 269 
Osgodby, 138 
Osgodtorp, 349 
Osgotbi, 138 
Osgotebi, 302 
Osgotecrosse, 138 
Osgotesbi, 302 
Osmenton, 6, 138 
Oswaldbeck, 347 et seq. 
Oswestry, 389 
Overthorp, 340 
Oxford, 269 et seq. 

Pakenham, 289 
Peckham Rye, 256 
Pen Anglas, 377 
Penzance, 364 
Petersham, 256 
Pewit Island, 280 
Pickering, 313 et seq. 
Pignocshire, 370 
Pilstye, 205 
Pirbright, 152, 259 
Piriun, 241 

Poninges, hundred, 207 
Portland, 227 
Portlock, 357 
Pour tone, 235 
Puckstye, 205 
Purbeck, 227 
Pyrgean, 241 

Quendon, 281 

Quenfele, 132 
Quenhull, 132 
Quenildewang, 365 
Quiningburgh, 132 
Quenintune, 131, 382 
Quenton, 131 
Quinton, 131, 381 

Radelau, hundred, 376 

Radnor, 376 

Rad winter, 281 

Ramsbury, 228 

Ramshope, 332 

Ravensthorp, 340 

Rayne Magna, 282 

Reigate, 205, 258 

Ribble, river, 331 

Richmond, 256, 313, 317 

Ringmer, 151, 200 

Ringstede, 227, 235 

Ringwood, 219, 228 

Risberga, 143 

Rockbeer, 365 

Rodinges, hundred, 174 

Rollendri, 382 

Rollestone, 228 

Rollright, 382 

Romney Marsh, 192 

Roothings, 282 

Ross, 376 

Rossendale, 7, 329 

Rotherfield, 203 

Rothley, soke of, 160, 336, 347 

Ruan, 364 

Ruanbergh, 88, 234 

Ruenhala, 88 

Ruenhale, 88, 283 

Ruenore, 88 

Ruganbeorh, 88, 355 

Rugan die, 88 

Ru gar thorp, 88 

Rugebeorge, 88 

Rugehala, 88 

Rugelei, 88 

Rugenore, 143 

Rughe'berg, 234, 240 

Rugutune, 88 

Rutland, 347 

Ruuenhaia, 283 

Ruwanbeorg, 88, 234 

Ruwanbeorge, 88 

Index of P lace-Names. 


Ruwangoringa, 88 
Rye, 143, 197 

St. Agnes, 364 

St. Stephens, 153 

Salecome, 204 

Salehurst, 204 

Salemanesberie, 6, 142, 174, 382 

Salemanneburn, 204 

Salhert, 204 

Salthorpe, 228 

Sanagar, 371 

Sandwich, 102, 186 

Sarr, 44 

Sasingha, 199, 201 

Sassebi, 302 

Sastorp, 283 

Saul, 371 

Sawbridgeworth, 14 

Saxalinghaham, 283 

Saxebi, 302, 304, 349 

Saxham, 283, 290 

Saxmondeham, 283 

Saxteda, 283 

Scachetorp, 302, 304 

Scadena, 288 

Scadenafella, 288 

Scale, 203 

Scandeburn, 228 

Scantone, 302 

Scantune, 302 

Scilly Isles, 364 

Scir-mere, 370 

Sclostre, -382 

Scotona, 330 

Scotone, 330 

Sedlecombe, 201 

Sem, river, 234 

Semaer, 330 

Semeleah, 234 

Semer, 330 

Semers, 330 

Semlintun, 200 

Sevenhangar, 371 

Sevensdale, 326 

Sexebi, 19 

Sextone, 19 

Shaftesbury, 102, 228 

Shapwick, 227 

Shene, 256 

Shepperton, 263 

Sherborne, 178 

Shirehampton, 370 

Shottington, 195 

Sibbertoft, 171 

Sibbeslea, 171 

Sibbestapele, 171 

Sibbeswey, 171 

Siberton, 170 

Sibestun, 171 

Sibley Headingham, 171 

Siblingchryst, 171 

Sibsey, 171 

Sibthorp, 171 

Sib ton, 289 

Sibton Sheales, 171 

Sidenore, 204 

Sipson, 171 

Slaughter, 382 

Soanberge, 201 

Seller's Hope, 376 

Somerton, 286 

Sonning, 173, 267 

South Berstead, 289 

Southrop, 382 

Southwell, 349 

Staines, 263 

Stamford, 102, 337, 371, 374 

Stanestaple, 9 

Stanmer, 151, 200 

Staninges, hundred, 174, 207 

Stapeley Row, 9 

Staple Ash, 9 

Staple Cross, 9 

Stapleford, 9 

Stapler's Down, 9 

Stapole Thorn, 9 

Steep Holme, 356 

Stenning, 203 

Sterborough, 206 

Stepney, 251 

Stour, river, 28, 231 

Streatham, 256 

Stubbington, 88 

Stur, river, 231 

Suanebi, 330 

Suanescamp, 140 

Suauitone, 302 

Suenesat, 330 

Suevesbi, 349 

Suinhamstede, 302 

Suinhastede, 302 


Index of Place-Names. 

Suinhope, 302 
Sunbury, 263 
Sunninga-wyl-broc, 267 
Sunningdale, 267 
Sunninghill, 267 
Surrenden, 4 
Suthereye, 258 
Svavetone, 302 
Svavintone, 302 
Swaefes heale, 267 
Swaffham, 287 
Swanage, 227 
Swanborough, 201, 203 
Swanburne, river, 230 
Swanesig, 140 
Swanetun, 140 
Swindun, 227 
Swithraeding-den, 4 
Swonleah, 140 
Syselond, 287 

Tadilsthorpe, hundred, 382 

Tangemere, 200 

Taplow, 266 

Tarent, 234 

Taunton Dean, 353^ seq. 

Tedestrop, 382 

Teme, river, 384 

Tempsiter, 384 

Theele, 345 

Thoresby, 305 

Thorney, 203 

Thornlau, hundred, 376 

Thorpe, 340 

Thorpe-le-Soken, 279 

Thruxton, 219 

Tollesbi, 327 

Tony Walthamstow, 289 

Totenore, 204 

Totnes, 360 

Tottenham, 256, 263 

Trent, Dorset, 234 

Trent, river, 304, 339 

Tye Farm, 205 

Tye Hill, 205 

Tyes, 205 

Tyes Cross, 205 

Tynemouth, 312 

Udimer, 151, 200 
Ulfcote, 228 

Ulpha, 315 

Ulpha-in-Cartmel, 315 
Up Husbond, 220 
Urchfont, 240 
Uriconium, 385 

Vauxhall, 256 
Vedringmuth, 142 
Venningore, 204 
Vindogladia, 87 
Vindomis, 87 

Waendlescumb, 98, 264 
Walecheria, 390 
Walementone, 6 
Walesbi, hundred, 300 
Waletone, 259 
Wallington, 259 
Wallop, 219 

Walton in Gordano, 356 
Walton-on-the-Naze, 279 
Wai worth, 256 
Wandelmestrei, 174 
Wandene, 115, 343 
Wandesford, 319 
Wandlebury, 287 
Wandsworth, 15, 256, 260 
Wansdyke, 241 
Wansford, 287 
Wanstead, 282 
Wantage, 274 
Waran, river, 328 
Wareham, 227, 228 
Wareneberie, 388 
Waringford, 318 
Waringwang, 304, 365 
Warkworth, 340 
Watchet, 357 
Wealabroc, 105, 389 
Wedering, 198 
Wederingsete, 142 
Wederlai, 174, 290 
Wedrebi, 330 
Wedreriga, 361 
Welesmere, hundred, 197 
Wellingaham, 288 
Wellingborough, 287 
Wells, 242 
Welsh Bicknor, 390 
Welsh Hampton, 390 
Welsh Newton, 390 

Index of Place-Names. 


Wendel Hill, 291, 319 
Wendelmestrei, 197 
Wendens, 282 
Wendena', 282 
Wendesbery, 319 
Wendeslaghe, 319 
Wendeslowe, 319 
Wendlebury, 264, 291 
Wendlesbiri, 98 
Wendlesbury, 105 
Wendlescliff, 98 
Wendlesore, 98, 264 
Wendleswurthe, 260, 264 
Wendling, 286 
Wendlingborough, 287 
Wendofra, 105 
Wendover, 105, 343 
Wendovre, 115 
Weneslai, 115, 174, 343 
Wenesteda, 282 
Weninchou, 282 
Wenlinga, 287 
Wenriga, 116, 344 
Wenrige, 344 
Wensistreu, 174, 282 
Wenslawe, 319 
Wensley, 319 
Wensleydale, 319, 330 
Wensum, river, 287 
Wereingeurda, 361 
Weringehorda, 361 
Wermlau, hundred, 376 
West Holm, 227 
Weston in Gordano, 356 
West Thorp. 228 
West Wycombe, 152 
Wey, 235 
Whalley, 317 
Wheelside, 332 
Whiteside, 332 
Whitwell, 331 
Wicham, 266 
Wichampton, 227 
Wick, 135 
Wicken, 282, 340 
Wickenford, 382 
Wickhope, 332 
Wigmore, 376 
Wikes, 289 
Wilaveston, 287 
Wilburge gemsero, 92 

: Wilburgeham,-92 

Wilburge mere, 92 

Wilbnrgewel, 92 

Wiley, river, 230, 243 

Wilga, hundred, 174, 344 

Wilgesbi, 287 

Wilingeham, 303 

Wilingha, 287 

Willa byg, 92 

Willanesham, 92 

Williamstrop, 382 

Willingham, hundred, 197 

Willite, stream, 355 

Wilmanford, 92 
! Wilmanleahtun, 92 

Wilsthorp, 287 
: Wilte Scira, 239 
; Wilton, 238, 355 
: Wiltune, 327 

Winchester, 241, 277 

Windelha, 229, 231 

Windestorte, 231 

Windelshor', hundred, 229 

Windaerlaeh maed, 229 

Windlesore, 229 

Windleton, 319 

Windrede-dic, 229 

Windregledy, 229 

Windresorie, 229, 231 

Windryth-dic, 229 

Windsor, 98, 105, 229, 264 

Winfrode, 231 

Wingleton, 195 

Winklebury, 244 

Winlande, 231 

Winslow, 343 

Winston, 219 

Winterborne, stream, 226, 231, 233 

Winterborne Basset, 228 

Winterburge, 229 

Winterburge geat, 231 

Winterhead, 229 

Winterset, 229, 232, 318 

Winterslow, 235 

Winterstoke, 229, 356 

Winterton, 286, 305 

Wintreshleaw, 235 

Wintret, 229 

Wintretuna, 286 

Wintringa-tun, 231, 304 

Wintringeha, 303 


Index of Place- Names. 

Wintringham, 229, 287 
Wintrington, 229, 231 
Wintrinton, 229 
Wintrintone, 303 
Wirral, district, 388 
Withern, 304 
Witherston, 227 
Withy ham, 208 
Wittenham, 273 
Wittering, 198 
Wivenhoe, 389 
Wixhoe, 281 

Wochinges, hundred, 174 
Wodnesdic, 241 
Woodford, 289 
Woolhope, 376 
Wormington, 382 
Wormsley, 376 

Worplesdon, 152, 259 
Wrabness, 289 
Wrekin, 386 
Wrockwardine, 386 
Wroth-tye, 205 
Wroxeter, 385 
Wycombe, 266 
Wynter-worda, 288 
Wynt'ingham, 318 
Wytingley Forest, 220 
Wyttenham, 327 

Yarm, 324 
Yasor, 376 
Yate, 370 
Yeading, 262 
Yoxford, 289 
Ytene, district, 214 


-KERNES place-names, 370 

.lEscings, tribe, 182, 259 

JEstyi, people, 54 

Allodial, udal tenuie, 185, 219, 
221, 308 

Allotment in Friesland, 148 

Alpine race, prehistoric, 106, no, 
118, 151, 153 

Ambrones, tribe, 23, 176, 230, 281, 
288, 323, 348, 386 

Angarians, tribe, 23, 76, 281, 34 j 

Angle place-names, 377 

Angles, 34 et seq., 68, 79, 284, 294, 
297. SOL 303- 307. 319. 322, 325, 
333. 339. 377. 3^5 ; confedera- 
cies of the, 35, 39 ; connection 
with Danes, 39 ; connection 
with Goths, 41, 45 ; connection 
with Warings, 34, 46 ; crema- 
tion among the, 48 ; homes of 
the, 38 ; inheritance among the, 
145, 159, 312 

Anglian dialect, 327 ; runes, 40 
et seq. ; runes in Pomerania, 44, 
101 ; in Sweden, 61 

Anglen, district, 34, 37 et seq., 42 

Angul, ii, 40, 124 

Archenfeld, customs in, 37?, 374 

Areosetna, people, 230 

Asaedesret, 308 

Assartland, 202, 203 

Astings, 197 

Batavian type of skull, 31, 83 

Bedfordshire, 344, 350 ; home- 
steads in, 350 ; tenure in, 344 ; 
Wend place-names in, 344 

-beer place-names, 365 

Beornicas, people, 307 

Beowulf, 122, 125, 141, 270 

Berkshire, 215, 225, 228, 264; 
cottars in, 263, 274 ; Gewissas 
in, 225 ; homesteads in, 278 ; 
inheritance in, 266 ; Kentish 
settlers in, 265, 274 ; Saxons in, 
267 ; Wend place-names in, 
264 ; urns found in, 273 
j Bernicia, 68, 307, 309, 311 

Besingas, people, 4 

Bexware people, 198 
| Billings, race, 37 

Blac-, blak-, place-names, in, 112 

Blac-, blsec-, personal names, in 

Bleking, 61, 123, 142 

Bodritzer, tribe, 92, 93 

Boii, race, 155 

Bondi, 298, 304 

Bondland, 202 

Borough-English, znWe Junior right 

Boructarii, tribe, 22, 27, 35, 53, 
3i8, 343 

Bracteates, 44, 81, 101 

Brocmen, tribe, 71, 190, 302, 345, 


Brun personal names, 107 
Brun place-names, 108 
Brytfordingas, people, 4 
Buccings, kindred, 343 


General Index. 

Buccinobantes, tribe, 23 
Bucgan-ora, tribe. 198 
Bucki, tribe, 23, 283, 343 
Buckinghamshire, 264, 266, 273, 

343 ; homesteads in, 350 ; 

Saxons in, 343 ; Wends in, 104 
Burgundians, 69, 87, 141, 177, 199 
-burn, -berge, place-names, 300 
-by place-names, 295 et seq., 300, 

By-law men, burley men, 300 

Cambridgeshire, 290 ; cottars in, 
291 ; lahmen in, 292 ; Wend 
place-names in, 291 

Celtic race, 106, no, 129, 520; 
homesteads, 243 ; survivals, 
242, 320, 351 

Chatuarii, tribe, 270 

Chaucian race, 73, 75, 200, 260, 
268, 270 ; place-names, 76, 201, 
268, 272 ; urns in England, 76, 
273, 286 

Cherusci, people, 20 

Cheshire, 387-389 

Coins, Anglo-Saxon, in Posen, 
1 02 ; Byzantine, in Gotland, 
46 ; English, in Norway, 64 ; 
Roman, in Gotland, 45, 61 ; in 
Pomerania, 44 

Collinga people, 230 

Collingham Cross, runes on, 328 

Compurgation, trial by, 172 

Cornwall, 361 et seq. ; Curi place- 
names in, 361 ; inheritance in, 
358, 365 ; ogham inscriptions 
in, 366 ; Scandinavians in, 358, 
364 et seq. ; shires in, 358 ; stone 
circles and earthworks in, 366 ; 
types of race in, 363 ; Wendish 
folklore in, 363 

Coscets, 236 et seq., 38} 

Cotmanland, 203 

Cotmanni, tenants, 332 

Cottars, 237, 263, 274, 291 

Cray ford, battle of, 247 

Cremation, 48 

Crundel names, 224 

Cullery tenure, 310 

Cumberland, 310, 315, 320; in- 
heritance in, 152, 310 

Curi place-names, 361 
Curones, Curlanders, 361 
Customs of inheritance, 144 et seq. 
Custom, of Kent, 183 
Custom of London, 254 
Cwaens, vide Fins 
Cwen place-names, 131, 281, 381 
Cwenland, 127, 381 
Cystanings, people, 4 

Dalecarlians, 138, 317 ; inheri- 
tance among the, 158 

Dan, ii, 40, 124, 143 

Danelaw, 105, 161, 174, 296, 340 

Danes, 35, 39, 79, 121 et seq., 219, 
281, 287, 293, 295, 305, 307, 315, 

325. 33L 337. 344. 356, 361, 36S- 
371, 382, 388 ; connection with 
Angles, 39, 124 ; connection 
with Wends, 98 et seq. 
Danish place-names, 121, 219, 
287, 295, 340, 344, 356, 365, 371 
Dark races in England, 103 et seq. 
Daucones, Dacians, vide Danes 
Deira, kingdom, 316, 320, 339 
Denmark, 123, 124 
Deras, Deiri, people, 307, 320 
Derbyshire, 337, 339 et seq., 348 
Devonshire, 359 et seq. ; coscets 
in, 236 ; inheritance in, 358, 
362 ; Kentish settlers in, 359 
Distraint, freedom from, 184, 253, 


Donsk, language, 123, 125 

Dorsetshire, 226 et seq., 242 ; cos- 
cets in, 236 ; tenure in, 235 ; 
Winter place-names in, 226 et 
seq. ; Scandinavians in, 227 et 

Dubh-Ghenti, 113 

Dun place-names, 109 

Dunsetas, tribe, 374 

Durham, 324 et seq., 333. 334 

East Anglia, 283 et seq. ; dialects 
of, 292 ; inheritance in, 288 ; 
Saxon place-names in, 283 ; 
Wends in, 282, 287 

East Centingas, people, 193 

Eastmen, 55, 64, 122, 130, 136, 138 

East Willa, tribe, 92, 239 

General Index. 


Eke-names of places, 13, 14 

-el place-names, 8 

Emisga tribe, 230 

Engern, 23, 76, 198, 274 

Eocce, tribe, 270, 274 

Essex, 250, 279, 282 ; inheritance 
in, 280, 282, 289 ; Kentish 
colony in, 279 ; clan settlements 
in, 282 ; Wendish place-names 
in, 282 

Esthonians, 129, 130 et seq,, 137 

Eucii, people, 274 

Farisi, people, vide Frisians 

Farthingland, 203 

Fin race, 126 et seq., 285 ; place- 
names, 131, 132, 136, 281, 381 

Folklore, Bogie, 342, 364 ; Es- 
thonian, 131 ; Hertha, 239 ; 
Kelpie, 330 ; May Day, 341 ; 
midsummer, 137 ; Slavonic, in 
Cornwall, 363 

Franklins of Kent, 251, 276 

Freemen, 163, 165, 167 ; in Scan- 
dinavia, 190; obligations of , 179 

Friesland, inheritance in, 148 

Frigefolc, 239 

Frisian place-names, 208, 215, 301 
et seq., 345, 360 ; pronunciation 
of place-names, 70, 200, 324 ; 
type of skulls, 83 

Frisians, 66 et seq., 81, 186, 190, 
201, 213, 215, 248, 254, 260, 268, 
273, 283, 289, 301, 312, 322, 345; 
homes of the, 66 ; absorption of 
the, 69 ; connection with Goths, 
50 ; freedom of the, 191 ; free- 
dom from wager of battle of 
the, 254 ; inheritance among 
the, 145, 155, 289 ; language of 
the, 72, 322, 324 ; tribes of the, 
73 et seq. 

Fykey people, 288 

-ga, -ges, place-names, 174 

Gafol, 133, 280 

Gainas, people, 294, 339 

Gar Danes, 122, 356 

Gavelkind, 158, 160, 182 et seq., 

218, 251, 275, 360 
Geat, 265, vide Goth 

Gepidae. people, 182 

Gewissas, 19, 27, 176, 210 et seq., 

278, 357. 385 

Gloucestershire, 369 et seq., 381 et 
seq. ; homesteads in, 350 ; in- 
heritance in, 146, 371 ; Kentish 
customs in, 372 ; Scandinavians 
in, 369, 370 et seq., 376 ; shires 
in, 370 
Goda, 265 
Godwulf, 50 
Gotaland, 158 
Gothic language, 138 et seq. 
Goths, 49 et seq., 139, 181 et seq., 
187 et seq., 193, 197, 212, 217, 
220, 246, 248, 254, 259, 260, 265, 
284, 297, 303, 305, 307, 313 et 
seq., 370, 372 ; connection with 
Frisians, 50 ; connection with 
Jutes, 50, 60, 181, 214; con- 
nection with Vandals, 57, 85, 
223 ; blending of, with Swedes, 
139 ; trade of, with Greeks, 55 
! Gotland, Isle of, 46, 55, 57, 60, 195 
j Gotlands Lagarne, 6: 
1 Gower, district, 376, 378 
j Gumeninga hergse, 260 
i Gutag, 49, 79, 191, 197, vide Jute 
Guthones, 49 
Gyrwas, people, 338 
Gyrwii, tribe, 294 

Haefeldan, people, 90 

Haeslings, tribe, 291 

Haestinga tribe, 197 

-ham place-names, 70, 82, 172, 

208, 300, 324 
Hampshire, 210 et seq., 214 et seq. ; 

Frisians in, 213, 215 ; Jutes in, 

213 et seq. ; Saxons in, 213, 215 ; 

Scandinavians in, 219 ; tenure 

in, 217 et seq. ; Wends in, 223 
Hassi tribe, 230 
Havelli, 230, 283 
Haven place-names, 365 
Hecanas, tribe, 165, 339 
Helsengi, Helsings, tribe, 139, 315 
Hengist place-names, 265, 291 
Herefordshire, 263, 372 et seq., 

376; Kent place-names in, 372 ; 

Kentish colony in, 372-375 


General Index. 

Hertfordshire, 103, 105 et seq., 116, 
344, 345 ; Wends in, 105, 116 

Hertha place-names, 240 

Hertha, 239, 240 

Heru, 20 

Hetware tribe, 270 

Hoc- place-names, 78, 268, 272, 
302, 345 

Hocings, people, 73, 77, 268, 272, 
291, 302, vide Chaucians 

Holm place-names, 356, 371 

Homesteads, form of, 10 ; col- 
lected, 195, 243, 278, 334, 350 ; 
isolated, 195, 243, 350, 367, 

Hope, -op, place-names, 219, 332, 

375- 376 

Hun, personal name, 82 
Hun, Huni, place-names, 74, 326, 

360, 383 
Hundred, the, 162, 173, 206 ; 

Court, 164, 175 ; names, 174 
Hunni people, vide Hunsing 
Hunse, Hunte, people, 326 
Hunsing people, 73, 75, 82, 318, 

360, 383 
Huntanga tribe, 73, 74, 82, 230, 


Huntingdonshire, 345, 346; home- 
steads in, 350 

' Husbands ' in Northumbria, 333 

Huscarls, 47, 233, 260, 343 

Hwicci, tribe, 178, 339 

Inheritance, customs of, 144 et 
seq.; systems of, 156, 160 ; 
eldest daughter, 152, 202, 225, 
259, 266, 309, 312, 341, 365 ; 
gavelkind, 144 et seq., 158, 182, 
251 ; junior right, 146, 156, 
160 ; partible, 154 et seq., 
182 ; primogeniture, 153, 154, 
' principals ' in, 202 ; in Frisia, 
155, 158 ; in Germany, 148, 157, 
199 ; in Norway, 152, 154, 308 ; 
Slavonic, 150; in Kent, 156, 
158, 1 60, 182 ; in London, 250 
et seq. ; in Sussex, 196, 202 ; 
in Wales, 183, 389 et seq. 

-ing, -ingas, place-names, 4, 5, 77, 
172 et seq., 231 

Isle of Wight, 60, 181, 214, 217, 

Junior right, 99, 146, 151, 160 ; 
in England, 146, 151, 196, 
205, 256, 258, 276, 289, 318, 
335. 337, 348, 379 ; in France 
and Belgium, 148 ; in Slavonic 
settlements in Germany, 148, 

Justice, courts of , 175, 176 
Jutes, 49 et seq., 60, 181, 184, 214, 
263 ; homes of the, 50 ; other 
names of, 49, 181 

Kent, 181 et seq. ; cottars in, 263 ; 
ancient divisions of, 193 ; free- 
dom of people of, 187, 191 ; 
inheritance in, 156, 158, 182, 
196, 251, 253 ; Frisians in, 183, 
1 86, 201 ; Goths in. 182 et seq. ; 
Laetas in, 189 ; language of, 
274 ; tenure in, 184 ; monetary 
computation in, 193 

Kentish customs in London, 250 ; 
settlers, 248, 261, 262, 265, 359, 


Kentish Men, 192 

Kindred, degrees of, 17 1 ; settle- 
ments of, 163, 167, 172, 282 ; 
responsibility of, 173 

Laetas, Laeti, 133, 189 et seq. 

Lahmen, 292, 374, 388 

Lancashire, 316, 325, 333 

Lapps, 127, 133 

Leicestershhe, 335 et seq., 347 ; 
Danes in, 337 ; homesteads in, 

Lett, Lech, race, 127, 133, 137, 330 

Liberty of the Soke, 279 

Lincolnshire, 294 et seq. ; ancient 
organisation of, 299 ; -by place- 
names in, 295 et seq., 300 ; 
tribal place-names in, 302 ; 
Wintr place-names in, 305 

Lindisware, tribe, 294, 338 

Lithuanians, race, 127, 133, 243 

Livonia, 131, 133 ; well-worship 
in, 137 

Livonian people, 49, 133, 137 

General Index. 


Lochlanders, Lakelanders, 63 
London, 245 et seq. ; cottars in, 
262 ; freedom of people of, 251 ; 
freedom from wager of battle 
in, 254 ; inheritance in, 250, 256, 
258 ; Kentish occupation of, 
246, 247 et seq. ; trade of, 254 ; 
wealth of Saxon London, 249 
Lund, 61. 124, 143, 303 
Lund place-names, 303 
Lutitzes, tribe, 93, 234, 355 

Masden, vide Maegth 

Maegasetas, tribe, 169, 339, 384 

Maegth, organization, 163 et seq. ; 
place-names, 169, 170 

Maiden, vide Maegth 

Malmanni, tenants, 332 

Marcomanni, tribe, 155 

Maritime regulations, 255 ; Judg- 
ments of Damme, 256 ; Law of 
Wisby, 255 ; Rolls of Oleron, 
255 ; usages of Amsterdam, 

255 ; lay days, in London, 

256 ; in Wisby, 256 

Men of Havel, 92, 230, 237, 283 

Men of Kent, 192 

Meonwara, tribe, 230 

-mer, -mir, place-names, 151, 200 

Mercia, 178 et seq., 335 et seq. ; 
Danes in, 337, 340 ; Frisians in, 
345 ; homesteads in, 346 ; in- 
heritance in, 335, 350 ; tribes 
of, 339 : Wends in, 341, 344 

Merscwara, tribe, 192 

Middle Angles, 336, 339 

Middlesex, 250, 260 et seq. ; 
cottars in, 263 ; inheritance in, 
251, 256, 257; Kentish settlers 
in, 261, 262 et seq. 

Minorat succession in Germany, 

Mir, communities, 150 

Moeso-Goths, 159, 194 

Monetary computation, Greek and 
Roman, in England, 56 ; Scandi- 
navian, in England, 56, 194, 
228, 333, 341, 388 

Mongol tribes, 128, 151 

Monmouthshire, 370, 374, 390 ; 
shires in, 370 

Nail, limit of kindred, 169 

Norfolk, 281, 283 et seq., 286, 
292 ; Danish place-names in, 
287 ; inheritance in, 289 ; Saxon 
place-names in, 283 

Norrena language, 123, 124, 136, 
220, 227, 288, 367, 374, 382 

Norse, race, 64 ; customs of in- 
heritance, 152 et seq., 202 ; 
place-names, 204, 220, 365, 370, 
375. 376, 382 

Northamptonshire, 338 et seq. ; 
Danes in, 340 ; homesteads in, 
350 ; Slavic folk-lore in, 341 

Northmen, 59, 63, et seq., 220, 
302 ; agricultural custom of, 
331 et seq. 

Northumberland, 311, 318, 324, 
333 ; dialect of, 324 ; Frisians 
in, 324 et seq. ; runes in, 40 

Northumbria, 307 et seq., 322 
et seq. ; Anglians in, 308, 319, 
322 ; Celtic survivals in, 320 ; 
dialect of, 324, 327 ; Frisians 
in, 318, 322, 326 ; inheritance 
in, 152, 308 et seq. ; Scandi- 
navians in, 307 et seq. ; runes 
in, 328 

Norway, ancient districts of, 63, 
177 ; tenure in, 219, 222, 
308 ; inheritance in, 152, 260, 

Nottinghamshire, 337 et seq., 347 ; 
inheritance in, 348 

Obodrites, tribe, 84, 92, 100 

Odal, vide Allodial tenure 

Odalsret, 308 

Offingas, tribe, 288 

Ogham inscriptions, 366, 379 

Onsteads, 331 

-ore place-names, 204, 376 

Ostrogoths, Osgothi, 54, 138, 182, 

Oxfordshire, 264, 269 et seq., 275 ; 

Chaucian place-names in, 273 ; 

homesteads in, 278 ; Kentish 

settlers in, 275 

Parage or parcenary tenure, 217, 
235. 276, 312, 347 


General Index. 

Partible inheritance, 154 et seq. ; 
in England, 182, 197, 251, 276, 
288, 312, 335, 347, 358, 372 ; 
in Kent, 182 ; in London, 251 ; 
in Denmark, 161 ; in Germany, 
154, 156, 160 ; in Sweden, 158 

Pecsetna, race, 339 

Pembrokeshire, 376 et seq. ; Angle 
place-names in, 377 ; dialect of, 

378 ; ogham inscriptions in, 

379 ; borough-English in, 379 
Pharadini, vide Waring 
Phrissones, vide Frisians 
Phundusii, people, 74 
Polabians, tribe, 93, 94 
Pomerania, Anglian runes in, 44 ; 

101 ; inheritance in, 149, 256 
Primogeniture, 144, 147 ; rural, 

152 et seq., 160, 252, 308 ; 

feudal, 154, 157, 161. 252 
Proof, right of, 172, 297, 299 

Quain, vide Fin 
Quen, vide Fin 
Quenland, 381 

Rape of Lewes, 196, 353 

Rapes, 203 

Regiam Majestatem, 309 

Reidgotaland, 75 

Reidgoths, 54 

River-names, tribal origin of, 230, 


Rolls of Oleron, 255 
Roman roads, 105, 245, 277, 306, 


Riigen, island, 47, 87, 234, 329 ; 
legends of, 239 et seq. 

Rugians, Rugini, 86 et seq., go, 
93. 94. 97. 99. 223, 234, 237, 

Runes, 40 et seq. ; Anglian, 40, 
327 ; Anglian, in Pomerania, 44, 
101 ; in Sweden, 40, 61, 198 ; 
Gothic, 40, 46 ; absence of, on 
fixed objects in Germany, 42, 
284 ; at Sandwich, 102, 186 ; 
in Northumbria, 328 ; in Shrop- 
shire, 385 

Ruthenians, 134 

Ruthwell Cross, runes on, 41, 328 

Sselings, tribe, 142 

Sal, Salmen, Saling, tribe, 142, 382 

Salic Law, 145 

Saxland, 20 

Saxnot, n, 20, 24 

Saxon place-names, 19, 201, 283, 
302, 360 

Saxon shore, 19, 25, 189, 358 

Saxons, 18 et seq., 69, 158, 208, 
213, 215, 267, 283, 293, 348, 
352, 357. 36o, 369. 385. 386 

Sca5tt, a coin, 193 

Scandinavian place-names, 143, 
203, 219, 295, 300, 304, 340, 
3S6, 365. 370, 375. 382 

Scandinavians, 38 et seq., 42, 50 
et seq., 60, 219, 226, 266, 292, 
295. 305. 308, 329, 332, 337, 
366, 369, 374 

Scilly Isles, 364 

Scride Finns, 127 

Scrobsetan, tribe, 384 

Sem, root in place-names, 200 

Semer place-names, 330 

Shire Court, 175 

Shires, ancient Norwegian, 177 ; 
primitive English, 177, 178, 
329, 358, 370 ; organisation of, 

Shropshire, 361, 384 et seq. : 
Anglians in, 385 ; coscets in, 
387 ; dialect of, 386, 389 ; 
homesteads in, 350 ; Scandi- 
navian place-names in, 376. 

Sibscraft, 170 

-side place-names, 332 

Sippe, 167 et seq. ; place-names, 

Skulls, Batavian, 31, 83 ; brachy- 
cephalic, 31, 117, 192 ; dolicho- 
cephalic, 31, 117 ; prognathous, 
128, 130, 244; from Saxon 
cemeteries in Germany, 31 ; 
in England, 32, 116, 207; 243 
et seq. 

Slavonic tribes, 93 et seq. ; 
settlers, 84 et seq., 104, 132, 
197, 227 et seq., 237 et seq., 264, 
282, 287, 303, 341, 344. 363. 
372 ; folklore, 239, 330, 341, 
363 ; inheritance among, 99, 1 50 

General Index. 


Socage tenure, 161 

Socmen, Sokemen, 161, 281, 293, 
296, 301 

Somersetshire, 352 et seq. ; Curi 
place-names in, 361 ; coscets in, 
236 ; cottars in, 263 ; Danes in, 
356 ; dialect of, 357 ; Kentish 
settlers in, 359 ; settlers from 
Sussex in, 353 

Sorabian, Sorb, people, 84, 93, 
94. "2 

Southumbria, 295, 328 

Staffordshire, 335, 339, 340 ; 
Anglians in, 339, 340 

Staple place-names, 9 

Stater, a coin, 194 

Stormaria, people of, 28, 230 

Suevi, people, 23, 30, 267, 287, 302 

Suffolk, 281, 286, 288 et seq.; 
Danes in, 281 ; dialect of, 292 ; 
Frisians in, 286, 290 ; inherit- 
ance in, 288, 290 ; urns found 
in, 286 

Sumersaetas, tribe, 165, 233, 352 

Sunninges, people, 267 

Surrey, 205 et seq., 258 et seq., 263 ; 
settlers from Sussex in, 205 ; 
inheritance in, 205, 259 

Sussex, 196 et seq., 250 ; cottars in, 
263 ; Frisians in, 201 ; hundreds 
of, 207 ; inheritance in, 151, 
196; mer names in, 151, 200; 
tenure in, 202 ; Wends in, 197, 

Swaefas, vide Suevi 

Swalfelda, people, 230 

Swan, Sweon, place-names, 140, 

Sweart personal names, 112, 116 

Sweden, ancient provinces of, 63, 
142 ; runes in, 40, 61, 140 

Swedes, 138 et seq., 158, 204, 302, 

Sweons, vide Swedes 

Taunton Dean, customs of, 353 ; 

Sussex settlement at, 355 
Tenants, coscets, 236, 387 ; cot- 

manni, 332 ; cottars, 237, 263, 

274; cullery, 310; Laeti, 133, 189; 

malmanni, 332 ; Venville, 365 

Tenure, allodial, 185, 219 ; cullery, 
310; parcenary, 217, 235, 276, 

312. 347 

Thames valley, settlements in, 
264 et seq. ; Chaucians in, 268, 
272 ; cottars in, 274 ; in- 
heritance in, 266, 267, 275 et 
seq. ; urns found in, 273 

Theel lands. 148 

Thornsaete, tribe, 176, 233 

-thorp place-names, 228, 296 et 
seq. ,303, 382 

Thuringian Law, 145 

Tollenzi, tribe, 327 

Tonsetan, Temsetan, tribe, 384 

Tremiss, a coin, 195 

Trial by compurgation, 172 ; by 
ordeal, 166 

Tribal law, 163 ; early jurisdic- 
tion, 164 ; names and rivers, 230 

-tun, -ton, place-names, 82, 172, 

-tye place-names, 205 

Udal, vide Allodial 

Ugrian tribe, 128, 135 

Ultimogeniture, vide Junior right 

-um, -un, place-names, 70, 200 

Usages of Amsterdam, 255 

Usmere people, 384 

Uuit, Wit, place-names, 60 

Vandals, 85 et seq., 223, 230 ; 

connection with Frisians, 70, 

71 ; with Goths, 45, 57, vide 


Varini, vide Waring 
Venedi, vide Wend 
Verania, 47 
Vikings, 42. 58, 71, 98, 112, 114, 

Vita, 297, 299 

Wales, Angles in, 377 ; home- 
steads in, 387 ; inheritance in, 
183, 379 ; tenure in, 389 
Wallerwente, people, 320 
Wang place-names, 304, 365 
Waring, people, 24, 34, 36, 46, 

230, 361 
Wealas, 112, 374 


General Index. 

Wederas, people, 142, 198, 290, 


Welatibi, people, 90, 288 
Well-worship, 137 
Welsh border counties, 369 et seq. ; 

Angles in, 377 ; Scandinavians 

in, 370 et seq. ; tribes in, 384 ; 

ogham inscriptions in, 379 ; 

homesteads in, 387 
Wend folk-lore, 239, 330, 341, 

363 ; place-names, 98, 105, 115, 
119, 197, 229, 264, 282, 287, 319 

Wendland, 94, 98, 102 
Wends, 38, 45, 84, 104, 197, 223, 
227, 264, 282, 302, 341, 344, 

364 ; connection of, with Danes, 
98, 104 ; inheritance among 
the, 99 

Wergeld, 26, 67, 164, 169, 171, 

173, 190, 195 
Wessex, 178, 21 x et seq., 226 et seq.; 

Gewissas in, 210 ; Goths in, 

214, 220, 223 ; Saxons in, 215 ; 

Scandinavians in, 219 ; tenure 

in, 217 et seq. ,235 ; Wends in, 

216, 223, 237 ; Wend folk-lore 

in, 239 

Westgota-lag, 297 et seq. 
Westmoreland, 310, 315 et seq. 
West Willa, tribe, 92, 239 
Wick place-names, 266 
Widow's dower, 184, 253, 257, 

275. 3i6 
Wilisc men, 351 
Wilsaete, tribe, 165, 176, 230, 233, 

238, 240 
Wilte place-names. 92, 99, 197, 

287, 355 

Wilti, vide Wiltzi 

Wiltshire, 91, 103, 216, 226 et seq., 
236 et seq. ; coscets and cottars 
in, 236 ; origin of name of, 
238 ; homesteads of, 243 ; Scan- 
dinavians in, 227 ; Wends in, 
227, 237, 238 et seq. 

Wiltzi, Wilte, tribe, 84, 89, 97, 
155, 197, 224, 234, 237 et seq., 

287, 355 

Winter place-names, 226 et seq., 

229, 304 
Winthr, Wintr, people, 226 ; 

place-names, 229, 231, 281, 

288, 303, 305 ; personal names, 


Wisby, 57, 61, 95, 248, 255 
Withesland, 304 
Witland, 191 
Witherigga, tribe, 304 
Worcestershire, 383 et seq. ; tribes 

in, 384 

Wrocensetnas, tribe, 339, 384, 385 
Wrosn, tribe, 329 

Ymbraland, 348 

Ymbre, tribe, 23, 176, 348, vide 

Yorkshire, 307. 311 et seq., 314 
et seq., 317 et seq., 323 ; Anglians 
in, 307, 308, 319 ; -by place- 
names in, 314; Celtic survival 
in, 320 ; dialect of, 323 ; Fri- 
sians in, 323 ; Goths in, 313, 
314; homesteads in, 334; in- 
heritance in, 311, 317, 318, 
Slavic folk-lore in, 330 ; tenure 
in, 312 ; Wends in, 319 


Elliot Stock, 62, Paternoster Rou<, London, E.C. 



DA Shore, Thomas William 

152 Origin of the Anglo-Saxon 

S56 race